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  1. 1. elearning: promises and practices Peter Tittenberger Learning Technologies Centre University of Manitoba October, 2008
  2. 2. <ul><li>Change pressures </li></ul><ul><li>information growth </li></ul><ul><li>open movement </li></ul><ul><li>student habits </li></ul><ul><li>How does education respond? </li></ul><ul><li>values of formal education </li></ul><ul><li>the role of elearning </li></ul>
  3. 3. The world is flat The world is flat …
  4. 4. The world is flat The world is spiky …
  5. 5. Information growth Change pressure 1. Growth of information .
  6. 6. Information growth In 2006, the amount of digital information created, captured, and replicated was 161 exabytes or 161 billion gigabytes … This is about 3 million times the information in all the books ever written. The Diverse and Exploding Digital Universe
  7. 7. Information growth Between 2006 and 2010, the information added annually to the digital universe will increase more than six fold from 161 exabytes to 988 exabytes. The Diverse and Exploding Digital Universe
  8. 8. Information growth Images, captured by more than 1 billion devices in the world, from digital cameras and camera phones to medical scanners and security cameras, comprise the largest component of the digital universe. The Diverse and Exploding Digital Universe
  9. 9. Information growth Chevron's CIO says his company accumulates data at the rate of 2 terabytes – 17,592,000,000,000 bits – a day. The Diverse and Exploding Digital Universe
  10. 10. More than 3,000 new books are published . . . Karl Fisch
  11. 11. daily . Karl Fisch
  12. 12. It’s estimated that a week’s worth of New York Times . . . Karl Fisch
  13. 13. Contains more information than a person was likely to come across in a lifetime in the 18 th century. Karl Fisch
  14. 14. The amount of new technical information is doubling every 2 years. Karl Fisch
  15. 15. It’s predicted to double every 72 hours by 2010. Karl Fisch
  16. 16. more predictions
  17. 17. By 2013 a supercomputer will be built that exceeds the computation capability of the human brain . . . Karl Fisch
  18. 18. By 2023, a $1,000 computer will exceed the computation capability of the human brain . . . Karl Fisch
  19. 19. And while technical predictions further out than about 15 years are hard to do . . . Karl Fisch
  20. 20. Predictions are that by 2049 a $1,000 computer will exceed the computational capabilities of the human race . Karl Fisch
  21. 21. <ul><li>Who is producing all this information? </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>everyone </li></ul>
  23. 23. What’s happening? This information growth is leading to …
  24. 24. What’s happening? Decentralization Democratization Changing notion of what it means to know Continual suspended certainty Chaotic (diverse, messy and unbounded)
  25. 25. What’s happening? characteristics at odds with formal education which likes learning to be …
  26. 26. What’s happening? Controlled Authoritative Certain Linear Neat and bounded
  27. 27. <ul><li>Change pressure 2. </li></ul><ul><li>The open movement. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>“… information wants to be free …” </li></ul>Stewart Brand, 1984
  29. 29. <ul><li>open technology </li></ul><ul><li>open content </li></ul><ul><li>open access </li></ul><ul><li>open teaching </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>open technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux (OS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apache (web server) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mySQL (database) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moodle, Sakai (LMS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wordpress (blogs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drupal (CMS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediawiki (wikis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Journal Systems (publishing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DimDim (web conferencing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc… </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>free supporting software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefox (browser) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thunderbird (email) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skype (VOIP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OpenOffice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audacity (audio) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc… </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>free web services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs ( </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image sharing (Flickr) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video (youtube) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bookmarking (delicious) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikis (pbwiki) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Webconferencing (wiziq) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RSS readers (Pageflakes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentations (slideshare) </li></ul></ul>75,000,000 photos
  33. 33. <ul><li>open content </li></ul><ul><li>Open Educational Resources (OER) are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use or re-purposing by others. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>open content </li></ul><ul><li>Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>open educational resources </li></ul><ul><li>“ shifting faculty perspectives from this courseware is mine to this courseware is for (open) mining.” </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>open educational resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cape Town Open Education Declaration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ everyone should have the freedom to use, customize, improve and redistribute educational resources without constraint.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>October 1, 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>171 organizations and 1680 individuals signed </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Open Educational Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MIT Open CourseWare project </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>open educational resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OpenCourseware Consortium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over 200 HE institutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OpenLearn (Open University) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Archive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OER initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hewlett Packard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rice Connexions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNESCO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OECD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriki </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merlot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Commons </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>open access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25,000 peer-reviewed journals published worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5 million articles per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most universities subscribe to only a small set of these </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>open access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2002 Budapest declaration - open access to peer reviewed journal literature is the goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open access aims to remove restrictions that exist on the access to articles and knowledge to the world wide scholarly community, in particular to those in developing countries. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>open access </li></ul>Public Library of Science publishes under an open access license that allows unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  42. 43. <ul><li>open access </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences adopted the world's 38th Green Open Access Self-Archiving Mandate&quot; </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>open access &quot;The objective of the Harvard mandate is to provide Open Access (OA) to its own scholarly article output. This objective is accomplished by making those articles freely accessible on the web by depositing them in a Harvard OA Institutional Repository.&quot; </li></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><li>open teaching </li></ul><ul><li>David Wiley taught an online course at Utah State University last fall and let anyone fully participate </li></ul><ul><li>5 students, joined 15 who had registered, and got a ‘home-made certificate’ from Dr. Wiley. </li></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><li>open teaching </li></ul><ul><li>200 students informally followed a course by Alec Couros, information and communication technology coordinator for the School of Education at the University of Regina, in Saskatchewan. </li></ul>
  46. 47. <ul><li>“ the emerging open education movement in higher education and beyond is beginning to change the way educators use, share, and improve educational resources and knowledge by making them open and freely available.” </li></ul>
  47. 48. <ul><li>Change pressure 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Changing student habits, expectations, attitudes and abilities. </li></ul>
  48. 49. <ul><li>Today’s student… </li></ul>
  49. 50. <ul><li>A child born in 1990, </li></ul><ul><li>now entering university, </li></ul><ul><li>has not known a world without the Internet. </li></ul>
  50. 51. 1990 <ul><li>Tim Berners-Lee creates the World Wide Web. </li></ul>
  51. 52. 1993 <ul><li>Mosaic Web browser released </li></ul><ul><li>First web cam goes online </li></ul><ul><li>Web grows by 341,000 percent in a year. </li></ul>
  52. 53. 1994 <ul><li>Precursor to Yahoo goes online </li></ul><ul><li>Netscape browser released </li></ul>
  53. 54. 1995 <ul><li> launched </li></ul><ul><li>RealAudio, audio streaming technology, developed </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional online dial-up systems (Compuserve, America Online, Prodigy) begin to provide Internet access </li></ul><ul><li>eBay founded as Auctionweb </li></ul>
  54. 55. 1996 <ul><li>The WWW browser war, fought primarily between Netscape and Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>342,081 websites (August) </li></ul><ul><li>Hotmail launched </li></ul>
  55. 56. 1997 <ul><li>Term weblog, later shortened to blog, coined </li></ul>
  56. 57. 1998 <ul><li>Google opens its first office in a garage </li></ul>
  57. 58. 1999 <ul><li>MMORG Everquest released </li></ul><ul><li>Napster launched </li></ul><ul><li>MySpace launched </li></ul>
  58. 59. 2000 <ul><li>Nearly 20 million websites online (August) </li></ul><ul><li>Dot com bubble bursts </li></ul>
  59. 60. 2001 <ul><li>Wikipedia founded </li></ul><ul><li>Pope John Paul II sends an email </li></ul>
  60. 61. 2003 <ul><li>iTunes launched </li></ul>
  61. 62. 2004 <ul><li>Mozilla Firefox open source browser released </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook launched </li></ul>
  62. 63. 2005 <ul><li>Youtube launched </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 defined by Tim O’Reilly </li></ul>
  63. 64. 2006 <ul><li>Estimated 92 million websites online </li></ul><ul><li>Google acquires YouTube for $US1.65 billion </li></ul>
  64. 65. 2007 <ul><li>Google surpasses Microsoft as &quot;the most valuable global brand,&quot; and also is the most visited Web site. </li></ul><ul><li>1.114 billion people use the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft buys 1.6% of Facebook for $US 240 million making Facebook worth $US15 billion </li></ul>
  65. 66. 2008 <ul><li>A vision of students today </li></ul>
  66. 67. <ul><li>habits are changing </li></ul>
  67. 68. A spring 2007 survey and interviews with 27,846 freshman, senior, and community college students at 103 American higher education institutions indicated: The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2007
  68. 69. 98.4% own a computer 75.8% own a laptop The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2007
  69. 70. 99.9% create, read and send email The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2007
  70. 71. 84% use instant messaging The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2007
  71. 72. 83% use course management systems The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2007
  72. 73. 81.6% use social networks The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2007
  73. 74. 78.3% play computer and video games The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2007
  74. 75. 77.8% download music or video The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2007
  75. 76. 70.5% agree that IT helps them do better research for their courses The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2007
  76. 77. 61% agree that IT in courses improves their learning The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2007
  77. 78. Today’s undergraduate student spends an average of 18 hours per week online The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2007
  78. 79. 26% spend more than 20 hrs per week online Academica Group, 2007 UAS/CAS Web Trends Study
  79. 80. They are the first generation to grow up with the Internet – pervasive, always-on, and now … mobile.
  80. 81. with the WWW – whatever, whenever, wherever.
  81. 82. <ul><li>expectations are changing </li></ul>
  82. 83. <ul><li>immersed in a cloud of information and services </li></ul>
  83. 84. <ul><li>students expect access to information and friends anywhere and anytime </li></ul>
  84. 85. <ul><li>ubiquitous infinite bandwidth </li></ul>
  85. 86. <ul><li>and in the classroom? </li></ul>
  86. 87. <ul><li>and in the classroom? </li></ul>
  87. 88. <ul><li>and in the classroom? </li></ul>
  88. 89. <ul><li>attitudes are changing </li></ul>
  89. 90. The Web has shifted from being a medium, in which information is transmitted and consumed, into being a platform, in which content is created, shared, remixed, repurposed, and passed along. Stephen Downes
  90. 91. the emergence of Web 2.0 is not a technological revolution, it is a social revolution Stephen Downes
  91. 92. “ On the Internet, nobody knows you’re a dog.”
  92. 93. <ul><li>today’s student switches contexts quickly (multitasks?) </li></ul>
  93. 94. <ul><li>today’s student jumps into new areas (doesn’t read the manual) </li></ul>
  94. 95. <ul><li>today’s student is cynical </li></ul>
  95. 96. <ul><li>today’s student does not respect authority </li></ul>
  96. 97. <ul><li>today’s student is inherently collaborative </li></ul>
  97. 98. <ul><li>If habits, expectations and attitudes are changing are abilities changing as well? </li></ul>
  98. 99. <ul><li>for better or for worse? </li></ul>
  99. 100. <ul><li>technology is making us smarter </li></ul>
  100. 101. What is surprising perhaps is … the sophisticated ways in which they are finding and synthesizing information and integrating across multiple sources of data. JISC LXP Student experiences of technologies Draft final report Gráinne Conole, Maarten de Laat, Teresa Dillon and Jonathan Darby 1The Open University, 2Exeter University, 3Polar Produce
  101. 102. … there is strong evidence of peer support and peer community, resonant with the rhetoric inherent in the idea of social networking and the world of Web 2.0. JISC LXP Student experiences of technologies Draft final report Gráinne Conole, Maarten de Laat, Teresa Dillon and Jonathan Darby 1The Open University, 2Exeter University, 3Polar Produce
  102. 104. <ul><li>“ popular culture has, on average, grown more complex and intellectually challenging over the past thirty years.&quot; </li></ul>Steven Berlin Johnson
  103. 105. <ul><li>In the US, IQ scores have risen about 3 points per decade since 1940 </li></ul>Mark Bauerlein
  104. 106. <ul><li>technology is making us dumber </li></ul>
  105. 107. Google is making us stupid
  106. 108. <ul><li>Over the past few years I’ve had an uncomfortable sense that someone, or something, has been tinkering with my brain, remapping the neural circuitry, reprogramming the memory. </li></ul>
  107. 109. <ul><li>My mind isn’t going—so far as I can tell—but it’s changing. </li></ul>
  108. 110. <ul><li>I’m not thinking the way I used to think. I can feel it most strongly when I’m reading. </li></ul>
  109. 111. Immersing myself in a book or a lengthy article used to be easy. My mind would get caught up in the narrative or the turns of the argument, and I’d spend hours strolling through long stretches of prose.
  110. 112. That’s rarely the case anymore.
  111. 113. Now my concentration often starts to drift after two or three pages.
  112. 114. I get fidgety,
  113. 115. lose the thread
  114. 116. begin looking for something else to do.
  115. 117. I feel as if I’m always dragging my wayward brain back to the text.
  116. 118. The deep reading that used to come naturally
  117. 119. has become a struggle.
  118. 120. I get fidgety,
  119. 121. lose the thread
  120. 122. begin looking for something else to do.
  121. 123. I feel as if I’m always dragging my wayward brain back to the text.
  122. 124. The deep reading that used to come naturally
  123. 125. has become a struggle.
  124. 126. I get fidgety
  125. 127. lose the thread
  126. 128. I get fidgety
  127. 129. Or . . . technology is making us smarter
  128. 130. “ Students are demonstrating new skills in terms of harnessing the potential of technologies for their learning. These include new forms of evaluation skills and strategies ( searching, restructuring, validating), which enable them to critique and make critical decisions about a variety of sources and content.” JISC LXO: Student experiences of technologies
  129. 131. “ The use of these tools is changing the way we gather, use and create knowledge. There is a shift in the basic skills with a shift from lower to higher levels of Blooms taxonomy , necessary to make sense of their complex technologically enriched learning environment.” JISC LXO: Student experiences of technologies
  130. 132. Or . . . technology is making us dumber
  131. 134. Decrease in verbal-linguistic and logical mathematical intelligence. Increase in spatial intelligence. Mark Bauerlein, The Dumbest Generation
  132. 135. “ The simple fact is that kids aren't reading, aren't engaging in wider cultural experiences, aren't developing broad horizons of interest or knowledge. And so, they are not building the cognitive frameworks they require for a flourishing life” Mark Nichols
  133. 136. What formal education does How does formal education respond?
  134. 137. <ul><li>“ in school they are expected to submit to a pedagogic regime that is fundamentally premised on the transmission and testing of decontextualised knowledge and skills, and which is dominated by “old generation” technologies (Web 1.0) underpinned by a radically different philosophy and a different set of affordances.” </li></ul>Learning from digital natives: bridging formal and informal learning
  135. 138. What formal education does What is the role of formal education in this environment?
  136. 139. What formal education does What value does it add?
  137. 140. cognitive growth conceptual maturity the development of reasoning exposure to alternatives The promise – the values of a formal education
  138. 141. Formal education puts boundaries on knowledge – courses circumscribe what has to be learned. The practice
  139. 142. Formal education defines outcomes – programs extract meaningful chunks (courses) and sequence them The practice
  140. 143. Provides structure and discipline– through place/space/time (both physical and virtual) The practice
  141. 144. Provides access to experts, mentors, guides (both human and technological) The practice
  142. 145. Provides access to learning resources - libraries, studios and labs. The practice
  143. 146. Provides a narrative of coherence. The practice
  144. 147. “ Formal and informal learning have been viewed as competing paradigms, however, students are increasingly adopting the tools and strategies for informal learning within formalised educational settings.” &quot;a widening of the gap between the culture of the educational institutions and the culture of learners' lives outside school&quot; (p.4)
  145. 148. What formal education does is elearning a solution?
  146. 149. What formal education does can it close the gap?
  147. 150. What formal education does can it adopt the tools and strategies used by students for informal learning within formalised educational settings?
  148. 151. What formal education does a definition of elearning …
  149. 152. “ Electronic learning (or e-Learning or eLearning) is a type of education where the medium of instruction is computer technology. No in-person interaction may take place in some instances.”
  150. 153. elearning is pedagogy empowered by technology . Mark Nichols ,
  151. 154. elearning is as varied as the pedagogies and technologies that facilitate it. Mark Nichols ,
  152. 155. Almost all current university level courses have an elearning component
  153. 156. From the simplest … a traditional face to face course augmented with email communication between instructor and students and/or students to students
  154. 157. To a blended course… where traditional learning activities are moved online (e.g. bulletin board discussion, simulation, or online test) with a reduction in face to face contact time.
  155. 158. To an online course . . . where all content, communication, interaction and assessment are delivered through technology.
  156. 159. distance learning is not necessarily elearning .
  157. 160. online learning is a type of elearning .
  158. 161. We drive into the future using only our rearview mirror. Marshal McLuhan
  159. 162. We use new tools to do the work of the old. Marshal McLuhan
  160. 163. Powerpoint, audio, video, podcasts, simulations to augment lectures
  161. 164. Personal response systems
  162. 165. Putting course notes online
  163. 166. Instructors email
  164. 167. Some online discussions
  165. 168. Some online tests
  166. 169. Some learning objects
  167. 170. Is this enough to close the gap?
  168. 171. Or do we need to change our approach to teaching and learning?
  169. 172. Or do we need to change our approach to ownership and authority?
  170. 173. Or do we need to change our approach to command and control?
  171. 174. and take steps
  172. 175. to address the new habits, attitudes, expectations and abilities of students
  173. 176. to rethink authority, control and teaching and learning strategies in a networked world.
  174. 177. to try collaboration and open access through a social networking site, wiki projects, new partnerships for online courses and a massively open online course (MOOC)
  175. 178.
  176. 184. Online certificate program in HIV/AIDS Program Administration with Regional Aids Training Network in Africa. Courses to Sedaya (Malaysia) and Birzeit (Palestine)
  177. 185. Open teaching
  178. 187.
  179. 188.
  180. 189.
  181. 190. Thank you! Peter Tittenberger 474-7230 [email_address]

Editor's Notes