10 Years Experience in Pioneering Open Access Publishing in Health Informatics The Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR)

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Peer-reviewed journals remain important vehicles for knowledge transfer and dissemination in health informatics, yet, their format, processes and business models are changing only slowly. Up to the end of last century, it was common for individual researchers and scientific organizations to leave the business of knowledge transfer to professional publishers, signing away their rights to the works in the process, which in turn impeded wider dissemination. Traditional medical informatics journals are poorly cited and the visibility and uptake of articles beyond the medical informatics community remain limited. In 1999, the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR; http://www.jmir.org) was launched, featuring several innovations including 1) ownership and copyright retained by the authors, 2) electronic-only, "lean" non-for-profit publishing, 3) openly accessible articles with a reversed business model (author pays instead of reader pays), 4) technological innovations such as automatic XML tagging and reference checking, on-the-fly PDF generation from XML, etc., enabling wide distribution in various bibliographic and full-text databases. In the past 10 years, despite limited resources, the journal has emerged as a leading journal in health informatics, and is presently ranked the top journal in the medical informatics and health services research categories by impact factor. The paper summarizes some of the features of the Journal, and uses bibliometric and access data to compare the influence of the Journal on the discipline of medical informatics and other disciplines. While traditional medical informatics journals are primarily cited by other Medical Informatics journals (33%-46% of citations), JMIR papers are to a more often cited by "end-users" (policy, public health, clinical journals), which may be partly attributable to the "open access advantage".

This presentation was given at Medinfo 2010 (13th World Congress on Medical and Health Informatics) in Cape Town in September 2010.

A self-archived full paper is available on Scribd:
http://tinyurl.com/jmir10yrs


Please cite as:
Eysenbach G. 10 years experience with pioneering open access publishing in health informatics: the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR). Stud Health Technol Inform. 2010;160(Pt 2):1329-3

(cc-by) can be freely distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License

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10 Years Experience in Pioneering Open Access Publishing in Health Informatics The Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR)

  1. 1. Editor/Publisher, J Med Internet Res www.jmir.org Associate Professor  Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto; Senior Scientist ,  Centre for Global eHealth Innovation, Division of Medical Decision Making and Health Care Research; Epublishing and Open Access Research Group  Toronto General Research Institute of the UHN, Toronto General Hospital, Canada 10 Years Experience in Pioneering Open Access Publishing in Health Informatics The Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR) Gunther Eysenbach MD MPH Gunther Eysenbach MD MPH
  2. 2. This presentation was given at Medinfo 2010 (13th World Congress on Medical and Health Informatics) in Cape Town in September 2010. A self-archived full paper is available on Scribd: http: //tinyurl .com/jmir10yrs Please cite as: Eysenbach G. 10 years experience with pioneering open access publishing in health informatics: the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR). Stud Health Technol Inform. 2010;160(Pt 2):1329-3 (cc-by) can be freely distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
  3. 3. “ Lack of knowledge” Top barrier in Africa & Europe Dr Najeeb Al-Shorbaji
  4. 4. Knowledge transfer to health professionals insufficient Dr Najeeb Al-Shorbaji
  5. 6. Isn’t it ironic… <ul><li>Health informaticians deal with knowledge management… </li></ul><ul><li>… yet we are generally not doing a good job in knowledge translation (beyond our own discipline) </li></ul>
  6. 7. Background: Knowledge Transfer in Health Informatics <ul><li>Journals remain the most important KT activity </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional medical informatics journals are poorly cited and the visibility and uptake beyond a relatively small medical informatics community remains limited </li></ul><ul><li>Disruptive technology (Internet) allows for experiments with new publishing models (incl bypassing traditional publishers and leaving publishing in the hands of scientists) and new business models (OPEN ACCESS) </li></ul>
  7. 8. Open Access (= removal of barriers to information) <ul><li>Open access journals (“gold OA”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Gratis”: access for readers, free of costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Libre”: copyright retained by author, usually published under Creative Commons License, free to use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-archiving, institutional repositories (“green”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Gratis”: access for readers free of costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually NOT “libre” (owned by publisher) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually NOT the final published version (but non-copyedited version of the manuscript) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Open Access: Suggested advantages for society and individual researchers <ul><li>Equitable access to research information (on global level, but also on national level – including access of the public/taxpayers) </li></ul><ul><li>Career advancement for researchers (increased visibility & citations) </li></ul><ul><li>Textmining & knowledge discovery not hampered by © restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing (speed and degree of) knowledge dissemination, knowledge uptake, knowledge translation </li></ul>
  9. 10. Modified from: CIHR, Knowledge Translation Cycle
  10. 11. Eysenbach G (2006) Citation advantage of open access articles. PLoS Biol 4(5): e157. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040157
  11. 12. A natural experiment: Author-Choice OA in PNAS (since June 2004)
  12. 13. Eysenbach. PLoS Biol 4(5): e157 Citations of OA vs nOA articles from the same journal (PNAS)
  13. 14. www.jmir.org
  14. 15. www.jmir.org
  15. 17. This talk focuses on 7 Publishing Innovations of JMIR <ul><li>First Open Access journal in health informatics / health services research (* 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Impact, Article Level Metrics </li></ul><ul><li>XML Copyediting and Typesetting Scripts </li></ul><ul><li>WebCite: Archiving cited webpages / grey reports </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative business model </li></ul><ul><li>Open Peer-Review </li></ul><ul><li>iJMR (interactive Journal of Medical Research) - knol-based (wiki-like) peer-reviewed journal (spin-off) </li></ul>
  16. 18. JMIR: An OA pioneer <ul><li>1998. JMIR assembles editorial board </li></ul><ul><li>1999. First JMIR issue published </li></ul><ul><li>May 5, 1999 . E-Biomed proposed by Harold Varmus </li></ul><ul><li>October 22, 1999 . Sante Fe Convention (OAI) issued. </li></ul><ul><li>February 2000 . PubMed Central (free full-text articles) launched </li></ul><ul><li>July 19, 2000 . BioMed Central published its first free online article. </li></ul><ul><li>March 23, 2001 . Open Letter launched by the Public Library of Science (PLoS) </li></ul><ul><li>February 14, 2002 . Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) launched </li></ul><ul><li>October 13, 2003 . The Public Library of Science launched its first open-access journal, PLoS Biology </li></ul><ul><li>October 2004 . PloS Medicine launched </li></ul>http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/timeline.htm Innovation #1: Open Access
  17. 19. JMIR is a founding member of OASPA http://www.webcitation.org/5kihtiutz
  18. 20. Achievements <ul><li>Now indexed in Medline, CINAHL, Information Science Abstracts, INSPEC, Communication Abstracts, The Informed Librarian Online, LISA, EMBASE, Scopus, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine (CC/CM) and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), PsycINFO, Google Scholar, LISTA, … </li></ul><ul><li>Impact Factor: 3.9 (2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>top ranked in medical informatics category (with JAMIA) (among 21 journals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and health sciences & health services research category (#2 after Health Techn Assessment review journal) (among 62 journals) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. JMIR Impact Factor Top Medical Informatics Journals
  20. 22. The Open Access Advantage <ul><li>(1) citation advantage (as a metric for knowledge uptake within the scientific community), </li></ul><ul><li>(2) an end user uptake advantage, </li></ul><ul><li>(3) a cross-discipline fertilization advantage. </li></ul>Eysenbach G The Open Access Advantage J Med Internet Res 2006;8(2):e8 URL: http://www.jmir.org/2006/2/e8/
  21. 23. Subject Areas of Citing Journals
  22. 24. Beyond citations: Article-level metrics Indicators for end-user uptake Innovation #2: Article-level metrics (incl. tweets)
  23. 25. Top Cited Articles on JMIR <ul><li>“ What is eHealth” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Effectiveness of Web-Based vs. Non-Web-Based Interventions: A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Change Outcomes” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Use of the Internet for Surveys and Health Research” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Law of Attrition” </li></ul>
  24. 26. Article Level Metrics <ul><li>Top cited (top articles got >100 citations) </li></ul><ul><li>Top viewed (top articles get >1000 views per month) </li></ul><ul><li>Top tweeted (top articles get >50 tweets per month), Tweets Influence Factor </li></ul><ul><li>Top purchased (PDF purchases) </li></ul>
  25. 27. Manuscript Management Software <ul><li>Early adopter of Open Journal Systems (OJS) (open source manuscript management system) </li></ul><ul><li>Development work in the area of XML workflow, subscription/member administration plugins, payment modules etc. (now contributed to OJS 2.x) </li></ul><ul><li>XML typesetting scripts (now branded as Lemon8/PKP product, originally developed by the JMIR team*) </li></ul><ul><li>Unique web-based reference checking & correction workflow for copyeditor (“OrangeX”) </li></ul>* MJ Suhonos, Juan Alperin Innovation #3: Open Source Contributions XML Workflows
  26. 29. XML (NLM-DTD)
  27. 30. XML Typesetting Scripts convert .doc -> .xml
  28. 31. WebCite® (www.webcitation.org) Archiving of cited Internet Resources Innovation #4: Archiving System for Webpages
  29. 32. Dellavalle RP, Hester EJ, Heilig LF, Drake AL, Kuntzman JW, Graber M, et al. Information science. Going, going, gone: lost Internet references. Science 2003 Oct 31;302(5646):787-788. DOI:10.1126/science.1088234 In one study published in the journal Science , 13% of Internet references in scholarly articles were inactive after only 27 months.
  30. 34. Innovative Business Model <ul><li>Authors keep ©, published under Creative Commons Attribution License </li></ul><ul><li>“ Author-pays” model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$90 submission fee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optional: Fast-track fee $450 (3 wk turnaround) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Article Processing Fee [APF] currently US$1900, payable on acceptance only </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional members (medical informatics departments etc.) ($900 p.a.): APF waived </li></ul><ul><li>Personal membership: Downloading PDF </li></ul>Innovation #5: Business Model
  31. 35. jmir-revenues-pie2007-recalc2.xls
  32. 36. Open Peer Review @ JMIR Innovation #6: Open Peer-Review
  33. 37. Semantics of “Openess” in peer-review <ul><li>Transparent: Disclosing reviewer names, perhaps even reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory: Open for anybody to join, collaborative </li></ul>
  34. 38. Open peer-review - solution for peer-review challenges <ul><li>“ After 30 years of practicing peer review and 15 years of studying it experimentally, I’m unconvinced of its value” (Richard Smith) </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of reviewers’ time is wasted (authors just submit to another journal, w/o making changes) </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewers do a poor job spotting errors (9 maj errors, each spotted by 10-50% - J R Soc Med. 2008;101: 507-14) </li></ul><ul><li>Possible future: Publish first into a moderated collection, solicit broad input, publish/index “version of record” </li></ul>
  35. 39. iJMR on knol.google.com http://tinyurl.com/ijmr-submit
  36. 40. Conclusions <ul><li>Open Access was clearly a success factor in making JMIR a leading scholarly journal </li></ul><ul><li>The JMIR example shows that with creativity and a lean publishing model sustainable OA is possible </li></ul><ul><li>Resource constraints and non-profit model lead to innovation </li></ul>
  37. 41. Health care and medicine needs to change <ul><li>The status quo </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on curative medicine, not prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Intransparencies, hierarchies, proprietary systems </li></ul><ul><li>Information silos, inadequate patient access to information </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediaries, gatekeepers, “doctors know best” </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on modelling/storing medical information </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine 2.0 tools/values </li></ul><ul><li>Participation , Empowerment (Endusers, Patients) </li></ul><ul><li>Openess , sharing data, experiences, outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration , Interoperability, patients as partners </li></ul><ul><li>Apomediation , wisdom of the crowds complementing experts </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking , modelling relationships between people, p2p </li></ul>(Eysenbach, J Med Internet Res 2008)
  38. 42. www.medicine20congress.com
  39. 43. Thank you! <ul><li>Funding </li></ul><ul><li>Change Foundation, Canadian Institutes for Health Research, NSERC, European Union, SSHRC </li></ul>Dr G. Eysenbach, Email: geysenba at uhnres.utoronto.ca or @gmail.com, My peer-reviewed Journal : http://www.jmir.org My Blog : http://gunther-eysenbach.blogspot.com My Conferences : http://www.medicine20congress.com http://www.ehealthcongresss.org My Slides : http://www.slideshare.net/eysen

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