To report and summarize what someone said in the past, we use a past
reporting verb e.g. said, told, asked, explained, promised. We often report
the words in a past tense:
“People like Fide have nothing”, my mother said My mother told me
that people like Fide had nothing.
DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH
PRESENT SIMPLE “My parents are very well”. PAST SIMPLE.
Jenny said that her parents were very well.
MODALS CAN/ WILL/ MUST/ HAVE TO “I can
“I’ll help you do your homework”.
“You must/ have to do your homework”.
COULD/ WOULD/ HAD TO.
Jenny said that she could sing beautifully.
Jenny said that she would help him do his homework.
The teacher told him that he had to do his homework.
PRESENT PERFECT “I’ve never visited New York”. PAST PERFECT.
Jenny said that she had never visited New York.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS “I’m studying literature”. PAST CONTINUOUS.
Jenny said that she was studying literature.
SIMPLE PAST “I started out as a teacher”. PAST PERFECT
Jenny said that she had started out as a teacher.
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS “I’ve been
taking lessons for a year”.
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
Jenny said that she had been taking lessons for a year.
Use the word order of an affirmative sentence. Do not use a question mark
at the end of the sentence:
She asked me what I did. NOT she asked me what did I do?
YES/ NO QUESTION
“Do you want some more cake?”
IF + WORD ORDER OF A STATEMENT
She asked him if he wanted more cake.
“Are you coming shopping this afternoon?” She asked if/whether she was going shopping that
“Let’s go to the beach.”
She suggested going to the beach.
She suggested they go to the beach.
She suggested they went to the beach.
She suggested they should go to the beach.
“What’s your favorite sport?”
“What’s your name?”
WHAT + WORD ORDER OF A STATEMENT
I asked him what his favorite sport was.
I asked her what her name was.
“Where do you live?”
WHERE + WORD ORDER OF A STATEMENT
I asked him where he lived.
“Take a rest”. She advised/ told him
to take a rest.
“Don’t make so much noise”. He told
them not to make so much noise.
John said, "I love this town."
John said …
"Do you like soccer ?" He asked me.
He asked me …
"I can't drive a lorry," he said.
He said …
"Be nice to your brother," he said.
He asked me …
"Don't be rude," he said.
He urged me …
"Don't waste your money" she said.
She told the boys…
"What have you decided to do?" she
She asked him…
"I always wake up early," he said.
"You should revise your lessons," he
He advised the students…
"Where were you born?" he asked me.
He wanted to know…