Southern sawg healthy animals small spaces


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Southern sawg healthy animals small spaces

  1. 1. More of this Less of this And more of this Robert Spencer, Extension Specialist
  2. 2. DISCLAIMER • When it comes to farming there is preventative maintenance & reactive maintenance, both are management choices • Information comes in various forms: research, reality, internet, perceptions, and hearsay • Each of us must decide what works best for our situation
  3. 3. JUST A LITTLE BIT GROWS INTO ISSUES • Animals become sick from initial exposure to small quantities of bacteria, viruses, or parasites • Animals can not communicate feelings • Missed indicators or lack of attention leads to complications • Animals health is compromised, problems and expenses begin  Backyard biosecurity means doing everything you can to protect your animals from diseases
  4. 4. OPPORTUNITIES • • • • • What kind of resources are needed? Will this be a full-time or part-time endeavor? Do I expect this to be profitable or hobby? Recognize hybrid vigor makes for hardy animals Raising healthy livestock on small acreages can become a family project Develop a better understanding of issues and develop plans to insure healthy, productive animals
  5. 5. BEFORE YOU BUY THE FIRST ANIMAL • • • • • • • • How much space do I have? What are my financial constraints? What type of animals interest me? What do I know about production of ____? Where can I find more information? Which veterinarian will I work with? How will I dispose of manure & dead animals? How close are my neighbors, will they object, and do they have animals? • What is my exit plan?
  6. 6. SPACE REQUIREMENTS • One animal unit per two acres • Rabbits – 1.5’x1.5’x2’ • Chickens - 1.5’x1.5’x2’ • Goats & Sheep – Housing – 3’x6’ – Grazing – 3-4/acre • Cattle – Housing – shade – Grazing – 1 per 2 acres
  7. 7. PURPOSE & BREEDS: Goats & Sheep • Meat, dairy, fiber, or maintenance? • Goats – Meat – Boer, Kiko, Savannah, Spanish & etc. • Small – Pygmy, Brush – Dairy – Alpine, Sannen, La Mancha, & etc. • Small - Nigerian Dwarf, Pygmy – Fiber – Angora & etc. • Sheep – Meat – Katahdin, Dorper, St. Croix, & etc. – Dairy – East Friesian, Lacaune, and etc. – Fiber – Merino, Corriedale, and etc. • Small - Cheviots, Babydoll, and etc.
  8. 8. PURPOSES & BREEDS: Rabbits & Poultry • Rabbits – Meat – New Zealand, Californian, Harlequin & etc. – Fiber – Angora and etc. – Smaller – Dutch, Rex, English Spot & etc. • Poultry – Egg layers – Rhode Island Reds, Plymouth Rock, Cuckoo Maran, and etc. – Smaller – Silkies, Polish Top Hats, and etc.
  9. 9. ANIMAL FRIENDLY URBAN SPACES • Minimize noise stress – Animals are like people, they can tolerate some noise stress, but not continuous and/or loud • Maintain clean living quarters and grounds – They need clean living and grazing environments to maintain a healthy living status • Provide relevant/adequate nutrition – They need adequate nutrition to maintain good body condition and a healthy immune system
  10. 10. NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS Nutrient needs for animals includes: water, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, and etc. Example of protein ranges: • Goats – 10-16% • Sheep – 8-14% • Cattle – 8-14% • Poultry –15-18% • Rabbits – 12-17% Never underestimate the importance of water, fat, and minerals (copper & selenium)
  11. 11. GENERAL HEALTH CONCERNS • Failure to develop a working relationship with veterinarian • Inadequate nutrition - failure to meet nutrient needs & provide minerals • Internal (gastrointestinal)& external parasites stomach worms, coccidian, lice or mites • Respiratory distress - dust or vapors from excessive build-up of urine and wet manure
  12. 12. SPECIFIC HEALTH ISSUES Young are most vulnerable • Goats & Sheep – stomach worms, coccidiosis, lice. pinkeye & sore mouth • Rabbits – coccidiosis, sore hocks, pinkeye, enteritis • Poultry – Stomach worms, coccidiosis, cannibalism, lice/mites, rodents
  13. 13. PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE • • • • • • Education Nutrition Sanitation Biosecurity Ventilation Sunshine • Ideal animal welfare • Learn what works for others, keep up with developments • If it sounds too good to be true it probably is • There are no magic pills
  14. 14. ALL-NATURAL PRACTICES • Sunshine – Lots of sunshine, with access to shade • Fresh air – Lots of fresh air with shelter from adverse weather • Lime – Spread lime (powder) as needed in loafing areas & where urine and manure accumulate • ACV - Maintain small percentage of apple cider vinegar in water vessels • Sanitation - Clean feeders and water vessels as needed
  15. 15. PROACTIVE STRATEGIES • Never assume anything • Develop a working relationship with a vet • Learn about varying nutrient requirements of your animals • Learn about benefits of minerals • Learn relevant signs of unhealthy animals • Learn how to do fecal-egg counts and FAMACHA • Develop a health management program, monitor, and adjust as needed
  16. 16. PRACTICALITY • Preventative strategies tend to be less expensive in the long-run • Cull animals with continuous health problems • Nutrition, minerals, sanitation, and biosecurity are essential to animal health • Vaccinate for appropriate disease concerns • Treat specific illness/disease, not shotgun approach • Ask yourself, is it necessary and is it working?
  17. 17. BMPs • Find vet that is knowledgeable, or willing to learn and work with you • Do not allow excessive accumulation of manure, urine, or moisture; use gravel as base where appropriate • Clean out barn, cages, living quarters as needed • Spread lime between and after cleanings • Rotate grazing areas and housing (small animals) where possible/appropriate
  18. 18. BIOSECURITY • Set aside a separate area that can accommodate new or sick animals • Isolate new or sick animals (ASAP), 30 days • Minimize outside vehicle, animal, and human traffic on your farm • Have a set of shoes for farm visits and another set for your farm, offer/use shoe covers • Wash clothes in between farm visits • Set up shoe baths where appropriate
  19. 19. FOOD SAFETY & ANIMAL WELFARE • • • • More than likely your animals or their byproducts are destined to be a food product Follow guidelines' regarding medicinal withdrawal times on meat, dairy, and poultry Learn, implement, and validate best management strategies and practices Keep health & reproduction records Treat animals humanely and learn animal behavior
  20. 20. BIOSECURITY TIPS • Restrict access to your livestock enclosure/areas or housing and animals. • New animals should be kept separate from your herd/flock for at least 30 days prior to putting them with the rest of your livestock. • Keep a pair of farm shoes and outerwear on hand that you wear only around your farm. • Install a foot bath step pan with disinfectant and a hand washing station at the entrance to every area. • Inspect your animals for signs of parasites and take appropriate action immediately. • Tools such as feed scoops, shovels, rakes, and brooms must be cleaned with soap and water, then disinfected before and after you use them. • Dead animals should be quickly and properly disposed by burial, composting or incineration.
  21. 21. RESOURCES • • • • • • • The Merck Veterinary Manual Extension Offices Outreach and association meetings Newsletters Internet Other producers Books and magazines
  22. 22. Alabama Cooperative Extension System Websites   /docs/indexes/unpas.php Rabbits & Small Ruminants • There a lots of websites out there with quality information, and some with misinformation
  23. 23. FINAL WORDS • Don’t be afraid to make mistakes, learn from them • It is cheaper to learn from other’s mistakes • By practicing backyard prevention & biosecurity, you can maintain healthy animals and enjoy a quality of life Contact information • Robert Spencer • Alabama Cooperative Extension System – • 256-766-6223 •
  24. 24. Copy of Presentation • 8td90zdmgx9ybuk/Presentati on%20for%20SAWG%20Confe rence.pdf