An introduction to organisation and
Principle of Management
Why study management?
- The first reason for studying management is that we all have a
vested interest in improving the way organisations are managed.
- We interact with them everyday of our lives.
Does it frustrate you when you have to spend a
couple of hours in a Department of Motor
Vehicles office to get your driving license? Does it
surprise you when a major corporation that
everyone thought was thriving suddenly declares
Are you angered when you call an airline three
times and its representative quote you three
different prices for the same trip?
Why Study Management?
The second reason for studying management is
that once you graduate from college and begin
your career, you will either manage or be
Management also relates to other disciplines!
Why Study Management?
Universality of management
management is needed in all types and sizes of organisations
at all levels
in all organisational work areas
regardless of the country in which the organisation is located
Reality of Work
Manage or be managed
Is needed All type of organisation.All organisation areas.
All organisation level.
Profit ………… Non Profit
Bottom ………… Top
All size of organisation
Small ………… Large
• YOU are a manager of yourselves and your actions
• YOU have to plan, organise, lead and control your life
• changes in organisational life – emphasis on individual control &
responsibility – flatter & decentralised organisations – services
• take initiative in your own development – Life Long Learning (LLL)
• keep up to date with developments – skills and knowledge do not
Rewards and Challenge in
• organisational members can work
to their best ability
• opportunities to think
creatively, use imagination
• support, coach and nurture others
• work with variety of people
• recognition, status in organisation
• influencing organisational
• good remunerations (e.g. share
• Do hard work, tough, thankless
• often have to make do with limited
• have to deal with variety of people
• motivate people in chaotic and
• successfully blend knowledge, skills,
ambitions and experience of diverse
• success depends on other’s work
What is Organisation?
Is a systematic arrangement of people brought
together to accomplish some specific purpose.
EXAMPLE: college/ university
All organisations share three common
Goals, Structure, People
What is Organisation?
The distinct purpose of an organisation is typically
expressed in term of a goal or set of goals.
No purpose or goal can be achieved without people making
decisions to establish the purpose and performing a variety
of activities to make the goal a reality
All organisations develop a systematic structure that
defines and limits the behaviour of its member.
Developing structure may include eg:
Creating rules and regulations, forming work team,
writing job description
Therefore, organisations refers to an entity that has a
distinct purpose, has people or member and has a
Characteristics of Organisation
What is an organisation?
“A deliberate arrangement of
people to accomplish some
Who is Manager?
Managers work in an organisation but not everyone in
organisation is a manager.
Individual in an organisation who direct the activities
What titles do managers have in organisations?
First line managers (usually called supervisor/
team leader/ coaches/ unit coordinator)
Middle Managers (e.g: Department head, Dean,
Project Leader, Division Manager)
Top Managers (e.g: Vice President, President,
Chancellor, Managing Director, COO, CEO,
chairperson of the board)
Non Managerial Employees.
Who are managers?
organisational members who
told others what to do and how
to do it
First line Managers – Supervisors responsible
for directing the day-to-day activities of operative
Middle Managers – Individuals at level of
management between the first line manager and
Top Managers – Individuals who are responsible
for making decision about the direction of the
organisation and establishing policies that affect
all organisational members.
Who is Operative Employees?
Operatives are people who works directly on a
job or task and have no responsibility for
overseeing the work of others
E.g. individuals who process your course
registration in your college’s registrar’s office are
What is Management?
Is the process of getting the things done, effectively
and efficiently, through and with other people
Process here represent the primary activities that
Effectiveness and efficiency deal with what we are
doing and how we are doing it
Efficiency means doing the task correctly and refer to
the relationship between input and output. (efficient
use of those sources – money, people, equipment).
Management is concern with minimizing resource
Effectiveness means doing the right task. In
organisation, this translates into goal attainment
Management strives for Low resources waste &
High goal attainment.
Management is the process of coordinating work activities so that
they are completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people.
What Do Managers Do? – the
The Management Process- Planning, Organising,
Leading and Controlling (POLC)
Planning - includes defining goals, establishing
strategy and develop plans to coordinate activities.
Organising- includes determining what task are to be
done, who is going to do it, how the tasks are to be
grouped, who report to whom, where decisions to be
Leading – includes motivating employees, directing
the activities of others, selecting the most effective
communication channel, and resolving conflicts.
Controlling - the process of monitoring performance,
comparing it with goals and correcting any significant
21st January 2009Bachelor of Aviation Management18
• Determining what need
to be done.
• How it will be done.
• Who is to do it.
• Directing & motivating all
• Resolving conflicts.
• Monitoring activities.
• To ensure that they are
accomplished as planned.
Henry Fayol on Management Functions & Roles
• Defining goals.
• Establishing strategy.
• Developing sub-plan to
What is managerial roles?
Is a specific categories of managerial behaviour: often
grouped under three primary headings: interpersonal
relationships, transfer of information and decision
Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles
Found that the managers he studied engaged in
a large number of varied, unpatterned and short-
duration activities. There was little time for
reflective thinking because the managers
encountered constant interruptions.
Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for
defining what managers do on the basis of actual
managers on the job.
Mintzberg concluded that managers perform 10
different but highly interrelated roles (can be
grouped under three primary headings)
First level Manager. Middle Manager. Top Manager.
Distribution of Time per Function by Organisation Level
What Skills and Competencies Do
Successful Managers Posses?
There seems to be overall agreement that
effective managers must be proficient in four
1. Conceptual Skills
2. Interpersonal Skills
3. Technical Skills
4. Political Skills
Conceptual Skills - refer to the mental ability to
analyse and diagnose complex situation. They
help managers see how things fit together and
facilitate making good decisions.
Interpersonal Skills - is the ability to work with,
understand, mentor and motivate other people
(either individual or group)
Since managers get things done through other
people, they must have good interpersonal skills to
communicate, motivate and delegate.
Technical Skills – the abilities to apply
specialized knowledge or expertise. For top level
managers, these abilities tend to be related to
knowledge of the industry and a general
understanding of the organisation’s processes
For middle and lower level managers, they are
related to the specialised knowledge required in
the areas with which they work- finances, human
resources, IT, manufacturing, computer
system, law, marketing etc.
- Managers need political skills
- It is related to the ability to enhance one’s
position, build a power base and establish the
- Managers with good political skills tend to be
better at getting resources for their groups than
are managers with poor political skills, and they
also appear to receive higher evaluations and get
Conceptual Interpersonal Technical
Robert L. Katz on Management Skills.
How Does Management Relate to
Management does not exist in isolation
Management practices are directly influenced by
research and practices in such fields as
anthropology (learning about individuals and their
activities); economics (understanding allocation
and distribution of resources); philosophy
(developing values and ethics); political science
(understanding behavior of individual and groups
in a political setting); psychology (learning about
individual behaviour) and sociology
(understanding relationships among people)
Management – from Contingency
• Contingency Perspective
An approach that says;
– Organisations are different
– Faces different situations
– Requires different ways of managing
A system is a set of interrelated and
interdependent parts arranged in a manner that
produces a unified whole.
Close system - that are not influenced by or
do not interact with their environment. Open
and Closed Systems_ Encyclopedia of
Open system - that dynamically interact with
Bachelor of Aviation Management30
INPUT TRANSFORMATION OUTPUT
• Raw materials.
• Human resources.
• Employee work
• Technology &
• Products & services.
• Financial results.
• Human results.
Management an Open System
An organisation is…
A manager is …
Management is …
Efficiency refers to …
Effectiveness refers to …
Henry Fayol …
Planning involves …
Henry Mintzberg ten roles or behaviour..
Robert Katz three types of skill …
The system perspective …
The contingency perspective …
Why study management …
The value of studying
People in all walks of life have come to recognise
the important role that good management plays in
For those who aspire to managerial positions, the
study of management provides the body of
knowledge that will help them to be effective
For those who do not plan on careers as
managers, the study of management can give
them considerable insight into way their bosses
behave and into the internal activities of
Assignment – week 2 (individual submission)
Due date: 5th Feb 2013
three levels of