Managing Conflicts
in
Departments, Cross-Functional Teams,
Committees and Boards.
Dr. Elijah Ezendu
FIMC, FCCM, FIIAN, FBD...
“Conflict management is the process of limiting
the negative aspects of conflict while increasing
the positive aspects of ...
“Conflict is a struggle or contest between people
with opposing needs, ideas, beliefs, values, or
goals.”
- Emily Pia and ...
Elements of Conflict
• Power
• Norms
• Interests
• Perceived Worth
• Organizational Demands
• Sociocultural Alignment
The Process of Conflict
Latent Conflict
Perceived Conflict
Felt Conflict
Manifest Conflict
Conflict Aftermath
Latent Conflict
This is the stage in which there are differences
between individuals or groups.
The differences are potent...
LATENT CONFLICT
Expectations
Capabilities
Interests
Wills
Social Distances
Awareness
Meanings, Values, Norms,
Status, Clas...
Perceived Conflict
At this point, the involved parties have become
reasonably aware of looming conflict as a result
of ten...
Felt Conflict
At this stage various parties experience
indicators of emotional surge opposing their
interests, giving rise...
Manifest Conflict
Conflict becomes manifest through
transformation of tension into clear
confrontation, verbal and physica...
Conflict Aftermath
At this stage the feasibility of cooperation
between parties involved become vivid through
clear action...
Sources of Workplace Conflict
• Conflicting Interest
• Competition for Scarce Resources
• Personal Identity Stability
• La...
Exercise
List sources of conflict in your team.
…………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………...
Types of General Conflicts
• Interest-Based Conflict
• Process-Based Conflict
• Structure-Based Conflict
• Data-Based Conf...
Common Types of Team Conflicts
• Process-Based Conflict
• Relationship-Based Conflict
• Task-Based Conflict
Process-Based Conflict
This stems from work systems, work-flow and
obligations.
Key Problem Areas (KPA):
•Commencement of ...
Forms of Processes
Cross-FunctionalProcess
Intra-FunctionalProcess
Intra-JobProcess
Relationship-Based Conflict
This is a conflict fuelled by emotional
sentiments.
List Examples:……………..........................
Task-Based Conflict
This is a conflict driven by core issues about
form, structure, dimensions, performance
metrics and ow...
Conflicts in Terms of Usefulness
Constructive Arguments Based on
Alternatives for Performance Improvement
Unwholesome Argu...
Depiction of Conflict Phases Based on
Multiple Schools of Thoughts
Intensity
Time
Latent Conflict
Conflict Emergence
Confl...
Exercise
List the effects of Enmity Agitation Cutback on
De-escalation/Negotiation and Tentative
Settlement Phases.
………………...
Strategies for Managing Conflicts
• Applicable Styles
• Improving Organizational Practices
• Special Roles and Structure
•...
5 Applicable Styles in Conflict Management
• Competition
• Collaboration
• Compromise
• Avoidance
• Accommodation
Focus Areas for Improving Organizational
Practices as Conflict Management Strategy
• Job Rotation
• Corporate Culture Real...
Special Roles and Structure
Empowerment of Managers to own their
internal processes, lead effectual transformation
towards...
Confrontation Techniques
Notable Areas of Differences in Team Members
• Age
• Race
• Gender
• Communication Flair
• Learning Flair
• Thinking Flair...
The primary school of excellence in conflict
management consist of mindset & understanding
for identification and acceptan...
From Diversity Appreciation to High Performing Organisation
Functions of Nonverbal
Communication
 Accent: Punctuating or drawing attention to a verbal message
 Complement: Expressi...
Examples of Nonverbal Cues
 Accent: Touching someone’s shoulder in empathy
 Compliment: Smiling in approval or frowning ...
Types of Nonverbal Cues
1. Facial expression
2. Eye behaviour
3. Posture
4. Gesture
5. Proxemics
6. Touch
7. Personal appe...
Real Nonverbal Cues
 Facial Expression: Happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger
and disgust
 Eye Behaviour-Functions: ...
Common Signs of Conflict in Non-Verbal Cues
i. New body movements
ii. Touching of self/fidgeting
iii. Hesitation
iv. Blink...
Common Signs of Conflict in General Behaviour
• Rejection
• Incommunicado
• Nastiness
• Vindictiveness
• Combativeness
• I...
Turner & Weed Profiling of
Communication (Response) Styles in
Conflict Management
• Addressers:
- First Steppers
- Confron...
“In organized group situations, the art of good
communication helps build trust and respect.
It fosters a positive learnin...
“Poor Communication is a direct result of
ignorance…….people do not know what
to say, when to say it, how to say it, or to...
General Problems in
Organisational Communication
• Bias
• Halo Effect
• Devil’s Horn
• Ambiguity
• Chain of command
• Size...
Communication competence in conflict
management highlights effective listening skills
and appropriate use of the three
com...
Types of Impact
Dressing
Eye contact
Grooming
Facial expression
Posture
Gestures
Elements of Visual Impact
 Pronunciation: Caliber of intonation
 Modulation: Coordination of sound pitch
and clarity
 Projection: Loudness
 Rapi...
 Positive words
 Negative words
Elements of Content Impact
Communication Competence & Conflict Resolution
Competence are prerequisites for Conflict
Management Competence.
Communicat...
Conflict Management Competence & Great
Leadership Quotient are prerequisites for
Leadership Competence.
Conflict Managemen...
Role Play Session
Sub-Teams Contest for Overarching Goal of The
Full Team. Thereafter, each Sub-Team Debriefs.
Dr Elijah Ezendu is Award-Winning Business Expert & Certified Management Consultant with expertise
in Interim Management, ...
Thank You
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Managing Conflicts in Departments, Cross-Functional Teams, Committees and Boards.

  1. 1. Managing Conflicts in Departments, Cross-Functional Teams, Committees and Boards. Dr. Elijah Ezendu FIMC, FCCM, FIIAN, FBDI, FAAFM, FSSM, MIMIS, MIAP, MITD, ACIArb, ACIPM, PhD, DocM, MBA, CWM, CBDA, CMA, MPM, PME, CSOL, CCIP, CMC, CMgr
  2. 2. “Conflict management is the process of limiting the negative aspects of conflict while increasing the positive aspects of conflict. The aim of conflict management is to enhance learning and group outcomes, including effectiveness or performance in organizational setting.” - Afzalur Rahim
  3. 3. “Conflict is a struggle or contest between people with opposing needs, ideas, beliefs, values, or goals.” - Emily Pia and Thomas Diez, Conflict and Human Rights
  4. 4. Elements of Conflict • Power • Norms • Interests • Perceived Worth • Organizational Demands • Sociocultural Alignment
  5. 5. The Process of Conflict Latent Conflict Perceived Conflict Felt Conflict Manifest Conflict Conflict Aftermath
  6. 6. Latent Conflict This is the stage in which there are differences between individuals or groups. The differences are potential areas of conflicts.
  7. 7. LATENT CONFLICT Expectations Capabilities Interests Wills Social Distances Awareness Meanings, Values, Norms, Status, Class SUB-PHASES TRANSFORMERS SITUATION OF CONFLICT STRUCTURE OF CONFLICT SOCIOCULTURAL SPACE STIMULATED NEEDS CONTACT, COMMUNICATION, PROPAGANDA, INDOCTRINATION ACCULTURATION AND EXPERIENCE Source: R.J. Rummel, Understanding Conflict and War
  8. 8. Perceived Conflict At this point, the involved parties have become reasonably aware of looming conflict as a result of tendency to obstruct goals.
  9. 9. Felt Conflict At this stage various parties experience indicators of emotional surge opposing their interests, giving rise to discomforting pressure for goal assurance.
  10. 10. Manifest Conflict Conflict becomes manifest through transformation of tension into clear confrontation, verbal and physical challenge, antagonism, indifference, submission with deep- seated reservation and voluntary withdrawal.
  11. 11. Conflict Aftermath At this stage the feasibility of cooperation between parties involved become vivid through clear action paths. Where the observed conflict had been successfully managed, then relative harmony shall characterize their activities. If the observed conflict was suppressed, then point of contention could be stretched beyond elastic strength of their relationship to a breaking point.
  12. 12. Sources of Workplace Conflict • Conflicting Interest • Competition for Scarce Resources • Personal Identity Stability • Lack of Cooperation • Perceived Excessive Dependence on a Person or Bloc • Mafia War • Unfounded Rules • Sociocognitive Limitations • Codependent Tasks • Fight for Dignity • Fight for Values • Animosity • Incompatible Personalities • Decision Inequity • Negative Effect of Consensus in Decision-Making • Expectations • Blurry Job Description • Communication Barrier • Previous Conflict Baseline • Bandwagon Syndrome
  13. 13. Exercise List sources of conflict in your team. ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………
  14. 14. Types of General Conflicts • Interest-Based Conflict • Process-Based Conflict • Structure-Based Conflict • Data-Based Conflict • Value-Based Conflict • Relationship-Based Conflict • Task-Based Conflict
  15. 15. Common Types of Team Conflicts • Process-Based Conflict • Relationship-Based Conflict • Task-Based Conflict
  16. 16. Process-Based Conflict This stems from work systems, work-flow and obligations. Key Problem Areas (KPA): •Commencement of Work •Termination of Work •Definitive Work Method •Process Identity •Ownership of Process •Ownership of Sub-Processes •Dissonance in Identity of Cross-Functional & Functional Responsibilities
  17. 17. Forms of Processes Cross-FunctionalProcess Intra-FunctionalProcess Intra-JobProcess
  18. 18. Relationship-Based Conflict This is a conflict fuelled by emotional sentiments. List Examples:……………..................................... ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………..
  19. 19. Task-Based Conflict This is a conflict driven by core issues about form, structure, dimensions, performance metrics and ownership of task. List Examples:…………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………..
  20. 20. Conflicts in Terms of Usefulness Constructive Arguments Based on Alternatives for Performance Improvement Unwholesome Arguments Based on Personal or Group Differences & Idiosyncrasies
  21. 21. Depiction of Conflict Phases Based on Multiple Schools of Thoughts Intensity Time Latent Conflict Conflict Emergence Conflict Escalation Failed Peacemaking Efforts Institutionalization of Conflict Exacerbation of Violence (Hurting) Stalemate Complex Emergency Enmity Agitation Cutback De-escalation/ Negotiation Tentative Settlement Post-Settlement Peace Building Experimental Peace
  22. 22. Exercise List the effects of Enmity Agitation Cutback on De-escalation/Negotiation and Tentative Settlement Phases. ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………
  23. 23. Strategies for Managing Conflicts • Applicable Styles • Improving Organizational Practices • Special Roles and Structure • Confrontation Techniques
  24. 24. 5 Applicable Styles in Conflict Management • Competition • Collaboration • Compromise • Avoidance • Accommodation
  25. 25. Focus Areas for Improving Organizational Practices as Conflict Management Strategy • Job Rotation • Corporate Culture Realignment • Internal Communication Assessment and Repositioning • Organizational Restructuring • Corporate Authority and Power Restructuring • Organisation-Wide Job Redesign • Improving Clarity of Structural Positioning and Inter-Job Relationships • Performance and Reward Realignment • Employee-Employee Social Value Optimization • Zero Tolerance Against Discrimination, Glass Ceiling & Antisocial Behaviours • Unbiased Central Budgetary Control System • Effective Team Structuring • Development of Workable Policies, Procedures and Rules • Establishment of Internal Dispute Resolution Model
  26. 26. Special Roles and Structure Empowerment of Managers to own their internal processes, lead effectual transformation towards set goals, take responsibility for compliance, and be integrators that ensure harmony. Sometimes, a particular manager can be placed to conduct critical review and ensure compliance during meetings.
  27. 27. Confrontation Techniques
  28. 28. Notable Areas of Differences in Team Members • Age • Race • Gender • Communication Flair • Learning Flair • Thinking Flair • Financial Background • Educational Background • Professional Affiliation • Ethnicity • Physical Ability • Work Experience • Job Function • Management Status • Work Location • Marital Status • Family Status • Religious Beliefs • Political Beliefs • Languages
  29. 29. The primary school of excellence in conflict management consist of mindset & understanding for identification and acceptance of differences.
  30. 30. From Diversity Appreciation to High Performing Organisation
  31. 31. Functions of Nonverbal Communication  Accent: Punctuating or drawing attention to a verbal message  Complement: Expressions/gestures that support but could not replace verbal message  Contradict: Expressions or gestures that convey meaning opposite to that of verbal message  Regulate: Expressions or gestures that control the pace or flow of communication  Repeat: A gesture or expression that can be used alone to send the same meaning as verbal message  Substitute: A nonverbal cue that replaces verbal message
  32. 32. Examples of Nonverbal Cues  Accent: Touching someone’s shoulder in empathy  Compliment: Smiling in approval or frowning with disdain  Contradict: Reading paper while saying “I am listening”  Regulate: Looking confused by too much information  Repeat: A stern look or pointing along with a verbal command  Substitute: Nods and shakes of the head
  33. 33. Types of Nonverbal Cues 1. Facial expression 2. Eye behaviour 3. Posture 4. Gesture 5. Proxemics 6. Touch 7. Personal appearance 8. Vocal features of speech
  34. 34. Real Nonverbal Cues  Facial Expression: Happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger and disgust  Eye Behaviour-Functions: Regulatory, monitoring, cognitive and expressive  Posture: Indicative of attention, involvement, relative status and rapport  Gestures: Speech related and independent  Proxemics: Use space  Touch: ‘of self’ indicates emotion, and ‘of others’ indicates relationship  Personal Experience: Indicators of personality, values and lifestyle  Vocal Features of Speech: Tone, stress, accent, loudness and rate of speech
  35. 35. Common Signs of Conflict in Non-Verbal Cues i. New body movements ii. Touching of self/fidgeting iii. Hesitation iv. Blinking, eye shifting and dilation of pupils v. Lack of spontaneity vi. Speech errors vii. High vocal pitch viii. Negativity ix. Bulging eyes x. Severe Frown
  36. 36. Common Signs of Conflict in General Behaviour • Rejection • Incommunicado • Nastiness • Vindictiveness • Combativeness • Indignation • Disrespectfulness • Animosity
  37. 37. Turner & Weed Profiling of Communication (Response) Styles in Conflict Management • Addressers: - First Steppers - Confronters • Concealers: - Feeling-Swallowers - Subject-Changers - Avoiders • Attackers: - Up-Front Attackers - Behind-The-Back Attackers
  38. 38. “In organized group situations, the art of good communication helps build trust and respect. It fosters a positive learning environment and can set the stage for the group to achieve its identified mission, vision, and goals. In any group setting, members may share a common interest and commitment, yet also may see things from a variety of perspectives. Effective communication is one means for a group of diverse individuals to share ideas, construct solutions, and make appropriate decisions.” - Karla Trautman, Effective Group Communication
  39. 39. “Poor Communication is a direct result of ignorance…….people do not know what to say, when to say it, how to say it, or to whom to say it.” - Peter Drucker
  40. 40. General Problems in Organisational Communication • Bias • Halo Effect • Devil’s Horn • Ambiguity • Chain of command • Size • Technical Content • Emotional Interference • Personal limitations • Human nature • Conflict of Interest • Level of Knowledge • Power • Inadequate Feedback • Cultural Disparity • Hierarchy • Lack of Empathy • Quantity of Information • Language • Lack of Confidence • Inappropriate Medium
  41. 41. Communication competence in conflict management highlights effective listening skills and appropriate use of the three communication impacts to build bridges for feasible connectivity.
  42. 42. Types of Impact
  43. 43. Dressing Eye contact Grooming Facial expression Posture Gestures Elements of Visual Impact
  44. 44.  Pronunciation: Caliber of intonation  Modulation: Coordination of sound pitch and clarity  Projection: Loudness  Rapidity: Speed of speech  Repetition: Saying same again  Articulation: Coordination of words  Enunciation: Level of Emphasis on syllable Elements of Vocal Impact
  45. 45.  Positive words  Negative words Elements of Content Impact
  46. 46. Communication Competence & Conflict Resolution Competence are prerequisites for Conflict Management Competence. Communication Competence Conflict Resolution Competence Conflict Management Competent Conflict Averse Filling Capacity Gap
  47. 47. Conflict Management Competence & Great Leadership Quotient are prerequisites for Leadership Competence. Conflict Management Competence Leadership Quotient Leadership Competent Leadership Incompetent Filling Capacity Gap
  48. 48. Role Play Session Sub-Teams Contest for Overarching Goal of The Full Team. Thereafter, each Sub-Team Debriefs.
  49. 49. Dr Elijah Ezendu is Award-Winning Business Expert & Certified Management Consultant with expertise in Interim Management, Strategy, Competitive Intelligence, Transformation, Restructuring, Turnaround Management, Business Development, Marketing, Project & Cost Management, Leadership, HR, CSR, e- Business & Software Architecture. He had functioned as Founder, Initiative for Sustainable Business Equity; Chairman of Board, Charisma Broadcast Film Academy; Group Chief Operating Officer, Idova Group; CEO, Rubiini (UAE); Special Advisor, RTEAN; Director, MMNA Investments; Chair, Int’l Board of GCC Business Council (UAE); Senior Partner, Shevach Consulting; Chairman (Certification & Training), Coordinator (Board of Fellows), Lead Assessor & Governing Council Member, Institute of Management Consultants, Nigeria; Lead Resource, Centre for Competitive Intelligence Development; Lead Consultant/ Partner, JK Michaels; Turnaround Project Director, Consolidated Business Holdings Limited; Technical Director, Gestalt; Chief Operating Officer, Rohan Group; Executive Director (Various Roles), Fortuna, Gambia & Malta; Chief Advisor/ Partner, D & E; Vice Chairman of Board, Refined Shipping; Director of Programmes & Governing Council Member, Institute of Business Development, Nigeria; Member of TDD Committee, International Association of Software Architects, USA; Member of Strategic Planning and Implementation Committee, Chartered Institute of Personnel Management of Nigeria; Country Manager (Nigeria) & Adjunct Faculty (MBA Programme), Regent Business School, South Africa; Adjunct Faculty (MBA Programme), Ladoke Akintola University of Technology; Editor-in-Chief, Cost Management Journal; Council Member, Institute of Internal Auditors of Nigeria; Member, Board of Directors (Several Organizations). He holds Doctoral Degree in Management, Master of Business Administration and Fellow of Professional Institutes in North America, UK & Nigeria. He is Innovator of Corporate Investment Structure Based on Financials and Intangibles, for valuation highlighting intangible contributions of host communities and ecological environment: A model celebrated globally as remedy for unmitigated depreciation of ecological capital and developmental deprivation of host communities. He had served as Examiner to Professional Institutes and Universities. He had been a member of Guild of Soundtrack Producers of Nigeria. He's an author and extensively featured speaker.
  50. 50. Thank You

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