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Web open standards for linked data and knowledge graphs as enablers of EU digital sovereignty

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Web open standards for linked data and knowledge graphs as enablers of EU digital sovereignty

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Web open standards for linked data and knowledge graphs as enablers of EU digital sovereignty

ENDORSE Keynote by Fabien GANDON, 19/03/2021

https://op.europa.eu/en/web/endorse

Web open standards for linked data and knowledge graphs as enablers of EU digital sovereignty

ENDORSE Keynote by Fabien GANDON, 19/03/2021

https://op.europa.eu/en/web/endorse

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Web open standards for linked data and knowledge graphs as enablers of EU digital sovereignty

  1. 1. Web open standards for linked data and knowledge graphs as enablers of EU digital sovereignty Fabien Gandon, http://fabien.info
  2. 2. PROFILE  Graduated Engineer INSA Applied Math, DEA/Master Image & Vision  PHD & HDR (Habilitation) in computer science  Research Director / Senior researcher, INRIA  Leader Wimmics (UCA, Inria, CNRS, I3S) on Campus Sophia Antipolis  Advisory Committee of W3C  Responsible research convention French Ministry of Culture – Inria  Vice-head of Science for Inria Sophia Antipolis
  3. 3. WIMMICS TEAM DR/Professors:  Fabien GANDON, Inria, AI, KRR, Semantic Web, Social Web, K. Graphs  Nhan LE THANH, UCA, Logics, KR, Emotions, Workflows, K. Graphs  Peter SANDER, UCA, Web, Emotions  Andrea TETTAMANZI, UCA, AI, Logics, Evo, Learning, Agents, K. Graphs  Marco WINCKLER, UCA, Human-Computer Interaction, Web, K. Graphs CR/Assistant Professors:  Michel BUFFA, UCA, Web, Social Media, Web Audio, K. Graphs  Elena CABRIO, UCA, NLP, KR, Linguistics, Q&A, Text Mining, K. Graphs  Olivier CORBY, Inria, KR, AI, Sem. Web, Programming, K. Graphs  Catherine FARON-ZUCKER, UCA, KR, AI, Semantic Web, K. Graphs  Damien GRAUX, Inria, Linked Data, Sem. Web, Querying, K. Graphs  Serena VILLATA, CNRS, AI, Argumentation, Licenses, Rights, K. Graphs Research engineer: Franck MICHEL, CNRS, Linked Data, Integration, DB, K. Graphs External:  Andrei Ciortea (University of St. Gallen) Agents, WoT, Sem. Web, K. Graphs  Nicolas DELAFORGE (Mnemotix) Sem. Web, KM, Integration, K. Graphs  Alain GIBOIN, (Retired CR Inria), Interaction Design, KE, User & Task, K. Graphs  Freddy LECUE (Thales, Montreal) AI, Logics, Mining, Big Data, S. Web , K. Graphs
  4. 4. URI, IRI, URL, HTTP URI STANDARDS FOR DATA & KNOWLEDGE GRAPHS ON THE WEB JSON RDF JSON LD N-Triple N-Quad Turtle/N3 TriG RDFS OWL SPARQL XML HTML RDF XML HTTP Linked Data CSV-LD R2RML GRDDL RDFa SHACL LDP
  5. 5. (1/8) Web open standards
  6. 6. World Wide Web Consortium an international community leading the Web to its full potential since 1994 i.e. building an open, interoperable Web that works for everyone, by developing freely available and open standards for it. In 2016, Tim Berners-Lee received the Turing Award for his invention of the Web
  7. 7. World Wide Web Consortium  Over 430 Members org. around the world  The not-for-profit organization’s staff of 50 supported by Membership dues  Over 12,000 developers worldwide  38 working groups + 10 interest groups + 350 Business Groups and Community Groups  Hundreds of open technologies that power… browsers, smart phones, ebook readers, set top boxes, automobiles, search engines, social media, trillions of dollars of online commerce, and more than a billion Web sites =
  8. 8. for instance… examples of former or current members html http url uri iri atag uaag wcag aria mwbp earl ra cc/pp assx css ddrsa xml eve. exi geo api dom xform grddl inkml its cmwww ruby an. xhtml rdfa ets omr m. ok emma p3p mathml mf pics qa rif sec cont. sawsdl png powder sml soap wsdl svg awww ttml smile rdf owl rdfs sparql woff webcgm xbl xkms xlink wscdl wsp skos ns canon. x dtxml xproc xfrag xml xbase xschema xml:id xpath xpointer xquery xsignat. xbop xslt xslfo examples of standards … …
  9. 9. (2/8) Web open standards for… distributed, interoperable hypermedia
  10. 10. AN HYPERMEDIA linking everything…
  11. 11. three components of the Web architecture 1. identification (URI) & address (URL) ex. http://www.inria.fr URL
  12. 12. three components of the Web architecture 1. identification (URI) & address (URL) ex. http://www.inria.fr 2. communication / protocol (HTTP) GET /centre/sophia HTTP/1.1 Host: www.inria.fr HTTP URL address
  13. 13. three components of the Web architecture 1. identification (URI) & address (URL) ex. http://www.inria.fr 2. communication / protocol (HTTP) GET /centre/sophia HTTP/1.1 Host: www.inria.fr 3. representation language (HTML) Fabien works at <a href="http://inria.fr">Inria</a> HTTP URL HTML reference address communication WEB
  14. 14. 14 [Tim Beners-Lee et al., 1994]
  15. 15. (3/8) Web open standards for… distributed, interoperable identifiers
  16. 16. Universal Resource Locator / Indentifier HTTP URL HTML reference address communication WEB HTTP URI HTML reference address communication WEB
  17. 17. identify what exists on the web http://my-site.fr identify, on the web, what exists http://animals.org/this-zebra
  18. 18. URIs for everything • URI for Paris in DBpedia: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Paris • URI for name of Victor Hugo in the Library of Congress: http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n79091479 • The MUC18 protein at UniProt http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P43121 • Xavier Dolan in Wikidata https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Special:EntityData/Q551861 • The book with doi:10.1007/3-540-45741-0_18 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45741-0_18 •
  19. 19. e.g. identifying 1025 car configurations [François-Paul Servant et al. ESWC 2012]
  20. 20. (4/8) Web open standards for… distributed, interoperable data
  21. 21. RDF: a Web standard for knowledge graphs HTTP URI reference address communication WEB HTTP URI HTML reference address communication WEB RDF
  22. 22. a Web approach to data publication ???... « http://fr.dbpedia.org/resource/Paris »
  23. 23. a Web approach to data publication HTTP URI GET
  24. 24. a Web approach to data publication HTTP URI GET HTML, …
  25. 25. a Web approach to data publication HTTP URI GET RDF
  26. 26. linked data
  27. 27. The MUC18 protein at UniProt http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P43121
  28. 28. linked open data(sets) cloud on the Web 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 5/1/2007 10/8/2007 11/7/2007 11/10/2007 2/28/2008 3/31/2008 9/18/2008 3/5/2009 3/27/2009 7/14/2009 9/22/2010 9/19/2011 8/30/2014 1/26/2017 number of linked open datasets on the Web
  29. 29. Smarter Cities’ knowledge graphs IBM Dublin [Lécué et al., 2015] (also for private KGs behind firewalls)
  30. 30. (5/8) Web open standards for… distributed interoperable access
  31. 31. 31 SPARQL : Get Data, Not Documents ex. DBpedia
  32. 32. DBPEDIA.FR 180 000 000 arcs in an encyclopedic knowledge graph number of queries per day 70 000 on average 2.5 millions max 185 377 686 RDF triples extracted and mapped public dumps, endpoints, interfaces, APIs…
  33. 33. COVID LINKED DATA  integrate multiple datasets in heterogeneous formats  perform information extraction, inferences, validation  provide a public end-point and visualization services [Gandon, Michel, Gazzotti, Mayer, Cabrio, Corby, Menin, Winckler, Villata et al. 2020]
  34. 34. (6/8) Web open standards for… distributed interoperable validation
  35. 35. SHACL is a language for describing and validating pieces (shapes) of RDF knowledge graphs eg. every Person must have one and only one name used for validation, description, interaction, integration, code generation,…
  36. 36. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement 825619. ONTOLOGY FOR AI ITSELF  ontology and metadata of AI resources  SHACL to validate AI4EU these RDF graphs  online endpoint http://corese.inria.fr  predefined SPARQL queries, SHACL shapes, display [Corby et al., 2019]
  37. 37. (7/8) Web open standards for… distributed, interoperable vocabularies
  38. 38. RDFS to declare classes of resources and properties, of your knowledge graph and organize their hierarchy Document Report creator author Document Person
  39. 39. OWL in one… algebraic properties disjoint properties qualified cardinality 1..1 ! individual prop. neg chained prop.   enumeration intersection union complement  disjunction restriction ! cardinality 1..1 equivalence  [>18] disjoint union  value restriction keys …
  40. 40. PREDICT HOSPITALIZATION  Predict hospitalization from Physician’s records classification [Gazzotti, Faron et al. 2020] Sexe Date Cause CISP2 ... History Observations H 25/04/2012 vaccin-antitétanique A44 ... Appendicite EN CP - Bon état général - auscult pulm libre; bdc rég sans souffle - tympans ok- Element Number Patients Consultations Past medical history Biometric data Semiotics Diagnosis Row of prescribed drugs Symptoms Health care procedures Additional examination Paramedical prescription Observations/notes 55 823 364 684 187 290 293 908 250 669 117 442 847 422 23 488 11 850 871 590 17 222 56 143 PRIMEGE
  41. 41. PREDICT HOSPITALIZATION  Predict hospitalization from Physician’s records classification  Augment records data with Web knowledge graphs [Gazzotti, Faron et al. 2020] Sexe Date Cause CISP2 ... History Observations H 25/04/2012 vaccin-antitétanique A44 ... Appendicite EN CP - Bon état général - auscult pulm libre; bdc rég sans souffle - tympans ok- Element Number Patients Consultations Past medical history Biometric data Semiotics Diagnosis Row of prescribed drugs Symptoms Health care procedures Additional examination Paramedical prescription Observations/notes 55 823 364 684 187 290 293 908 250 669 117 442 847 422 23 488 11 850 871 590 17 222 56 143 (1) PRIMEGE
  42. 42. PREDICT HOSPITALIZATION  Predict hospitalization from Physician’s records classification  Augment records data with Web knowledge graphs  Study impact on prediction [Gazzotti, Faron et al. 2020] Sexe Date Cause CISP2 ... History Observations H 25/04/2012 vaccin-antitétanique A44 ... Appendicite EN CP - Bon état général - auscult pulm libre; bdc rég sans souffle - tympans ok- Element Number Patients Consultations Past medical history Biometric data Semiotics Diagnosis Row of prescribed drugs Symptoms Health care procedures Additional examination Paramedical prescription Observations/notes 55 823 364 684 187 290 293 908 250 669 117 442 847 422 23 488 11 850 871 590 17 222 56 143 (1) (2) PRIMEGE
  43. 43. SKOS thesaurus, lexicon skos:narrowerTransitive skos:narrower skos:broaderTransitive skos:broader #Algebra #Mathematics #LinearAlgebra broader narrower broader narrower broaderTransitive broaderTransitive narrowerTransitive narrowerTransitive broaderTransitive narrowerTransitive
  44. 44. MonaLIA  reason & query on RDF to build training sets. 350 000 images of artworks RDF metadata based on external thesauri Joconde database from French museums (1) [Bobasheva et al. 2020]
  45. 45. MonaLIA  reason & query on RDF to build training sets.  transfer learning & CNN classifiers on targeted categories (topics, techniques, etc.) 350 000 images of artworks RDF metadata based on external thesauri Joconde database from French museums (1) [Bobasheva et al. 2020] (2)
  46. 46. Image Metadata Score  portrait 50350012455 C:Jocondejoconde0138m503501_d0012455-000_p.jpg cheval: 0.999 Image Metadata Score  figure (saint Eloi de Noyon, évêque, en pied, bénédiction, vêtement liturgique, mitre, attribut, cheval, marteau, outil : ferronnerie) 000SC022652 C:/Joconde/joconde0355/m079806_bsa0030101_p.jpg cheval: 0.006 MonaLIA  reason & query on RDF to build training sets.  transfer learning & CNN classifiers on targeted categories (topics, techniques, etc.)  reason & query RDF of results to address silence, noise and explain 350 000 images of artworks RDF metadata based on external thesauri Joconde database from French museums (1) (3) [Bobasheva et al. 2020] (2)
  47. 47. Web open standards as enablers of interoperable platforms e.g. “Solid (…) is a proposed set of conventions and tools for building decentralized Web applications based on Linked Data principles. (…) It relies as much as possible on existing W3C standards and protocols. (…) RDF 1.1 (…) The WebID 1.0 (…) The FOAF vocabulary (…) WebID-TLS protocol (…) HTML5 (…) Linked Data Platform (LDP) standard” https://github.com/solid/solid#standards-used
  48. 48. (8/8) Web open standards for… distributed, interoperable Europe “I’m right there in the room, but no one even acknowledges me.”
  49. 49. W3C = strategic place to survey and shape Web standards
  50. 50. W3C = strategic place to survey and shape Web standards Personal opinion:  Important to have a neutral place to build open-standards (1 member = 1 vote)  Important to have public and private members at W3C  Important to have a large European participation to W3C
  51. 51. Web open standards & world-wide interoperability are key enablers of EU digital sovereignty  Interoperability is strategic to federate actors/actions. (cf. members)  Web standards are transversal to domains/tasks/… (cf. applications examples)  Importance of knowledge graphs and danger of knowledge silos. (cf. data)  Having established open standards between actors in Europe (public and private) is a stake for setting up European data spaces.
  52. 52. Web open standards & world-wide interoperability are key enablers of EU digital sovereignty  Interoperability is strategic to federate actors/actions. (cf. members)  Web standards are transversal to domains/tasks/… (cf. applications examples)  Importance of knowledge graphs and danger of knowledge silos. (cf. data)  Having established open standards between actors in Europe (public and private) is a stake for setting up European data spaces. • active participation to W3C is a key to build EU digital sovereignty.
  53. 53. WIMMICS Web-Instrumented Man-Machine Interactions, Communities and Semantics Fabien Gandon - @fabien_gandon - http://fabien.info he who controls metadata, controls the web and through the world-wide web many things in our world. Site: http://wimmics.inria.fr Overview: http://bit.ly/wimmics-slides Technical details: http://bit.ly/wimmics-papers    

Editor's Notes

  • Introduction de la semaine 2/2
    Présentation du sommaire global de la semaine : apparition progressive des éléments de la liste, puis mise en évidence de la portion concernée par la vidéo
  • Introduction de la semaine 2/2
    Présentation du sommaire global de la semaine : apparition progressive des éléments de la liste, puis mise en évidence de la portion concernée par la vidéo
  • Introduction de la semaine 2/2
    Présentation du sommaire global de la semaine : apparition progressive des éléments de la liste, puis mise en évidence de la portion concernée par la vidéo
  • Ces codes sont symptomatiques d’une évolution d’un composant central du web qu’est l’adresse web.

    Nous sommes passés d’adresses essentiellement utilisées pour identifier les pages et ressources du web.

    A des adresses permettant d’identifier sur le web tout ce qui existe autour de nous et d’en parler sur le web.
  • This evolution of the use of identifiers on the Web together with the ability to change the languages to exchange representations open a new perspective where we can use the Web to identify and exchange any kind of data about everything around us.
  • Introduction de la semaine 2/2
    Présentation du sommaire global de la semaine : apparition progressive des éléments de la liste, puis mise en évidence de la portion concernée par la vidéo
  • Introduction de la semaine 2/2
    Présentation du sommaire global de la semaine : apparition progressive des éléments de la liste, puis mise en évidence de la portion concernée par la vidéo
  • Introduction de la semaine 2/2
    Présentation du sommaire global de la semaine : apparition progressive des éléments de la liste, puis mise en évidence de la portion concernée par la vidéo
  • Introduction de la semaine 2/2
    Présentation du sommaire global de la semaine : apparition progressive des éléments de la liste, puis mise en évidence de la portion concernée par la vidéo
  • Introduction de la semaine 2/2
    Présentation du sommaire global de la semaine : apparition progressive des éléments de la liste, puis mise en évidence de la portion concernée par la vidéo
  • Introduction de la semaine 2/2
    Présentation du sommaire global de la semaine : apparition progressive des éléments de la liste, puis mise en évidence de la portion concernée par la vidéo
  • Introduction de la semaine 2/2
    Présentation du sommaire global de la semaine : apparition progressive des éléments de la liste, puis mise en évidence de la portion concernée par la vidéo
  • Introduction de la semaine 2/2
    Présentation du sommaire global de la semaine : apparition progressive des éléments de la liste, puis mise en évidence de la portion concernée par la vidéo
  • Introduction de la semaine 2/2
    Présentation du sommaire global de la semaine : apparition progressive des éléments de la liste, puis mise en évidence de la portion concernée par la vidéo
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