“All progress requires change. But not all change
- John Wooden
• Unfreeze the status quo
• Movement from current level to a new
• Refreeze the new values to achieve stability in
Lippit, Watson and Westley Model
1. Diagnose the problem.
2. Assess the motivation and capacity for change.
3. Assess the resources and motivation of the change agent. This includes
the change agent’s commitment to change, power, and stamina.
4. Choose progressive change objects. In this step, action plans are
developed and strategies are established.
5. The role of the change agents should be selected and clearly
understood by all parties so that expectations are clear. Examples of
roles are: cheerleader, facilitator, and expert.
6. Maintain the change. Communication, feedback, and group
coordination are essential elements in this step of the change process.
7. Gradually terminate from the helping relationship. The change agent
should gradually withdraw from their role over time. This will occur
when the change becomes part of the organizational culture
Prochaska and DiClemente Model
John Kotter’s 8 Steps Process
1. Increase Urgency: Scan market, identify and review crisis/opportunities, and
prove necessity of change.
2. Build the Guiding Team: Select and assemble a group with the right power
for effecting change and move them to function as change leadership team.
3. Get the Vision: Develop vision and strategies for the change programme.
4. Communicate for Buy-in: Use stories for building alignment and
engagement, communicate vision and strategies as simple as possible, and
teach new behaviours.
5. Empowering Action: Eliminate obstacles to change and modify systems and
structures that oppose the new vision.
6. Create Short Term Wins: Plan and achieve visible performance
improvements, then provide recognition and reward for people involved in
7. Do Not Let Up: Continue performance improvements as well as recognition
and rewards, then reinforce behaviours that generated improvements.
8. Make Change Stick: Articulate connections between new behaviours and
ADKAR Change Model
• Awareness of the need for change
• Desire to make the change happen
• Knowledge about how to change
• Ability to implement new skills and behaviours
• Reinforcement to retain the change once it
has been made
ADKAR Change Model in Action
Concept and Design
Awareness Desire Knowledge Ability Reinforcement
Phases of Change for Employees
Apply ADKAR change model on a simple change project involving
introduction of process enhancement software in your department.
1.Awareness: List why the change is compulsory and rate awareness of
members of the department on a scale of 1-5.
2.Desire: List good or bad factors that stimulate desire to make change
happen and rate them on a scale of 1-5.
3.Knowledge: List the competence/knowledge and skills required for
implementing the change and rate every member of the department with
regards to possessing stated requirements on a scale of 1-5.
4.Ability: Assess every member of department on ability to perform or act
on the afore-stated knowledge and rate them using a scale of 1-5.
5.Reinforcement: List the reinforcements that will stimulate retention of
the change and rate the reinforcements on a scale of 1-5.
Richard Beckhard Change Model
• Determining the need for change
• Articulating a desired future
• Assessing the present and what needs to be
changed in order to move to the desired
• Getting to the desired future by managing the
Beckhard’s Transition Model
• Can be Controlled
• Roles are Understood
• Letting go of the old
• Taking on the new
• Changes everywhere
• Feelings of loss,
• Unfamiliar, risky
• Controls not Understood
• New Roles
“A change can work only if the people affected
by it can get through the transition it causes
- William Bridges
William Bridges Change Model
• Ending, Losing, Letting Go
• The Neutral Zone
• The New Beginning
Bridges Transition Model
Similarity and Difference between
Bridges and Lewin’s Model
• Similarity: They are three step processes from
commencement through a mid point to the
• Difference: Bridges model focus on
stimulating people to discover, accept and
embrace their new identities in the new
situation while Lewin’s model provides path
for institutionalising the required behaviour.
“The renewable leader is one who enacts
strategic advantage by building people and
teams who are friendly to change, who adapt
quickly and appropriately to opportunity and
- Lisa Jackson and Gerry Schmidt
Edwin Cornelius Snapshot of Change
Readiness that Renewable Leaders
• A workforce that is business literate
• A workforce that has permission to act
• A workforce that will challenge the status quo
• Leadership that encourages a ‘readiness for
Adapted from Cornelius and Associates
“The definition of a good change management
team is a group of people who know what to
change, know how to accomplish that change
and, above all, carry it out. It helps to operate
technical change under a cultural banner.”
- Robert Heller
This is a process of identifying influence,
position, importance and behaviour of
stakeholders, in order to determine necessary
action for the success of intended
Stakeholder Analysis in
Stakeholder analysis provides for identification
of every stakeholder (human, organisational,
institutional, governmental and biota) that
would be impacted by a change programme,
and how each of the stakeholders would
impinge on the same change programme.
How to Conduct Stakeholder Analysis 1
Step 1: Identify relevant stakeholders
Step 2: Ascertain relationships between stakeholders.
Step 3: Identify Interests of each stakeholder.
Step 4: Identify implication of action
Step 5: Ascertain necessary action of organisation
How to Conduct Stakeholder Analysis
• Establish clear policy framework
• Identify the main stakeholders
• Gather information
• Stakeholder survey
• Arrange findings on stakeholder table
• Ascertain relative importance, influence and
interests of stakeholders
• Recommend fitting action for project and
Stakeholder Matrix Based on
Importance Versus Influence
Importance of Stakeholder
Application of Stakeholder Matrix
Group A: High Importance and High Influence. This represents dominant
relevance to the change project. Must win support for project success.
Effective engagement & consultation through multifaceted involvement in
planning and governance.
Examples of Group A:……………………………………………………………………………
Group B: High importance and low influence. This represents entities
vulnerable to marginalisation. There’s need for advocacy/action for taking
care of their interests. Effective engagement and consultation.
Examples of Group B:…………………………………………………………………………….
Group C: High Influence and low importance. This represents entities that can
wield power and drift decision to a point, yet they are of low importance in
the change project. There’s need for high scrutiny and cooperative
Examples of Group C:………………………………………………………………………………
Group D: Low Influence and low importance. Low scrutiny and minor
Examples of Group D:……………………………………………………………………………….
Other Factors in Stakeholder Management
• Impact of Change
• Reaction to Change
• New Disposition, Behaviour, Skill or
• Barriers or Resistance
Stakeholder Matrix Based on Impact of
Change Versus Reaction to Change
Impact of Change on Stakeholder
Stakeholder Matrix Based on
Interest Versus Resistance
Interest of Stakeholder
7 Aspects of Organisation’s Capacity
Source: McKinsey and Company, Effective Capacity Building in Non Profit Organisations
Capacity Building for Change Project
Capacity building for change project must
involve workable action plan for putting up
requirement in all aspects of organisational
capacity viz. culture, human resources,
aspirations, strategies, organisational skills,
organisational structure, systems and
Key Questions for Capacity
• What culture is in place?
• Can the personnel cope with the new frontier?
• What sort of aggregate and individual aspirations exist in your
• Have you developed the right strategies for effecting the
• Do the people have the right skill-set/competence for
embracing the new work processes?
• Is the current organisational structure appropriate for
attainment of goals of the envisioned change programme?
• Do the systems and infrastructure fit the new processes?
Dr Elijah Ezendu is Award-Winning Business Expert & Certified Management Consultant with expertise
in Interim Management, Strategy, Competitive Intelligence, Transformation, Restructuring, Turnaround
Management, Business Development, Marketing, Project & Cost Management, Leadership, HR, CSR, e-
Business & Software Architecture. He had functioned as Founder, Initiative for Sustainable Business
Equity; Chairman of Board, Charisma Broadcast Film Academy; Group Chief Operating Officer, Idova
Group; CEO, Rubiini (UAE); Special Advisor, RTEAN; Director, MMNA Investments; Chair, Int’l Board of
GCC Business Council (UAE); Senior Partner, Shevach Consulting; Chairman (Certification & Training),
Coordinator (Board of Fellows), Lead Assessor & Governing Council Member, Institute of Management
Consultants, Nigeria; Lead Resource, Centre for Competitive Intelligence Development; Lead
Consultant/ Partner, JK Michaels; Turnaround Project Director, Consolidated Business Holdings Limited;
Technical Director, Gestalt; Chief Operating Officer, Rohan Group; Executive Director (Various Roles),
Fortuna, Gambia & Malta; Chief Advisor/ Partner, D & E; Vice Chairman of Board, Refined Shipping;
Director of Programmes & Governing Council Member, Institute of Business Development, Nigeria;
Member of TDD Committee, International Association of Software Architects, USA; Member of Strategic
Planning and Implementation Committee, Chartered Institute of Personnel Management of Nigeria;
Country Manager (Nigeria) & Adjunct Faculty (MBA Programme), Regent Business School, South Africa;
Adjunct Faculty (MBA Programme), Ladoke Akintola University of Technology; Editor-in-Chief, Cost
Management Journal; Council Member, Institute of Internal Auditors of Nigeria; Member, Board of
Directors (Several Organizations). He holds Doctoral Degree in Management, Master of Business
Administration and Fellow of Professional Institutes in North America, UK & Nigeria. He is Innovator of
Corporate Investment Structure Based on Financials and Intangibles, for valuation highlighting
intangible contributions of host communities and ecological environment: A model celebrated globally
as remedy for unmitigated depreciation of ecological capital and developmental deprivation of host
communities. He had served as Examiner to Professional Institutes and Universities. He had been a
member of Guild of Soundtrack Producers of Nigeria. He's an author and extensively featured speaker.