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Week 2 new

  1. 1. An introduction to organisation and management. Principle of Management Week 2
  2. 2. Why study management? - The first reason for studying management is that we all have a vested interest in improving the way organisations are managed. WHY? Because - We interact with them everyday of our lives.  Does it frustrate you when you have to spend a couple of hours in a Department of Motor Vehicles office to get your driving license? Does it surprise you when a major corporation that everyone thought was thriving suddenly declares bankruptcy?  Are you angered when you call an airline three times and its representative quote you three different prices for the same trip?
  3. 3. Why Study Management?  The second reason for studying management is that once you graduate from college and begin your career, you will either manage or be managed!  Management also relates to other disciplines! HOW?
  4. 4. Why Study Management? Universality of management  management is needed in all types and sizes of organisations  at all levels  in all organisational work areas  regardless of the country in which the organisation is located Reality of Work  Manage or be managed
  5. 5. 5 Management Is needed All type of organisation.All organisation areas. All organisation level. Profit ………… Non Profit Bottom ………… Top All size of organisation Small ………… Large
  6. 6. Managing Yourself • YOU are a manager of yourselves and your actions • YOU have to plan, organise, lead and control your life • changes in organisational life – emphasis on individual control & responsibility – flatter & decentralised organisations – services contract out • take initiative in your own development – Life Long Learning (LLL) • keep up to date with developments – skills and knowledge do not become obsolete
  7. 7. Rewards and Challenge in Management Rewards • organisational members can work to their best ability • opportunities to think creatively, use imagination • support, coach and nurture others • work with variety of people • recognition, status in organisation & community • influencing organisational outcomes • good remunerations (e.g. share options Challenges • Do hard work, tough, thankless job • often have to make do with limited resources • have to deal with variety of people • motivate people in chaotic and uncertain situations • successfully blend knowledge, skills, ambitions and experience of diverse work group • success depends on other’s work performance
  8. 8. What is Organisation?  Is a systematic arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some specific purpose. EXAMPLE: college/ university  All organisations share three common characteristics: Goals, Structure, People
  9. 9. What is Organisation?  The distinct purpose of an organisation is typically expressed in term of a goal or set of goals.  No purpose or goal can be achieved without people making decisions to establish the purpose and performing a variety of activities to make the goal a reality  All organisations develop a systematic structure that defines and limits the behaviour of its member.  Developing structure may include eg: Creating rules and regulations, forming work team, writing job description Therefore, organisations refers to an entity that has a distinct purpose, has people or member and has a systematic structure
  10. 10. 10 Distinct Purpose People Deliberate Structure Characteristics of Organisation What is an organisation? “A deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific goals”
  11. 11. Who is Manager?  Managers work in an organisation but not everyone in organisation is a manager.  Individual in an organisation who direct the activities of others.  What titles do managers have in organisations?  First line managers (usually called supervisor/ team leader/ coaches/ unit coordinator)  Middle Managers (e.g: Department head, Dean, Project Leader, Division Manager)  Top Managers (e.g: Vice President, President, Chancellor, Managing Director, COO, CEO, chairperson of the board)
  12. 12. 12 Organisational Levels Non Managerial Employees. Who are managers? organisational members who told others what to do and how to do it
  13. 13. Managers  First line Managers – Supervisors responsible for directing the day-to-day activities of operative employees.  Middle Managers – Individuals at level of management between the first line manager and top management  Top Managers – Individuals who are responsible for making decision about the direction of the organisation and establishing policies that affect all organisational members.
  14. 14. Who is Operative Employees?  Operatives are people who works directly on a job or task and have no responsibility for overseeing the work of others  E.g. individuals who process your course registration in your college’s registrar’s office are all operatives.
  15. 15. What is Management?  Is the process of getting the things done, effectively and efficiently, through and with other people  Process here represent the primary activities that managers perform.  Effectiveness and efficiency deal with what we are doing and how we are doing it  Efficiency means doing the task correctly and refer to the relationship between input and output. (efficient use of those sources – money, people, equipment). Management is concern with minimizing resource costs.  Effectiveness means doing the right task. In organisation, this translates into goal attainment
  16. 16. 16 Management strives for Low resources waste & High goal attainment. Efficiency Effectiveness Resources usage: Low waste. Goal attainment: High attainment. Management Aspiration. Management is the process of coordinating work activities so that they are completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people.
  17. 17. What Do Managers Do? – the management process  The Management Process- Planning, Organising, Leading and Controlling (POLC)  Planning - includes defining goals, establishing strategy and develop plans to coordinate activities.  Organising- includes determining what task are to be done, who is going to do it, how the tasks are to be grouped, who report to whom, where decisions to be made.  Leading – includes motivating employees, directing the activities of others, selecting the most effective communication channel, and resolving conflicts.  Controlling - the process of monitoring performance, comparing it with goals and correcting any significant deviations.
  18. 18. 21st January 2009Bachelor of Aviation Management18 ControllingLeadingOrganisingPlanning • Determining what need to be done. • How it will be done. • Who is to do it. • Directing & motivating all Involved parties. • Resolving conflicts. • Monitoring activities. • To ensure that they are accomplished as planned. Henry Fayol on Management Functions & Roles Achieving the Organisation Stated Purpose • Defining goals. • Establishing strategy. • Developing sub-plan to coordinate activities.
  19. 19. What is managerial roles?  Is a specific categories of managerial behaviour: often grouped under three primary headings: interpersonal relationships, transfer of information and decision making. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles  Found that the managers he studied engaged in a large number of varied, unpatterned and short- duration activities. There was little time for reflective thinking because the managers encountered constant interruptions.  Mintzberg provided a categorization scheme for defining what managers do on the basis of actual managers on the job.  Mintzberg concluded that managers perform 10 different but highly interrelated roles (can be grouped under three primary headings)
  20. 20. 20 MINTZBERG’S Managerial Roles. MINTZBERG’S managerial roles Interpersonal • Figurehead • Leader • Liaison Informational • Monitor • Disseminator • Spokesperson Decisional • Entrepreneur • Disturbance handler • Resource allocator • Negotiator
  21. 21. 21 First level Manager. Middle Manager. Top Manager. PlanningPlanning Planning Organising Organising Organising Leading Leading Leading Distribution of Time per Function by Organisation Level
  22. 22. What Skills and Competencies Do Successful Managers Posses?  There seems to be overall agreement that effective managers must be proficient in four general skills. 1. Conceptual Skills 2. Interpersonal Skills 3. Technical Skills 4. Political Skills
  23. 23. Skills  Conceptual Skills - refer to the mental ability to analyse and diagnose complex situation. They help managers see how things fit together and facilitate making good decisions.  Interpersonal Skills - is the ability to work with, understand, mentor and motivate other people (either individual or group) Since managers get things done through other people, they must have good interpersonal skills to communicate, motivate and delegate.
  24. 24. Skills  Technical Skills – the abilities to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. For top level managers, these abilities tend to be related to knowledge of the industry and a general understanding of the organisation’s processes and products.  For middle and lower level managers, they are related to the specialised knowledge required in the areas with which they work- finances, human resources, IT, manufacturing, computer system, law, marketing etc.
  25. 25. Skills  Political Skills - Managers need political skills - It is related to the ability to enhance one’s position, build a power base and establish the right connection - Managers with good political skills tend to be better at getting resources for their groups than are managers with poor political skills, and they also appear to receive higher evaluations and get more promotions.
  26. 26. 26 Top Management Middle Management Lower Level Management Conceptual Interpersonal Technical Robert L. Katz on Management Skills.
  27. 27. How Does Management Relate to Other Disciplines  Management does not exist in isolation  Management practices are directly influenced by research and practices in such fields as anthropology (learning about individuals and their activities); economics (understanding allocation and distribution of resources); philosophy (developing values and ethics); political science (understanding behavior of individual and groups in a political setting); psychology (learning about individual behaviour) and sociology (understanding relationships among people)
  28. 28. Management – from Contingency Perspective • Contingency Perspective An approach that says; – Organisations are different – Faces different situations – Requires different ways of managing
  29. 29. Managing Systems Managing Systems: A system is a set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole. Close system - that are not influenced by or do not interact with their environment. Open and Closed Systems_ Encyclopedia of Management.pdf Open system - that dynamically interact with the environment.
  30. 30. Bachelor of Aviation Management30 INPUT TRANSFORMATION OUTPUT • Raw materials. • Human resources. • Capital. • Technology. • Information. • Employee work activities. • Management activities. • Technology & Operation methods. • Products & services. • Financial results. • Information. • Human results. Environment FEEDBACK Management an Open System Environment
  31. 31. Summary  An organisation is…  A manager is …  Management is …  Efficiency refers to …  Effectiveness refers to …  Henry Fayol …  Planning involves …  Henry Mintzberg ten roles or behaviour..  Robert Katz three types of skill …  The system perspective …  The contingency perspective …  Why study management …
  32. 32. The value of studying management  People in all walks of life have come to recognise the important role that good management plays in our society.  For those who aspire to managerial positions, the study of management provides the body of knowledge that will help them to be effective managers.  For those who do not plan on careers as managers, the study of management can give them considerable insight into way their bosses behave and into the internal activities of organisations.
  33. 33. Assignment – week 2 (individual submission) Due date: 5th Feb 2013  Classify the three levels of managers and identify the primary responsibility of each group.  Summarise the essential roles performed by managers