THETHE MARKMARK
******************
Where Do I Start?Where Do I Start?
Revised 05AUG13el
Real-time
diagnostics
as you
test
Our Goal
is to have your
product PASS
all tests required!
CERTIFICATIONS
CE
FCC
Industry...
The Choices You Make
Now
Can Provide for a Successful
Evaluation
The
Basics
CE stands for Conformité Européenne, which is
French for "European Conformity." A product in
one of the controlled product...
NRTL (Nationally Recognized Test Lab) & ISO 17025
Laboratories are organizations that have
demonstrated as meeting certain...
Regulatory Mark
Or The
CE Mark?
Regulatory Mark –
• Issued by an NRTL
• Controlled by OSHA
• Normally US and Canada
• Safe...
Who needs a CE markWho needs a CE mark
and how do I get one?and how do I get one?
It is EU law that every product that ent...
The European UnionThe European Union
Member States of the EU
Austria Belgium
Bulgaria Croatia
Cyprus Denmark
Czech Republi...
Countries on the road to EU Membership
Iceland Montenegro
Serbia
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Turkey
Potentia...
The Road to ComplianceThe Road to Compliance
**Keep in mind there are more than just EMC & Safety**Keep in mind there are ...
• The CE symbol must be affixed on the equipment itself in such
a manner that it cannot be easily removed. The minimum siz...
What’s aWhat’s a
Directive ?Directive ?
 A Directive is an EU legally binding document
that is provided to facilitate the...
Just a few of The DirectivesJust a few of The Directives
http://www.newapproach.org/directiveshttp://www.newapproach.org/d...
HARMONIZED
&
NON-HARMONIZED
STANDARDS
The StandardsThe Standards
HarmonizedHarmonized
StandardsStandards
 Also known as ‘mandated standards’
 Fulfills the requirements of the European D...
Non-HarmonizedNon-Harmonized
StandardsStandards
 An example – American Standards (UL, CSA, ANSI, Mil)
 Those standards a...
DDeclarationeclaration ooff CConformityonformity
DOCDOC
A Legally Binding Document
> A sworn statement of fact <
• Contain...
Information RequiredInformation Required
on aon a
DDeclarationeclaration ooff CConformityonformity
 Description of the sy...
TTechnicalechnical FFileile
 All CE marking directives require the manufacturer of the
product to create a technical file...
Penalties could lead to
any of the following:
 Shipments Stopped at Port
 Fines
 Products Removed From the
Markets
 No...
Typical InformationTypical Information
in ain a TTechnicalechnical FFileile
 Descriptive Report (include photos )
 Produ...
RAPEX
Rapid Alert System for non-food products
http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/safety/rapex/alerts/main/index.cfm
PRODUCT
AL...
�General Content
• Details of manufacturer, name/address
• Description of the product / Marking / EC declaration of
confor...
MANUAL
LANGUAGE
REQUIREMENTS
The Language shall be acceptable
by the Country in which the equipment
is to be installed for...
Chinese
Spanish
English
German
French
FIVE
COMMON
LANUAGES
Cuidado
avertir
Warnung
Caution 
警告 , 告誡 ;
What are the Basics
For an RFQ?
 Identify the countries you wish to place the product
 Draw a simple block diagram
Devic...
What Do You
Need to do to Prepare
for Testing & Evaluation?
 Provide all requested documentation
by the date F2 Labs has ...
Typical EMC
Supporting Documentation
Needs
 Test Sample Set-Up Instructions
 Operator/Installation Manual
Typical Safety
Supporting Documentation
Needs
 Test Sample Set-Up Instructions
 Operator/Installation/Maintenance Manual...
TheThe
EMCEMC DIRECTIVEDIRECTIVE
 The Electro-Magnetic Compatibility Directive applies to all
electronic and electrical p...
EMCEMC is ais a natural conditionnatural condition that exists when electricalthat exists when electrical
equipment is per...
EMC (Electro-Magnetic Compatibility)
2 conditions must be satisfied: The device does not generate
electromagnetic noise an...
ImmunityImmunity
AKAAKA
SusceptibilitySusceptibility
……a condition that exists when equipment continues to operate withina...
Emissions
AKA
Noise / Leaking Radio Frequency
A condition that exists when your equipment suffers from
unacceptable degrad...
BASIC CONCEPTBASIC CONCEPT
Electromagnetic Fields Exist Everywhere
It is NORMAL
There are two paths
Radiated
Airborne
&
Co...
TYPICALTYPICAL
EElectro-lectro-MMagneticagnetic
CCompatibility Tesompatibility Teststs
- Radiated Immunity - Harmonics
- C...
Radiated
Immunity
Evaluated by controlling a signal source
and power levels to generate field levels
over a defined set of...
Radiated
Immunity
Simulation
Consider the acceptable limits
of performance for your device
within the application of use
 Are you using shielded cabling
 Is your enclosure shielded
 Limit your “vent” openings in the enclosure
 Use ferrites...
Conducted
Immunity
Evaluates the product’s ability to resist
electrical signals that may be generated
by the switching of ...
Conducted Immunity
Simulation
Controlled
Signal
Source
Consider the acceptable limits
of performance for your device
withi...
Conducted Immunity
Design Tips
 Are you using shielded cabling
 Is your enclosure shielded
 Are there I/O line filters
...
Surge
Immunity
This tests the equipment’s level of
resistance or immunity to surges
caused by over voltages from
switching...
Surge Immunity
Simulation
Controlled
Pulse
Source
Consider the acceptable limits
of performance for your device
within the...
 Use pre-approved power supplies
 Are there surge suppressors installed
Surge Immunity
Design Tips
ESD
Immunity
Electrostatic Discharges are
applied to all relevant points
while the apparatus is in
operation. These are ap...
ESD Immunity
Simulation
Consider the acceptable limits
of performance for your device
within the application of use

Ele...
ESD Immunity
Design Tips
Make sure the enclosure has a common
ground plane
Make sure the AC mains has the 3rd
wire
Groun...
EFT
(Electrical Fast Transients)
Immunity
EFT is a test process to demonstrate
the equipment’s resistance to line
transien...
EFT Immunity
Simulation
Controlled
Signal
Source
Consider the acceptable limits
of performance for your device
within the ...
EFT Immunity
Design Tips
 Make sure the enclosure has a
common ground plane
 Does your unit have a power
line filter
 A...
Voltage Dips &
Interrupts
Immunity
Simulates voltage variations,
and interruptions caused by
short circuits or rapid chang...
Voltage Dips/interrupts
Immunity
Simulation
Controlled
Voltage
Source
Consider the acceptable limits
of performance for yo...
Voltage Dips/interrupts
Immunity
Design Tips
 Use pre-approved power supplies
Harmonic
Emissions
Harmonics is a distortion
of a normal sine wave. When a
product produces distortion it
does this at mul...
Harmonic Emissions
Simulation
Signal
Monitoring
Device
Signal monitoring
Coming from the device
Harmonics Emissions Design
Tips
 Use power factor correction circuits
 The current and voltage wave forms
need to be sin...
Flicker
Emissions
The term “flicker” applies to
uncontrolled intermittent
Emissions. It is also known
as surge emission.
F...
Flicker Emission Simulation
Current
Monitoring
Device
Current monitoring
Coming from the device
Flicker Emissions
Design Tips
 Use pre-approved power supplies
Intentional RadiatorsIntentional Radiators are subject to rules (FCC,are subject to rules (FCC,
RTTE, etc.) for preventing...
Radiated
Emissions
Verifies that the product's
RF emissions do not
exceed a level that will
interfere with the
operation o...
Radiated Emissions
Simulation
Evaluation of
Radiated Emissions at Your
Location –
Clearance Requirements
 Are you using shielded cabling
 Is your enclosure shielded
 Limit your “vent” openings in the enclosure
 Use ferrites...
Conducted
Emissions
This is energy that is
transmitted from an electrical
device through the power cord
and back into the ...
Conducted Emissions
Simulation
Signal
Monitoring
Device
Signal monitoring
Coming from the device
 Are you using shielded cabling
 Is your enclosure shielded
 Limit your “vent” openings in the enclosure
 Use ferrites...
Have you Noticed
Commonality in
Design Tips?
 Shielded cabling
 Grounding
 Filtering where necessary
 Good workmanship...
Electrical Ports
Inputs/Outputs
Testing - Guidance
Port Identity
3m and less >3m (9.8 ft.) >10m (32.8 ft.) >30m (98.4 ft.)...
The productThe product must complymust comply with thewith the designdesign
and testand test requirements of the properreq...
Primary Focus BeingPrimary Focus Being
HUMAN & PROPERTY SAFETYHUMAN & PROPERTY SAFETY
• High Energy LevelsHigh Energy Leve...
 Power InterfacePower Interface
 Temperature Monitoring During TestsTemperature Monitoring During Tests
 Leakage Curren...
Safety
Design Tips For
Product Enclosures
 Top openings 4mm dia × 100mm long
 Bottom openings 2mm dia max × 3mm
spacing ...
Safety
Design Tips For
Grounding, Wiring
 User-accessible conductive parts shall be bonded to the
Protective Earth (PE) g...
Safety
Design Tips For
Grounding, Wiring
-CONTINUED-
 PE soldered connection/s require mechanical securing in
addition to...
Safety
Design Tips - General
 Circuit breakers for AC supply are not polarized in Europe
 Accidental loosen of wiring an...
Minimum Safety
Design Tips
Labels & Markings
 Products shall bear voltage, current, power, and frequency
ratings, model n...
Safety
Design Tips
Flammability
 Plastics for fire enclosures rated V-1
 PCB rated V-1
 V-2 for plastics enclosures tha...
RoHS Directive
2011/65/EU
is now a CE Marking
Directive
What does that mean to you?
It means that if you manufacture an el...
Lead (0.1 %)
Mercury (0.1 %)
Cadmium (0.01 %)
Hexavalent chromium (0.1 %)
Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) (0.1 %)
Polybromi...
Household Appliances, IT and
Telecommunications Equipment, Consumer
Equipment, Lighting Equipment, Electrical and
Electron...
Medical Devices and Monitoring and Control Instruments – must
comply by July 22nd, 2014
In vitro diagnostic medical devi...
There are
Other requirements to
Consider Such as
WEEE
REACH
WEEE
European Directive 2012/19/EU (WEEE)
The purpose of this Directive:
• Avoiding of Waste from Electrical and Electroni...
REACH
REACH is a European Community Regulation on chemicals and
their safe use.
EU Directive EC 1907/2006 & deals with the...
F2 Labs can assist you with your testing needs
We offer a full range of compliance testing
services. We are fully equipped...
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CE Mark: Where to Start

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Who needs a CE mark and how do I get one? It is EU law that every product that enters the European Union meet the CE Directives and applicable Standards. This mark can only be applied to your product when you have fully complied with all relevant Directives and Standards for the type of system you are marketing and and a Declaration of Conformity has been developed.

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CE Mark: Where to Start

  1. 1. THETHE MARKMARK ****************** Where Do I Start?Where Do I Start? Revised 05AUG13el
  2. 2. Real-time diagnostics as you test Our Goal is to have your product PASS all tests required! CERTIFICATIONS CE FCC Industry Canada R&TTE Safety Listings C-Tick LVD MACHINERY PRODUCTS TESTED Medical Devices Laboratory Equipment Industrial/ Machinery Household Appliances Audio/Video Transmitters Receivers IT & More . . . SERVICES Test & Assessment Training/Seminars Design Reviews Performance Site Survey Field Evaluations Verifications Listing Transfers TESTING *EMC/EMI Radio Safety Performance *Immunity & Emissions Testing WE’RE YOUR KEY TO WORLD MARKETS! World Class testing services with a personal touch. Doing things faster, respond quicker and provide you with personal attention We get the job done for you in the time frame that you require Testing in Damascus, Maryland; Middlefield, Ohio or at YOUR facility
  3. 3. The Choices You Make Now Can Provide for a Successful Evaluation
  4. 4. The Basics
  5. 5. CE stands for Conformité Européenne, which is French for "European Conformity." A product in one of the controlled product categories cannot legally be sold in the EU unless it has passed the tests to receive the CE marking.
  6. 6. NRTL (Nationally Recognized Test Lab) & ISO 17025 Laboratories are organizations that have demonstrated as meeting certain Business and Technical Disciplines • Capability, Technically & Administratively • Control Programs • Complete Independence • Reporting & Complaint Handling • Procedures to Test and Certify OSHA/NRTL & ISO 17025 Accredited Labs
  7. 7. Regulatory Mark Or The CE Mark? Regulatory Mark – • Issued by an NRTL • Controlled by OSHA • Normally US and Canada • Safety Testing Only • 15 Different NRTLs CE Mark – • Issued by The Manufacturer • Controlled by the Manufacturer • Prefer Accredited Labs • Safety & EMC and much more • One Mark - CE
  8. 8. Who needs a CE markWho needs a CE mark and how do I get one?and how do I get one? It is EU law that every product that enters the European Union meet the CE Directives and applicable Standards • This mark can only be applied to your product when you have fully complied with all relevant Directives and Standards for the type of system you are marketing • ….and a Declaration of Conformity has been developed (other types of Declarations exist)
  9. 9. The European UnionThe European Union Member States of the EU Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Denmark Czech Republic Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Spain Sweden United Kingdom December 2009
  10. 10. Countries on the road to EU Membership Iceland Montenegro Serbia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Turkey Potential Candidates Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Kosovo
  11. 11. The Road to ComplianceThe Road to Compliance **Keep in mind there are more than just EMC & Safety**Keep in mind there are more than just EMC & Safety Directives & StandardsDirectives & Standards CE MARK DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION FILE DIRECTIVES DIRECTIVES STANDARDS STANDARDS
  12. 12. • The CE symbol must be affixed on the equipment itself in such a manner that it cannot be easily removed. The minimum size is 5 mm. (0.2"). • Only if your equipment is too small, or the usage of a sign is incompatible with the function of your equipment, may it be used on any accompanying documentation for identification. 5 m m
  13. 13. What’s aWhat’s a Directive ?Directive ?  A Directive is an EU legally binding document that is provided to facilitate the free movement of goods and services - Think of it as the Law  Directives provide for health, safety and environmental requirements for a wide range of products, ranging from residential to industrial equipment
  14. 14. Just a few of The DirectivesJust a few of The Directives http://www.newapproach.org/directiveshttp://www.newapproach.org/directives
  15. 15. HARMONIZED & NON-HARMONIZED STANDARDS The StandardsThe Standards
  16. 16. HarmonizedHarmonized StandardsStandards  Also known as ‘mandated standards’  Fulfills the requirements of the European Directives  The standards are published in the Official European Journal  Adopted by the European Committee for Standardization & the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization  Widely accepted throughout the world today
  17. 17. Non-HarmonizedNon-Harmonized StandardsStandards  An example – American Standards (UL, CSA, ANSI, Mil)  Those standards are NOT published in the official European Journal  Have NOT been Adopted by the European Committee for Standardization or the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization  May Require the use of a 3rd party (Known as Notified Body) and possibly some additional documentation between testing and placing the CE mark on your product. Normally there are additional costs involved
  18. 18. DDeclarationeclaration ooff CConformityonformity DOCDOC A Legally Binding Document > A sworn statement of fact < • Contains a legal statement that the product complies with the requirements of the applicable Directives (Laws) and Standards (test methods) • Must be signed by a responsible person representing the Manufacturer. Someone who is accountable for the design, testing and validity of the DOC
  19. 19. Information RequiredInformation Required on aon a DDeclarationeclaration ooff CConformityonformity  Description of the system or product  Model Number/Part Number  Report number (supplied by the Test Lab)  Directives Used (supplied by the Test Lab)  Standards Used (supplied by the Test Lab)  Signature of the Responsible Person  On your Letter Head or another Company Document  Dated and signed
  20. 20. TTechnicalechnical FFileile  All CE marking directives require the manufacturer of the product to create a technical file which should contain the information required to show that the product properly complies with the requirements of the directives which apply to it.  It is important to understand that only the authorities given power to enforce the directives have a right to see the technical file. It does not need to be published or given to customers.  The Machinery Directive requires manufacturers based outside Europe to appoint someone within Europe to act as the contact point for their technical documents.  The purpose of the Technical File is to provide evidence for an enforcement authority that the product has correctly completed the assessment and attestation procedures of the relevant directive(s).
  21. 21. Penalties could lead to any of the following:  Shipments Stopped at Port  Fines  Products Removed From the Markets  No Further Sales Within the European Union  Imprisonment What happens if I don’t CE mark my product?
  22. 22. Typical InformationTypical Information in ain a TTechnicalechnical FFileile  Descriptive Report (include photos )  Product Safety Test Report  EMC Test Report  RoHS 2 Compliance Documentation  Operating Manual  Installation Instructions  Electrical Schematics  Mechanical Drawings  Bill of Materials  Component Data Sheets  CD containing copy of Declaration of Conformity Certificate and CE Mark  Declaration of Conformity Certificate Note: These are controlled documents and proprietary documents that should be part of your document control program
  23. 23. RAPEX Rapid Alert System for non-food products http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/safety/rapex/alerts/main/index.cfm PRODUCT ALERT PROGRAMS
  24. 24. �General Content • Details of manufacturer, name/address • Description of the product / Marking / EC declaration of conformity • Determination of the use (purpose) • Warning on remaining dangers and miss use Also > Information on - - - Transport, installation, assembly, putting into operation, training, operation, maintaining and repairing, dismantling, recycling, & if need be disposal **Please note: this is not a complete list of requirements THE INSTRUCTION MANUAL
  25. 25. MANUAL LANGUAGE REQUIREMENTS The Language shall be acceptable by the Country in which the equipment is to be installed for use The Documentation intended for use by Service personnel should be in English
  26. 26. Chinese Spanish English German French FIVE COMMON LANUAGES Cuidado avertir Warnung Caution  警告 , 告誡 ;
  27. 27. What are the Basics For an RFQ?  Identify the countries you wish to place the product  Draw a simple block diagram Device Or System For Evaluation 220VAC/50Hz/5A I/O in from PC (3m) 48VDC Motor Power (10m) I/O out to Actuator (15m)  List all electrical inputs & outputs and identify if they are power or I/O  Provide the maximum lengths for each input & output cable  Identify any fluid, gas or air requirements and pressures  Description of the product and where it is used 120psi air inputCourtesy Power Outlet 220VAC
  28. 28. What Do You Need to do to Prepare for Testing & Evaluation?  Provide all requested documentation by the date F2 Labs has requested.  Ensure that the product functions as close as possible to normal operation for a continuous period of time
  29. 29. Typical EMC Supporting Documentation Needs  Test Sample Set-Up Instructions  Operator/Installation Manual
  30. 30. Typical Safety Supporting Documentation Needs  Test Sample Set-Up Instructions  Operator/Installation/Maintenance Manual  Electrical Schematics and Wiring Diagrams  Mechanical Drawings and Block Diagrams  Drawings of all applied labels  Bill of Materials (electrical and mechanical)  Critical Component Data Sheets such as: Filters, Power Supplies, Transformers, etc.  Lasers – CDRH or IEC 60825 report
  31. 31. TheThe EMCEMC DIRECTIVEDIRECTIVE  The Electro-Magnetic Compatibility Directive applies to all electronic and electrical products that are manufactured  Compliance has been mandatory since January 1, 1996  Simply stated - in order to comply with this Directive the product must have an adequate level of immunity & shall not interfere with any other systems or products
  32. 32. EMCEMC is ais a natural conditionnatural condition that exists when electricalthat exists when electrical equipment is performing its designed functionsequipment is performing its designed functions withoutwithout ““Causing”Causing” (Emissions) or “(Emissions) or “sufferingsuffering” (Immunity) from” (Immunity) from unacceptableunacceptable degradation due to electromagnetic interferencedegradation due to electromagnetic interference toto oror fromfrom other equipmentother equipment BASICBASIC EElectro-lectro-MMagneticagnetic CCompatibilityompatibility
  33. 33. EMC (Electro-Magnetic Compatibility) 2 conditions must be satisfied: The device does not generate electromagnetic noise and does not malfunction due to extraneous noise EMI (Electro-Magnetic Interference) The device does not generate electromagnetic noise beyond established levels EMS (Electro-Magnetic Susceptibility) The device does not abnormally malfunction due to extraneous noise within the environment the device will be used EMCEMC -CONTINUED--CONTINUED-
  34. 34. ImmunityImmunity AKAAKA SusceptibilitySusceptibility ……a condition that exists when equipment continues to operate withina condition that exists when equipment continues to operate within acceptable limits of performanceacceptable limits of performance when exposed to interference inwhen exposed to interference in which the environment where it is usedwhich the environment where it is used >>>>For Example<<<<>>>>For Example<<<< Equipment may work fine in a home but may fail if it is placed inside aEquipment may work fine in a home but may fail if it is placed inside a machine shop. Why? Equipment is immune to themachine shop. Why? Equipment is immune to the low levellow level residentialresidential disturbances but not immune todisturbances but not immune to high levelhigh level industrial-strengthindustrial-strength disturbances.disturbances.
  35. 35. Emissions AKA Noise / Leaking Radio Frequency A condition that exists when your equipment suffers from unacceptable degradation of performance as a result of electromagnetic interference >> For Example <<>> For Example << You run the vacuum cleaner at your house while the television in on and the television screen gets staticky.
  36. 36. BASIC CONCEPTBASIC CONCEPT Electromagnetic Fields Exist Everywhere It is NORMAL There are two paths Radiated Airborne & Conducted Wires  
  37. 37. TYPICALTYPICAL EElectro-lectro-MMagneticagnetic CCompatibility Tesompatibility Teststs - Radiated Immunity - Harmonics - Conducted Immunity - Flicker - Surge - Radiated Emissions - ESD - Conducted Emissions - EFT - Voltage Dips & Interrupts IMMUNITY TESTS EMISSIONS TESTS
  38. 38. Radiated Immunity Evaluated by controlling a signal source and power levels to generate field levels over a defined set of frequencies
  39. 39. Radiated Immunity Simulation Consider the acceptable limits of performance for your device within the application of use
  40. 40.  Are you using shielded cabling  Is your enclosure shielded  Limit your “vent” openings in the enclosure  Use ferrites on cabling if needed  Make sure the connectors are grounded properly  Make sure the enclosure has a continuous ground  Use multi-layer PCBs where possible Radiated Immunity Design Tips
  41. 41. Conducted Immunity Evaluates the product’s ability to resist electrical signals that may be generated by the switching of inductive loads or contactors
  42. 42. Conducted Immunity Simulation Controlled Signal Source Consider the acceptable limits of performance for your device within the application of use Signal injection
  43. 43. Conducted Immunity Design Tips  Are you using shielded cabling  Is your enclosure shielded  Are there I/O line filters  Use ferrites on cabling if needed  Use multi-layer PCBs where possible  Are you using a power line filter
  44. 44. Surge Immunity This tests the equipment’s level of resistance or immunity to surges caused by over voltages from switching and lightning transients
  45. 45. Surge Immunity Simulation Controlled Pulse Source Consider the acceptable limits of performance for your device within the application of use  Pulse injection 
  46. 46.  Use pre-approved power supplies  Are there surge suppressors installed Surge Immunity Design Tips
  47. 47. ESD Immunity Electrostatic Discharges are applied to all relevant points while the apparatus is in operation. These are applied either by air or by touch (contact) 
  48. 48. ESD Immunity Simulation Consider the acceptable limits of performance for your device within the application of use  Electro-static discharge   
  49. 49. ESD Immunity Design Tips Make sure the enclosure has a common ground plane Make sure the AC mains has the 3rd wire Ground and is used  If a plastic enclosure, consider conductive coatings  With keyboards consider using a “back-plane” ground sheet
  50. 50. EFT (Electrical Fast Transients) Immunity EFT is a test process to demonstrate the equipment’s resistance to line transients through the connecting leads simulating relay and contact bounce
  51. 51. EFT Immunity Simulation Controlled Signal Source Consider the acceptable limits of performance for your device within the application of use Signal injection
  52. 52. EFT Immunity Design Tips  Make sure the enclosure has a common ground plane  Does your unit have a power line filter  Are there transient suppression components employed on the PCBA  Use shielded cables  Employ multi-layer PCBs  Use shielded cables
  53. 53. Voltage Dips & Interrupts Immunity Simulates voltage variations, and interruptions caused by short circuits or rapid changes in power. This may cause a sudden and extreme increase in current and a reduction in voltage
  54. 54. Voltage Dips/interrupts Immunity Simulation Controlled Voltage Source Consider the acceptable limits of performance for your device within the application of use Voltage injection
  55. 55. Voltage Dips/interrupts Immunity Design Tips  Use pre-approved power supplies
  56. 56. Harmonic Emissions Harmonics is a distortion of a normal sine wave. When a product produces distortion it does this at multiples of the power line frequency are generated.
  57. 57. Harmonic Emissions Simulation Signal Monitoring Device Signal monitoring Coming from the device
  58. 58. Harmonics Emissions Design Tips  Use power factor correction circuits  The current and voltage wave forms need to be sinusoidal
  59. 59. Flicker Emissions The term “flicker” applies to uncontrolled intermittent Emissions. It is also known as surge emission. For example: when the lights flicker
  60. 60. Flicker Emission Simulation Current Monitoring Device Current monitoring Coming from the device
  61. 61. Flicker Emissions Design Tips  Use pre-approved power supplies
  62. 62. Intentional RadiatorsIntentional Radiators are subject to rules (FCC,are subject to rules (FCC, RTTE, etc.) for preventing interference andRTTE, etc.) for preventing interference and maximizing the available spectrummaximizing the available spectrum All other electrical products areAll other electrical products are non-intentionalnon-intentional RadiatorsRadiators, such as electrical circuits, are not, such as electrical circuits, are not designed to generate RF energy, but do. As adesigned to generate RF energy, but do. As a result, theyresult, they couldcould interfere with other devicesinterfere with other devices RADIATEDRADIATED EMISSIONSEMISSIONS
  63. 63. Radiated Emissions Verifies that the product's RF emissions do not exceed a level that will interfere with the operation of other electrical devices in the operating environment
  64. 64. Radiated Emissions Simulation
  65. 65. Evaluation of Radiated Emissions at Your Location – Clearance Requirements
  66. 66.  Are you using shielded cabling  Is your enclosure shielded  Limit your “vent” openings in the enclosure  Use ferrites on cabling if needed  Make sure the connectors are grounded the port properly  Make sure the enclosure has a continuous ground  Use multi-layer PCBs where possible Radiated Emissions Design Tips
  67. 67. Conducted Emissions This is energy that is transmitted from an electrical device through the power cord and back into the electrical system
  68. 68. Conducted Emissions Simulation Signal Monitoring Device Signal monitoring Coming from the device
  69. 69.  Are you using shielded cabling  Is your enclosure shielded  Limit your “vent” openings in the enclosure  Use ferrites on cabling if needed  Make sure the connectors are grounded the port properly  Make sure the enclosure has a continuous ground  Use multi-layer PCBs where possible Conducted Emissions Design Tips
  70. 70. Have you Noticed Commonality in Design Tips?  Shielded cabling  Grounding  Filtering where necessary  Good workmanship practices  Using approved power supplies
  71. 71. Electrical Ports Inputs/Outputs Testing - Guidance Port Identity 3m and less >3m (9.8 ft.) >10m (32.8 ft.) >30m (98.4 ft.) Input AC Power Conducted Im. EFT Im. Surge Im. Dips/Interrupts Im. Output AC Power Conducted Im. EFT Im. Surge Im. Input and Output DC Power Conducted Im. Conducted Im EFT Im. Surge Im. (EN61326) Conducted Im. EFT Im. Surge Im. Signal I/O Conducted Im. EFT Im. Conducted Im. EFT Im. Surge Im. Functional Earth Conducted Im. Conducted Im, EFT Im. Cable length 1 meter = 3.2808399 feet
  72. 72. The productThe product must complymust comply with thewith the designdesign and testand test requirements of the properrequirements of the proper safety standardsafety standard Typical SafetyTypical Safety RequirementsRequirements All products placed on the market must be safe ! Even if there is no specific Directive or Standard that applies General Product Safety Directive 2001/95/EC
  73. 73. Primary Focus BeingPrimary Focus Being HUMAN & PROPERTY SAFETYHUMAN & PROPERTY SAFETY • High Energy LevelsHigh Energy Levels • Mechanical InjuryMechanical Injury • Fire HazardsFire Hazards • Electric ShockElectric Shock There areThere are 4 Basic Safety4 Basic Safety ConcernsConcerns
  74. 74.  Power InterfacePower Interface  Temperature Monitoring During TestsTemperature Monitoring During Tests  Leakage CurrentLeakage Current  Single Fault ConditionsSingle Fault Conditions  Leakage TestLeakage Test  Capacitor DischargeCapacitor Discharge  Grounding ImpedanceGrounding Impedance  Humidity ConditioningHumidity Conditioning  Dielectric Withstand testDielectric Withstand test  Mechanical TestsMechanical Tests  Durability of MarkingsDurability of Markings  Stability & Abnormal TestingStability & Abnormal Testing Typical Safety TestsTypical Safety Tests Determined byDetermined by thethe StandardsStandards Note For certain Directives there is A mandatory requirement for Risk Assessment to be performed.
  75. 75. Safety Design Tips For Product Enclosures  Top openings 4mm dia × 100mm long  Bottom openings 2mm dia max × 3mm spacing or wire mesh or baffle  Fasteners for covers/filters over hazardous live parts and mechanical hazards shall require a tool to remove  Stability: 10° tilt  Handles capable of withstanding force of four times the weight of the equipment
  76. 76. Safety Design Tips For Grounding, Wiring  User-accessible conductive parts shall be bonded to the Protective Earth (PE) ground  The integrity of the PE bonding shall be assured  Circuit/wiring connections shall not cause accessible parts to become live in normal or single fault condition
  77. 77. Safety Design Tips For Grounding, Wiring -CONTINUED-  PE soldered connection/s require mechanical securing in addition to solder  PE shall not be used for other purposes such as fixing constructional parts  Hinges and slides shall not be used for PE path  Exterior metal braids/foils of cables shall not be considered as PE bonding  PE conductors may be bare or insulated; clear or green/yellow for PE insulation color
  78. 78. Safety Design Tips - General  Circuit breakers for AC supply are not polarized in Europe  Accidental loosen of wiring and screws shall not cause accessible part to become live  Self-tapping screws and screws of insulating material should not be used for electrical connections  Edges, corners accessible to users shall be rounded or smoothed
  79. 79. Minimum Safety Design Tips Labels & Markings  Products shall bear voltage, current, power, and frequency ratings, model number and company identification markings  Input & Output ratings  Convenience outlets marked with voltage and current ratings  On/off symbols should be used for disconnect switches  Internal markings – AC terminals identified, PE symbol adjacent to ground, earth symbol
  80. 80. Safety Design Tips Flammability  Plastics for fire enclosures rated V-1  PCB rated V-1  V-2 for plastics enclosures that have other means to prevent the spread of fire; for example, a metal sub-enclosure  Plastics in I/O connectors with non-hazardous voltages, rated V-2  Connectors and plastic on which components are mounted, rated V-2  Plastic air filters, rated V-2 or HF-2  Plastic enclosures and decorative parts outside fire enclosures, rated HB  Plastic wire insulation, rated FV-1
  81. 81. RoHS Directive 2011/65/EU is now a CE Marking Directive What does that mean to you? It means that if you manufacture an electrical/electronic device, product, or equipment, you can no longer CE-mark your product in accordance with just the Machinery, EMC, Medical Device or Low Voltage Directive. Compliance with the RoHS Directive is now required before you can place the CE mark on your product. This should be included on your Declaration of Conformity.
  82. 82. Lead (0.1 %) Mercury (0.1 %) Cadmium (0.01 %) Hexavalent chromium (0.1 %) Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) (0.1 %) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) (0.1 %) Restricted substances and maximum concentration values tolerated by weight in homogeneous materials (Article 4(1)) Here are links to the ROHS Directive and a blue-guide that you should find useful. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:174:0088:0110:en:PDF http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/rohs_eee/pdf/faq.pdf
  83. 83. Household Appliances, IT and Telecommunications Equipment, Consumer Equipment, Lighting Equipment, Electrical and Electronic tools, Toys, Leisure and Sports Equipment. Products that must comply NOW
  84. 84. Medical Devices and Monitoring and Control Instruments – must comply by July 22nd, 2014 In vitro diagnostic medical devices – must comply by July 22nd, 2016 Industrial monitoring and control instruments – must comply by July 22nd, 2017 Extension to all EEE except for the ones explicitly excluded in Article 2.4 of the Directive - July 23rd, 2019 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:174:0088:0110:EN:PDF New Categories that were formerly excluded but are now included are:
  85. 85. There are Other requirements to Consider Such as WEEE REACH
  86. 86. WEEE European Directive 2012/19/EU (WEEE) The purpose of this Directive: • Avoiding of Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment • Reduction of Waste by Recycling and other Means • Improvement of the environmental with respect to the life cycle of materials/products • Collection, Treatment and Reuse of old Electrical- and Electronic materials • Responsibility for Treatment, Reuse and environmental correct
  87. 87. REACH REACH is a European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use. EU Directive EC 1907/2006 & deals with the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances. The new law entered into force on 1 June 2007. The new Regulation aims to improve the protection of human health and the environment http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/reach/index_en.htm
  88. 88. F2 Labs can assist you with your testing needs We offer a full range of compliance testing services. We are fully equipped to test and approve a wide range of products and equipment for organizational and governmental certifications. In addition, we offer consulting and educational services and on-site testing can be performed by request. With more than 20 years of experience in the worldwide market, F2 Laboratories can assist you through the certification process. We’re committed to providing our customers with exceptional customer service. Call 1-877-405-1580 for a quote today Or email sales@f2labs.com

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