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Anatomy of the pulp space


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Anatomy of the pulp space

  1. 4. <ul><li>. “pulp is a soft tissue of mesenchymal origin residing within the pulp chamber and root canal of teeth”-cohen </li></ul>
  2. 5. <ul><li>pulp in many ways is similar to other connective tissue of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Unique features </li></ul><ul><li>Closed chamber </li></ul><ul><li>No regeneration </li></ul>
  3. 6. <ul><li> The terminology “PULP SPACE’ is more appropriate than root canal. </li></ul>
  4. 9. Apical foramen Lateral canals Furcation canals Pulp chamber Pulp horn Floor Roof
  5. 10. <ul><li>Pulp space The entire internal space of a tooth which contains the pulp. It consists of the following entities. </li></ul><ul><li>Pulp canal </li></ul><ul><li>Pulp chamber </li></ul><ul><li>Pulp horn </li></ul>Pulp chamber Apical foramen Lateral canals Furcation canals Pulp horn Floor Roof
  6. 11. <ul><li>Pulp Horn </li></ul><ul><li> A pulp horn is an accentuation of the pulp chamber directly under a cusp or a developmental lobe. The term offers more commonly to prolongation of the pulp itself directly. The mesial pulp horns are usually higher than the distal pulp horns. </li></ul>Apical foramen Lateral canals Furcation canals Pulp horn Floor Roof
  7. 12. <ul><li>Roof of the pulp chamber </li></ul><ul><li>The roof consists of dentin covering the pulp chamber occlusally or incisally. </li></ul><ul><li>Floor of the chamber. </li></ul><ul><li>The floor of the pulp chamber runs parallel to the root and consists of dentin bordering the pulp chamber near the cervix of the tooth particularly dentin in the furcation area. </li></ul>Floor Roof
  8. 13. <ul><li>Pulp space / root canal </li></ul><ul><li>It will be appropriate to refer to as pulp space. </li></ul><ul><li>A straight pulp space extending the length of the root is uncommon. </li></ul><ul><li>All the pulp spaces are curved, but the degree varies from sharp curvatures to gradual curvatures. </li></ul>
  9. 14. <ul><li>Canal orifices </li></ul><ul><li>The canal orifices are openings in the floor of the pulp chamber leading into the pulp space. </li></ul><ul><li>The canal orifices are not separate structures but are continuous with the pulp spaces. </li></ul>
  10. 15. <ul><li>Lateral canals </li></ul><ul><li>Canal that is located approximately right angles to that of the main canal extending from the main canal to the periodontal ligament, more frequently in the body of the root than in the base </li></ul>Apical foramen Lateral canals Furcation canals Pulp horn Floor Roof
  11. 16. <ul><li>Periodontal vessels curve around the root apex of a developing tooth and often become entrapoped in the Hertwigs Epithelial root sheath resulting in the formation of lateral and accessory canals. </li></ul>
  12. 17. <ul><li>Accessory canal </li></ul><ul><li>Is one that branches off from the main root canal usually somewhere in the apical region of the root. </li></ul>
  13. 19. <ul><li>Anatomical Apex : </li></ul><ul><li>It is the most tapered portion of the root   </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  14. 20. <ul><li>Apical Foramen : (Major diameter) </li></ul><ul><li>It is the terminal end of the pulp space by which it communicates with the periapical region. (Should not be confused with other ramifications such as accessory and lateral canals) </li></ul>
  15. 21. <ul><li>Apical constriction : (Minor diameter) </li></ul><ul><li>Narrowest portion at the terminal end of the pulp space. It is approximately 0.5 mm. short of the apical foramen and is said to coincide with the cemento – dentinal junction. </li></ul>
  16. 22. <ul><li>Delta </li></ul><ul><li>Delta formation describes the primary or secondary canal that terminates short of the apex with lateral canals fanning out from this point to end of the root surface. </li></ul>
  17. 23. <ul><li>In young persons the pulp horns are wide, apical foramina are broad and dentinal tubules are wide and regular with increase in age pulp horns recede and pulp chamber becomes smaller. </li></ul><ul><li>Pulp space becomes smaller from deposition of secondary and reparative dentin. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  18. 25. <ul><li>One canal at apex </li></ul><ul><li>Type I :Single canal extending from pulp chamber to the apex. </li></ul>
  19. 26. <ul><li>Type II : Two canals leave the pulp chamber and joins short of the apex to form one canal. </li></ul>
  20. 27. <ul><li>Type III : One canal leaves the pulp chamber, divides into </li></ul><ul><li>two, within the root and then merges to unite as one canal. </li></ul>
  21. 28. <ul><li>Two Canals at apex </li></ul><ul><li>Type IV : Two separate canals from chamber to apex. </li></ul>
  22. 29. <ul><li>Type V : Leaves pulp chamber as one and divides short of the apex into 2 separate apical foramina. </li></ul>
  23. 30. <ul><li>Type VI : Two separate canals leave the pulp chamber and merge in the middle body of the root then re-divides short of the apex. </li></ul>
  24. 31. <ul><li>Type VII : One canal leaves the pulp chamber divides and then rejoins within the body and finally re-divides into 2 distinct canals short of the apex </li></ul>
  25. 32. <ul><li>THREE CANAL AT APEX . </li></ul><ul><li>Type VIII : Three separate and distinct canals extend from pulp chamber to the apex. </li></ul>
  26. 35. Pre dentin Odontoblasts layer Cell free zone Cell rich zone Pulp core
  27. 36. <ul><li>1 ) Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells </li></ul><ul><li>2)Fibroblast </li></ul><ul><li>3)Odontoblasts </li></ul><ul><li>4)Defense cells </li></ul><ul><li>Histiocytes or macrophages </li></ul><ul><li>-Mast cells </li></ul><ul><li>-Plasma cells </li></ul><ul><li>-Blood vascular elements (neutrophils,lymphocytes,basophils ,monocytes) </li></ul>
  28. 37. <ul><li>Nutrition : blood supply for pulp and dentin. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory : changes in temp., vibration and chemical that affect the dentin and pulp. </li></ul><ul><li>Formative : the pulp involve in the support, maintenance and continued formation of dentin. </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive : triggering of inflammatory and immune response. </li></ul><ul><li>Protective : Development and formation of secondary and tertiary dentin which increase the coverage of the pulp </li></ul>