Rio danubio europa-wolfgangstaltzer


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  • The Convention established the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River which acts as a forum for cooperation and dialogue on water related issues and environmental issues dealing with water. Since 2000 the ICPDR is the coordinating body for implementing the EU WFD.
  • All countries of the Danube with territory greater than 2,000km 2 are cooperating in the frame of the ICPDR
  • In addition there are at present 14 observers who assist and contribute to the work.
  • The ICPDR plays a coordinating role in ensuring that a river basin management plan for the entire basin is prepared.
  • Since completion of the Analysis Report (or characterization report) the countries of the Danube have taken the next step and developed an integrated monitoring system to meet the requirements of WFD. This monitoring report – the next important milestone – was submitted to the Commission on Monday of this week.
  • Happily we have completed the important first step in the process in March 2005. The Danube Analysis report involving inputs from all the countries was submitted to the EU and was submitted with national reports from member states.
  • The risk of failure to reach the environmental objectives is the ultimate step in the pressure and impact analysis . The WFD requests from the Member States to carry out an assessment of the likelihood that water bodies will fail to meet the environmental quality objectives by 2015. The objectives include both the overall objective to achieve good status by 2015, and possibly additional specific objectives that apply to protected areas as defined from other legislation. The objectives may also depend on the current status of the water body, since Member States must, in general, prevent any deterioration in the status. Failure to achieve the objectives on surface waters may be the result from a very wide range of pressures, including point source discharges, diffuse source discharges, water abstractions, water flow regulation and morphological alterations. These and any other pressures that could affect the status of aquatic ecosystems must be considered in the analysis. The risk assessment is therefore based on information collected in the pressure and impact analysis and is highly aggregated . Explain graph: … The upper Danube, where chains of hydropower plants exist, is mainly impacted by hydromorphological alterations. Many of the water bodies in the upper Danube have also been provisionally identified as "heavily modified water bodies". The Middle Danube is classified as “possibly at risk” due to hazardous substances. The Danube section shared by Slovakia and Hungary is classified in part as “at risk” and in part as “possibly at risk” due to hydro­morphological alterations. The part of the Danube shared by Croatia, and Serbia and Montenegro is “possibly at risk” in all categories since not enough data is available for a sure assessment. The lower Danube is “at risk” due to hazardous substances, hydromorphological alterations, and “possibly at risk” due to organic pollution. In total, about 50 % of the Danube is at risk or possibly at risk due to organic pollution, about 50 % due to nutrient pollution and around 70 % due to hazardous substances. With regard to hydromorphological alterations more than 80 % of the Danube is at risk or possibly at risk. As for the tributaries assessments are only available for 80 % of the basin. The available data shows that over 50 % are at risk of failing to meet the environmental objectives for one or for several reasons. Explanatory notes : These numbers are rather high, but will be reduced as more knowledge of the actual state of the water becomes available. For one: „possibly at risk“ - given in cases where information is insufficient to make a clear assessment Secondly, further developments and additional specific regulations of the WFD need to be taken into account (e.g. the designation of HMWB or derogations where lower environmental objectives need to identified).
  • River bank restoration is the removal of riprap (stone protection, stone armouring) from the riverbank. The new river banks were the result of only one flood event during summer of 2009. The water level of the flood was middle water plus 1,15 m.
  • A basin-wide Action Programme has been adopted and currently 17 flood action plans have been prepared
  • There is a need for further more intensive dialogue between environment interests and Energy/Hydropower/Agriculture. Climate change also poses a threat to the region. Strengthened cooperation in the sub-basins of the Danube is needed.
  • Thank you for your attention.
  • In this table you can see the proposed investments in 1999 that were committed to and the percentage of pollution reduction they would contribute to.
  • Rio danubio europa-wolfgangstaltzer

    1. 1. Danube River – the European Experience: Inputs from the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River Wolfgang Stalzer ICPDR Vienna (Austria) II International Seminar on Revitalization of Rivers Belo Horizonte – Minas Gerais – Brazil
    2. 2. <ul><li>81 M inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>19 Countries </li></ul><ul><li>801 000 km² </li></ul><ul><li>9 % of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>2 850 km Length </li></ul><ul><li>Main Tributary to </li></ul><ul><li>the Black Sea </li></ul>Most international River Basin in the World
    3. 3. Longitudinal Profile of Danube and countries contributions to the cumulative discharge (%); Large differences in water availibility
    4. 4. Political Background 1945 – 1990 The Iron Curtain
    5. 5. Economic Disparities * 2005 *
    6. 6. European Lifeline - Benefits <ul><li>Drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture and livestock breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Fisheries (4 400 t/a) </li></ul><ul><li>Industry (e.g. mining, paper industry, chemical industry) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydropower (28 500 GWh/a) </li></ul><ul><li>Transport – navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism (White Fleet, Cycling) </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation for local people (Protected areas, such as National and Nature Parks) </li></ul>
    7. 7. International Cooperation in Water Management – the Begin <ul><li>1948 Belgrade Convention ( Shipping Convention ): </li></ul><ul><li>Ratified by USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, </li></ul><ul><li>Ukraine, CSSR, Yugoslavia, Austria and Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement of navigation conditions for vessels of </li></ul><ul><li>all nations (flags of over 30 countries are registered) </li></ul><ul><li>1956 International Association on Danube Research – IAD </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of scientific experience over the “Iron Curtain” </li></ul><ul><li>International Hydrological Decade (UNESCO/WMO) </li></ul><ul><li>covering issues of hydrology, flood forecasts, riverine </li></ul><ul><li>regime, etc. </li></ul>
    8. 8. International Cooperation in Water Management <ul><li>1985 Bucharest Declaration on Water Management in the Danube River </li></ul><ul><li>- assessment of water quality at “border profiles” </li></ul><ul><li>- development of a water balance </li></ul><ul><li>- exchange of experiences of flood protections and ice hazards </li></ul>
    9. 9. Danube River Management –after the collaps of the Iron Courtain <ul><li>1989/90 Geopolitical changes in the region – </li></ul><ul><li>Start of several environmental activities in the former COMECON-States </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Activities </li></ul><ul><li>1991 Danube Conference in Sofia </li></ul><ul><li>together with international donors and NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Launching the “Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin” </li></ul>
    10. 10. Danube River Management - Donor driven activities <ul><li>“ Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin” </li></ul><ul><li>Main tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>- Regional studies , feasibility studies </li></ul><ul><li>- Preparation of the “ Strategic Action Plan (SAP)”,1994 </li></ul><ul><li>introducing water pollution control strategies </li></ul><ul><li>- Implementation of the SAP via selected projects </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Requirement: 1992 – 2000 </li></ul><ul><li> 55 Mio. US $ for the eligible states </li></ul>
    11. 11. Danube River Management - Donor driven activities <ul><li>Danube Pollution Reduction Programme – </li></ul><ul><li>( funded through UNDP/GEF) </li></ul><ul><li>finished in 1999 with following results </li></ul><ul><li>a knowledge base for priority pollution loads </li></ul><ul><li>the Danube Water Quality Model </li></ul><ul><li>the revised Strategic Action Plan </li></ul><ul><li>a project database containing 421 projects (192 municipal projects, 113 industrial projects, 67 </li></ul><ul><li>agricultural projects, 29 wetland restoration projects - </li></ul><ul><li>developed for financing institutions) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Danube River Management - Donor driven activities <ul><li>UNDP/GEF DANUBE REGIONAL PROJECT </li></ul><ul><li>2001 – 2006 Transboundary Cooperation between the Danube River Basin – Black Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of nutrient levels </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of toxic and hazardous substances </li></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation of wetlands </li></ul><ul><li>Restoration of the Black Sea Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Support for the Implementation of River Basin Management (EU-WFD) in cooperation with the ICPDR </li></ul><ul><li>Financial input: 17,24 Mio. US $ </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Legal and administrativ Activities </li></ul><ul><li>1992 UNECE “Helsinki”- Convention on the protection and use of transboundary watercourses and international lakes, covering the elements of water protection and water quality management </li></ul><ul><li>1994 Danube River Protection Convention </li></ul><ul><li>(signed in Sofia, Bulgaria June 29) </li></ul><ul><li>1998 Entering into force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation through the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of the Secretariat at the Vienna International Centre </li></ul></ul>International Cooperation in Water Management
    14. 14. ICPDR - International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River <ul><li>The ICPDR , established by the DRPC: </li></ul><ul><li>has the mandate to ensure conservation, improvement and rational use of surface waters and ground water </li></ul><ul><li>reduce inputs of nutrients and hazardous substances </li></ul><ul><li>control floods and ice hazards </li></ul><ul><li>reduce pollution loads to the Black Sea </li></ul>Since 2000 the ICPDR is the coordinating body for implementing the EU Water Framework Directive in DRB
    15. 15. <ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Czech Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Slovakia </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Slovenia </li></ul><ul><li>Croatia </li></ul><ul><li>Bosnia & Herzegovina </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia </li></ul><ul><li>Montenegro </li></ul><ul><li>Romania </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>Rep. of Moldova </li></ul><ul><li>Ukraine </li></ul><ul><li>European Union </li></ul>Contracting Parties
    16. 16. Navigation Commission Die Donau – Tourism Commission REC Observers to the ICPDR GWP CEE UNESCO - IHP Black Sea Commission VGB Power Tech
    17. 17. ICPDR – Statute <ul><li>Statute of the Commission: </li></ul><ul><li>Composition: 5 delegates/contracting party </li></ul><ul><li>Presidency: chair turns every year </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinary Meetings: once per year </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making: consensus </li></ul><ul><li>or four-fifth majority </li></ul><ul><li>Working language </li></ul>
    18. 18. ICPDR –Financial Rules <ul><li>Financial rules: </li></ul><ul><li>Annual budget (only the administrative costs are </li></ul><ul><li>carried by the Commission) </li></ul><ul><li>Contributions in equal parts (except EU .. 2,5 %) </li></ul><ul><li>Contracting parties have to pay the expenses for </li></ul><ul><li>participation of delegates, expert, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Contracting parties have to carry costs of current </li></ul><ul><li>monitoring and assessment activities </li></ul><ul><li>Auditing </li></ul>
    19. 19. ICPDR – Organisation Structure Conference of the Parties International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River Strategic Expert Group Secre- tariat River Basin Management Pressures and Measures Monitoring and Assessment ad hoc Information Management and GIS ad hoc Public Participation Flood Protection Standing Working Group Expert Groups
    20. 20. Coordination Mechanism IT CH PL MK AL DE AT CZ UA MD HU SI SE BG RO SK HR BA ICPDR Cooperation Bilateral agreements Cooperation Cooperation at sub-basin level: e.g. Sava, Tisza
    21. 21. EU – Water Framework Directive – the driving force in the Danube Basin <ul><li>Goals and obligations </li></ul><ul><li>- River basin management </li></ul><ul><li>- Coordination of objectives </li></ul><ul><li>- Good status for all water bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological protection </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical protection </li></ul><ul><li>- Coordination of measures </li></ul><ul><li>- River Basin Management Plan </li></ul><ul><li>- Public participation </li></ul>
    22. 22. ICPDR – Results <ul><li>Transnational Monitoring Network System (TMNS) </li></ul><ul><li>Accidental Prevention and Emergency Warning System (APEWS) </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Action Plan (SAP) </li></ul><ul><li>Danube River Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>River Basin Management Plan (RBM) </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Action Plan </li></ul>
    23. 23. Trans National Monitoring Network - TNMN
    24. 24. Danube Basin Analysis 2004 <ul><li>First comprehensive analysis of the entire Danube River Basin </li></ul><ul><li>Basis for any future river basin management planning </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of significant water management issues </li></ul>
    25. 25. Identification Significant Water Management Issues 2001
    26. 26. Danube – Qualitystatus 2009
    27. 27. <ul><li>First time and unique overview on basin-wide issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transboundary EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>implementation for largest international river basin district </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressures/impacts for all significant water management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>issues (SWMIs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basin-wide analysis on wastewater treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient management on a large scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HYMO alterations – first time overview </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large scale data collection based on DanubeGIS </li></ul>Danube River Basin Management (DR BM) Plan
    28. 28. <ul><li>Is a ‘heartpiece’ of the DRBM Plan that outlines </li></ul><ul><li>Visions and management objectives for each SWMI </li></ul><ul><li>Way toward the management the environmental objective </li></ul><ul><li>2015 </li></ul><ul><li>Measures that need to/will be taken on basin-wide scale </li></ul><ul><li>Financing aspects </li></ul>DR BM Plan Joint Programme of Measures (JPM) JPM Key Conclusions are part of it
    29. 29. DR BM Plan SWMIs – Key Results Organic Pollution Nutrient Pollution Hazardous Substances Pollution Hydromorphological Alterations
    30. 31. <ul><li>Reference Situation: </li></ul><ul><li>6,224 agglomerations > 2,000 PE in the DRB: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2,000 – 10,000 PE: 4,969 agglomerations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> 10,000 PE: 1,255 agglomerations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many agglomerations without wastewater treatment or sewerage connection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No wastewater collection: more than 2,900 aggl. = 12.6% of the generated load </li></ul></ul>Basic Facts Scenarios used as tool for indication 2015 and beyond Organic Pollution
    31. 32. Organic Load Organic Pollution
    32. 33. <ul><li>BOD 5 and COD emissions – different scenarios </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baseline Scenario-UWWT 2015 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Midterm Scenario-UWWT (beyond 2015) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision Scenario-UWWT (beyond 2015) </li></ul></ul>BOD 5 and COD emissions Organic Pollution
    33. 34. <ul><li>Considerable reduction through measures of Baseline Scenario-UWWT to be implemented by 2015 but achievement of WFD environmental objectives on the basin-wide scale 2015 not ensured </li></ul><ul><li>Significant efforts still need to be undertaken for next RBM cycles </li></ul>Key Conclusions Organic Pollution
    34. 35. Longterm Change of the Nutrient Load Nutrient Pollution
    35. 36. <ul><li>Overall Baseline Scenario – Nutrients 2015 </li></ul><ul><li>Baseline Scenario Agriculture – Nutrients 2015 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate agricultural development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreed measures to reduce nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future NOx deposition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Scenarios-Nutrient 2015 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensified agricultural development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phosphate Ban Scenario </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considers P ban in laundry detergents and dishwashers </li></ul></ul>Different Scenarios - Nutrients Nutrient Pollution
    36. 37. Different Scenarios N & P Emissions and Loads Reference – Baseline 2015 Nitrogen 686 kt/a Phosphorous 58 kt/a Nutrient Pollution
    37. 38. <ul><li>N emissions to surface waters in 2015: 602 kt/a = 12% lower than 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Load to the Black Sea: Below present state but still far above (40%) that of the 1960‘s. </li></ul><ul><li>Management objectives and EU WFD objectives not ensured by 2015 </li></ul><ul><li>P emissions to surface waters in 2015: 46 kt/a = 21% lower than 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Load to the Black Sea: Below present state but still above (15%) that of the 1960‘s </li></ul><ul><li>Management objective will not be achieved by 2015 and this is most likely also the case for the WFD environmental objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of limitations on P in detergents is seen as a cost effective and necessary measure </li></ul>Key Conclusions Nutrient Pollution
    38. 39. <ul><li>Based on EPER (EU MS) and ICPDR Emission Inventory data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to be improved end 2009 (but not part of DRBM Plan) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EU IPPC and other Directives key instruments for reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge on sources , pathways and losses of hazardous substances on the basin-wide scale </li></ul><ul><li>Estimation that management objectives and EU WFD environmental objectives will not be achieved in 2015 </li></ul><ul><li>Further measures needed </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need for more monitoring data and information on sources of hazardous substances </li></ul>Hazardous Substances Pollution
    39. 40. 4 HYMO Components River and Habitat Continuity Interruption Disconnection of Adjacent Wetlands/Floodplains Hydrological Alterations Future Infrastructure Projects <ul><li>Key Drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Hydropower generation </li></ul><ul><li>Flood protection </li></ul><ul><li>Water supply </li></ul>Hydromorphological Alterations
    40. 41. Danube – Qualitystatus 2009
    41. 42. River and Habitat Continuity Interruption <ul><li>108 migration aids constructed by 2015; 824 remain continuity interruptions in 2015 </li></ul><ul><li>686 continuity interruptions will be addressed by 2021/2027 </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve the WFD environmental objectives in an ecologically effective way: initial measures should focus on the defined ecological priority river stretches . </li></ul><ul><li>Perform feasibility study on the re-opening of the Iron Gate Dams </li></ul>Hydromorphological Alterations
    42. 43. Ecological prioritisation approach for basin-wide measures for river continuity <ul><li>Should ensure free fish migration in DRB </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of fish regions in DRB </li></ul><ul><li>List and map of key migration routes of medium and long distance migratory fish species </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritisation index for measures based on agreed criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Map illustrating prioritisation index and therefore measure priority </li></ul>Sturgeon Danube Salmon Hydromorphological Alterations
    43. 45. Danube – Hydropower, Freudenau Fichladder
    44. 46. Disconnection Wetlands/Floodplains <ul><li>612,745 ha of wetlands/floodplains with reconnection potential </li></ul><ul><li>62,300 ha reconnected and/or the hydrological regime improved by 2015 </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to indicate currently the effect of measures on basin-wide scale </li></ul>Hydromorphological Alterations
    45. 47. Hydrological Alterations <ul><li>697 hydrological alterations in DRBD as of 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>139 measures will be taken to improve the ecological status of water bodies </li></ul><ul><li>236 hydrological alterations will be addressed by 2021/2027 </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to indicate currently the effect of measures on basin-wide scale </li></ul>Hydromorphological Alterations
    46. 48. Danube – Bankreinforcement
    47. 49. River Bank Restoration Pilot Project Thurnhaufen BEST LIFE Nature Project 2007-2008
    48. 50. Reconnection of Side Arms Higher, stabilized water level Restoration of river banks construction of in-flows Construction of out-flows Reconstruction of traverses, if necessary replacement by bridges
    49. 51. Danube - Wetlandrestoration
    50. 52. Wetland - Interconnection Verklausen von Durchlässen Neue Bauweise GV Schönau
    51. 53. River Bank Restoration Pilot Project Witzelsdorf after MW+1,15
    52. 54. Pilotproject Witzelsdorf
    53. 55. Pilotproject Witzelsdorf
    54. 56. Drau-Kleblach, Floodprotection – Bedenlargement 1999 2009
    55. 57. 1998 2002 Riverbederosion – Bedenlargement Austria Drau Sachsenburg
    56. 58. Flood Protection: Action programme & plans <ul><ul><li>Action Programme on Sustainable Flood Protection in the Danube River Basin adopted in 2004; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>17 flood action plans for the sub-basins in the Danube catchment area prepared in 2009 based on 45 national plans; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAP lists hundreds of measures the Danube countries are going to take to keep their citizens safe against the flood danger. </li></ul></ul>
    57. 59. Awareness Raising, Education, and Consultation Teacher’s handbook Interactive CD-ROM, working sheets, poster, family cards National languages and English Danube Box
    58. 60. Next Steps <ul><li>Implementation of joint measures according to the </li></ul><ul><li>Danube River Basin Management Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>b y 2012 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of the measure implementation success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>b y 2015 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to achieve the basin-wide management objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integration of Danube basin-wide findings into the overall EU context of the Danube Strategy </li></ul>
    59. 61. Thank you for the attention!
    60. 62. Investments and expected results <ul><li>Investments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipal wastewater collection & treatment 3.709 bill USD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial waste water treatment 0.276 bill USD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural projects and land use 0.113 bill USD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation of wetlands 0.323 bill USD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen reduction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from point sources 58,600 t/y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from diffuse sources 60,000 t/y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>total emission reduction: 22 % </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus reduction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from point sources 12,000 t/y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from diffuse sources 4,000 t/y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>total emission reduction 33 % </li></ul></ul>