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TCC tema: Flow. Aluna: Victória

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Trabalho de conclusão do curso Online de Psicologia Positiva da aluna Victória B Carrão. http://psicologiapositiva.ning.com/ http://www.psicologiapositivabr.com/

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TCC tema: Flow. Aluna: Victória

  1. 1. FLOW Victória Borges Carrão Centro de Estudos em Psicologia Positiva 2015
  2. 2. O QUE É FLOW?  Experiência de fluir  Ficar completamente envolvido, concentrado e absorvido enquanto realiza alguma tarefa  Sensação de “esquecer” todo o resto, como fome, cansaço ou o passar do tempo  Há uma apreciação do que se está fazendo, como se fosse a coisa mais importante do mundo  Essa fascinação permanece durante o processo de realização e não depois de acabado, ou seja, o que motiva é o processo em si mesmo  Não há necessidade de haver uma recompensa futura, é prazeroso e satisfatório realizar tal atividade, ou seja, é intrinsicamente compensador Csikszentmihalyi (1993)
  3. 3.  Estudos foram realizados por Csikszentmihalyi (1992) e seus alunos com pessoas que investiam uma grande quantidade de tempo em atividades pelas quais não recebiam nenhuma recompensa financeira ou reconhecimento (como atletas amadores, jogadores de xadrez, dançarinos, por exemplo) para investigar como esses indivíduos descreviam as atividades quando proporcionavam grande satisfação  A partir dessas pesquisas foi conceituado o termo ‘experiência autotélica’ que significa de acordo com a origem grega da palavra: finalidade por si mesmo  Csikszentmihalyi (1992) descreve experiência autotélica: “Refere-se a uma atividade auto-suficiente, realizada sem a expectativa de algum benefício futuro, mas simplesmente porque realizá-la é a própria recompensa. (p. 104)
  4. 4.  Csikszentmihalyi (1975) enfatiza a importância de se aplicar o modelo de flow nas escolas e organizações, pois são nestas instituições que as pessoas passam maior parte do seu tempo, muitas vezes em estados de tédio ou ansiedade, e portanto, a forma como o sujeito vivencia as experiências nesses contextos afeta profundamente a qualidade de sua vida  Csikszentmihalyi, Rathunde e Whalen (1993) realizaram um estudo com adolescentes a fim de verificar por que alguns adolescentes permanecem cultivando seus talentos, e outros igualmente talentosos não o fazem, dadas condições ambientais semelhantes  Tinham a intenção de que a pesquisa auxiliasse pais, professores e demais indivíduos interessados na prevenção das perdas que a baixa utilização de habilidades implicam
  5. 5.  Csikszentmihalyi, Rathunde e Whalen (1993) concluíram com o estudo que o talento dos adolescentes será desenvolvido se gerar experiências ótimas  Essa explicação está baseada na teoria de flow: a maior parte das pessoas se lembra de um momento que estavam altamente concentradas e engajadas em uma atividade desafiadora que lhes promovia alto nível de satisfação, em que se sentiam no controle e o tempo passava sem que percebessem  Tais experiências ótimas ficam gravadas na memória e servem como fonte de motivação para que os indivíduos permaneçam cultivando suas habilidades e buscando maiores desafios somente para poder vivenciar outra vez essa mesma intensidade de experiência  Qualquer atividade que produza alto nível de satisfação motiva o sujeito a repeti-la, assim sendo, os adolescentes que vivenciam flow em alguma área de talento têm maior probabilidade de se manter desenvolvendo esse talento
  6. 6.  Csikszentmihalyi (1992, 1993), com base em diversas entrevistas identificou oito dimensões do estado de flow  Na experiência de flow a maioria dessas dimensões devem aparecer, mas não necessariamente todas  Foram subdivididas em condições e características de flow  Csikszentmihalyi também apontou mais duas dimensões, que se enquadram como consequências do flow  Condições de flow refere-se às circunstâncias e ambientes que conduzem ao flow, condições que precisam estar presentes para que ocorra a experiência ótima  Características de flow tem relação com o que as pessoas sentem durante a experiência
  7. 7.  Condições de flow: - As metas são claras e o feedback é imediato - Há equilíbrio entre oportunidade de ação e capacidade: os desafios e as habilidades percebidas são elevados e equivalentes  Características de flow: - Sensação de controle - Concentração profunda: a ação se funde com a consciência - Foco temporal no presente: cessam-se as ruminações sobre passado ou futuro - Distorção da experiência temporal - Perda da autoconsciência reflexiva e transcendência das fronteiras do self - A experiência se torna autotélica  Consequências do flow: - Crescimento pessoal: crescimento do self em direção a níveis maiores de complexidade - Fortalecimento da autoestima
  8. 8. MODELO ORIGINAL DE FLOW
  9. 9. MODELO DE FLOW DE 4 CANAIS
  10. 10.  Quando as habilidades são maiores que os desafios gera um estado de tédio  Quando os desafios são maiores que as habilidades produz um estado de ansiedade  Quando habilidades e desafios estão abaixo do nível médio do indivíduo, a qualidade da experiência diminui, mesmo que habilidades e desafios estejam em equilíbrio, gerando um estado de apatia  A experiência de flow ocorre quando desafios e habilidades estão em equilíbrio e acima de um determinado nível, ou seja, a experiência se torna positiva quando habilidades e desafios encontram-se acima da média habitual do sujeito  Existem mais dois modelos de flow, de 8 canais e 16 canais, mas estudiosos afirmam que a escolha é livre, que tanto o modelo de 4 canais quanto o de 8 ou 16 canais podem ser usados, só depende da profundidade da análise
  11. 11. REFERÊNCIAS  Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety. São Francisco: Jossey-Bass.  Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1992). A psicologia da felicidade. São Paulo: Saraiva.  Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1993). The envolving self: a psychology for the third millenium. Nova York: Harper Perennial.  Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Csikszentmihalyi, I. S. (1988). Optimal experience: Psychologycal studies of flow in consciousness. Nova York: Cambridge University Press.  Csikszentmihalyi, M., Rathunde, K. & Whalen, S. (1993). Talented Teenagers: The roots of success and failure. Nova York: Cambridge University Press.  Massimini, F. & Carli, M. (1988). The systematic assessment of flow in daily experience.
  12. 12. OBRIGADA!

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