Characteristics of Plants
1. Nonvascular Plants – do not have
roots, stems or leaves
a. NO Vascular tissue!
1. Vascular Plants – contain vascular
tissue that transport food and water
through the plant
A. nonvascular and
1. Simple root less plants
4. Leaf like structures
5. rhizoids – root like structures
6. Examples: moss and liverworts (the
Importance of mosses:
1. They are called the pioneer
species – grow in new areas
a. Are the first plants to grow back
after a forest fire and volcanic
b. They break down rocks and put
nutrients into the earth so other
plants can grow.
Moss life cycle – alternation of
1. Sporophyte produce spores by meisosis
in the capsule.
2. The spore capsule releases spores that
produce gametophytes in the soil.
3. Gametophyte makes both sperm and
4. Sperm fertilize the egg = zygote
5. Zygote divides by mitosis and creates a
B. seedless vascular
1. Vascular tissue to transport materials
2. No seeds, still have spores
3. Bigger and thicker than moss
4. Examples: horsetails and ferns
1. Ferns have a true
stems, roots, and
2. Leaf part called a
3. Produce spores
4. Biggest group of
Life cycle of ferns – alternation of
1. Spore forms a Gametophyte called a prothallius.
2. Prothallius forms gametes (sperm and egg)
3. Sperm is released and swim to female reproductive structures =
4. Zygote forms a new sporophyte by mitosis
5. Sporophyte (fern) produces spores by meioisis
Importance of Ferns
1. Peat bogs – spongy, wet ground that is
composed mainly of dead plants who
can’t decay because of lack of oxygen
a. Preserved animals and plants
1. Peat – used a fuel
1. The rootlike filaments that hold moss plants
in place are called ___________.
2. The continual cycle that alternates between
the sporophyte and gametophyte of the
moss plant is called ___________.
3. Horse tails and ferns are considered to be
__________ vascular plants.
4. The leaf of a fern is called a ___________.