Portugal - Country Profile
aicep Portugal Global                                                  Portugal - Country Profile (April 2010)Index1. Hist...
aicep Portugal Global                                                                           Portugal - Country Profile...
aicep Portugal Global                                                                                       Portugal - Cou...
aicep Portugal Global                                                                                        Portugal - Co...
aicep Portugal Global                                                                                      Portugal - Coun...
aicep Portugal Global                                                                                      Portugal - Coun...
aicep Portugal Global                                                                                                     ...
aicep Portugal Global                                                                                          Portugal - ...
aicep Portugal Global                                                                                             Portugal...
aicep Portugal Global                                                                                                     ...
aicep Portugal Global                                                                                                     ...
aicep Portugal Global                                                                                                     ...
aicep Portugal Global                                                                                           Portugal -...
aicep Portugal Global                                                                                       Portugal - Cou...
aicep Portugal Global                                                                                                   Po...
aicep Portugal Global                                                                                                     ...
aicep Portugal Global                                                                                                 Port...
aicep Portugal Global                                                                                         Portugal - C...
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment
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Portugal country detailed profile - Export & Investment

  1. 1. Portugal - Country Profile
  2. 2. aicep Portugal Global Portugal - Country Profile (April 2010)Index1. History 42. Culture 53. Geography and socio-economic characteristics 7 3.1 Geography, climate 7 3.2 Socio-economic indicators 74. Political and Administrative Organization 9 4.1 Political structure 9 4.2 Administrative organization 105. Population 12 5.1 Regional breakdown 13 5.2 Migrations 14 5.3 Active population 14 5.4 Schooling levels of the active population 156. Infrastructures networks 16 6.1 Roadways 16 6.2 Railways 16 6.3 Ports 17 6.4 Air Transport 18 6.5 Technological infrastructures 19 6.6 Policies for the future 217. Resources and productive structure 22 7.1 Agriculture, forestry and fishing 23 7.2 Industry 26 7.3 Construction 35 7.4 Services 35 2
  3. 3. aicep Portugal Global Portugal - Country Profile (April 2010)8. Economy situation 40 8.1 Recent economic policy 40 8.2 The economic outlook 41 8.3 The regional economies 449. Regional economic framework – Portugal and the European Union 5210. Foreign trade 53 10.1 Trade balance trends 54 10.2 Main trading partners 55 10.3 Composition of trade 57 10.4 International trade and the regions 5811. Investment 59 11.1 Foreign direct investment trends in Portugal 59 11.1.1 Main investors by country 60 11.1.2 Foreign direct investment by major sectors 60 11.1.3 Recent foreign direct investment projects in Portugal 60 11.2 Trends in Portuguese foreign direct investment 63 11.2.1 Portuguese foreign direct investment by major recipients 63 11.2.2 Main sectors 63 11.2.3 Recent projects indicating the internationalization of Portuguese companies 6412. Tourism 6713. International and regional relations 6914. Legal requirements for market access 70 14.1 Intra-EU exchange procedures 70 14.2 General import procedures 71 14.3 Foreign investment procedures 72ANNEXESAnnex 1 – Custom procedures 74Annex 2 – Import documentation 75Annex 3 – Useful Internet addresses 76 3
  4. 4. aicep Portugal Global Portugal - Country Profile (April 2010)1. History ©Rui Morais de SousaThe battle of São Mamede which occurred in 1128,between the royalty of Portucale led by Dom AfonsoHenriques and the Gallician nobles led by his mother DonaTeresa, was decisive for the birth of Portugal. Once thebattle was won and Dona Teresa was expelled from theCondado Portucalense, Dom Afonso Henriques declaredthe principality independent. Various skirmishes continuedagainst León and Castile and against the Muslims, but itwas not until the Battle of Ourique, in 1139, that Portugal’sindependence was declared and Dom Afonso Henriques,with the help of Portuguese chiefs, was proclaimed sovereign- Dom Afonso I of Portugal. However, the independence ofPortugal would only be recognized by the King of Castile in Padrão dos Descobrimentos (Monument to the Discoveries)1143 with the signing of the Treaty of Zamora. The dream of a new Brazil (this time in Africa, linking AngolaThere followed a long period of conquests and a number of and Mozambique through regularly travelled territoriestreaties were signed between Portugal and the Kingdom of that were never settled) was hindered by English imperialCastile and, in 1297, during the reign of Dom Dinis, the actual ambitions, stirring up forces for a change in political regime.frontiers of Portugal were defined (the oldest in Europe). Thus, at the beginning of the twentieth century the First Republic was established in Portugal (1910).The fourteenth century saw the appearance of the firstbright lights of the Golden Age of Portugal. Its language Due to the financial crisis that swept Europe after World Warbegan to develop apart from the Gallic-Portuguese, the I and to domestic political instability, in 1926 a military coupCourt became distinguished with intellectual brilliance on a put an end to the parliamentary regime of the First Republic.European scale and the University was founded. In 1933, the regime in power gave way to the Estado Novo, or New State, which ruled the country until 1974.The fifteenth century marked the beginning of theDiscoveries, during which Portugal witnesses a period On 25 April 1974 the Armed Forces Movement cast outof great expansion across the oceans. The archipelagos the existing political regime that ruled Portugal, replacing itof Madeira (1419) and the Azores (1425) were officially with a democratic regime. With democracy came economicdiscovered and a few cities in the Kingdom of Morocco and social development, flourishing cultural and scientificwere conquered. Among the numerous personalities activity and the affirmation of innovation in Portugal.involved with this period the following stand out: DiogoCão, for the discovery of the African coast, Bartolomeu With the end of the imperial era (with the liberation, inDias, who in 1488 sailed around the Cape of Good Hope the mid 1970s, of Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau,and opened the route to the discovery of India by Vasco Mozambique, and São Tomé and Príncipe), Portugal becameda Gama (1498) and, lastly, Pedro Álvares Cabral who a member of the European Economic Community in 1986discovered Brazil in 1500. and later joined the Euro Area, but without severing the 4
  5. 5. aicep Portugal Global Portugal - Country Profile (April 2010)strong links existing with the other seven Portuguese- Clérigos Tower, in granite, in Oporto, and the Romanesquespeaking countries (which led to the creation of the Cathedral of Braga.Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries, or CPLP,Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa) and with the In many monuments one can observe in stonePortuguese communities scattered throughout the world. our relationship with the sea. Such can be seen in contemporary Portuguese architecture where names likeCurrently, Portugal is a country that enjoys social and Álvaro Siza Vieira or Eduardo Souto de Moura stand out,political stability that asserts itself more and more due to particularly in the Park of Nations, the site of the lastits ability to engage in dialogue and to understand diversity world’s fair of the twentieth century which was dedicatedbased on its culture and style of life resulting from centuries to the theme of the oceans.of living side by side with other peoples. ©Rui Morais de Sousa2. CulturePortuguese culture is based on a past marked by the peoplesthat occupied its territory, of which several outstandingexamples remain: the temple of Diana in Évora from theRoman period and the Moorish architecture so typical ofcities in the South of Portugal, such as Olhão and Tavira.Portuguese art was enriched by various foreign influencesduring the centuries. The Portuguese discoveries around Pavilhão de Portugal (Pavilion of Portugal) – Parque das Naçõesthe world led to the country becoming more receptive to (Park of Nations)oriental influences, as well as the period of the fifteenthcentury when the discovery of Brazil and its riches The splendour of sculpture was expressed in theinfluenced the development of the Baroque style. magnificent twelfth and thirteenth century tombs and in the Baroque sculptures of the eighteenth century, theIn architecture, Roman and Gothic influences gave the crèches of Joaquim Machado de Castro truly stand out. Thecountry some of its most imposing cathedrals. In the classic and romantic traditions of Italy and France, besidesfifteenth century a completely national style was born – the influencing the works of Machado de Castro, were alsoManueline style – that expressed the blending together of determining factors in the plastic arts expression of Antóniovarious art forms into a luxurious and ornamental style. Soares dos Reis, in the nineteenth century.Various examples of great architectural works can be cited: The school of painters of the fifteenth century was thethe Jeronimos Monastery in Lisbon; the Sé (cathedral) precursor of a patrician style of painting of Flemishof Lisbon, where traces of Roman construction are still painters, who left an eminent heritage in religious art byvisible on the facade; the Palace of Justice in Lisbon, an decorating various palaces and convents in Portugal. Theexample of austere modern architecture; the Castle and romantic period of the nineteenth century, although late,Church of the Convent of Christ in Tomar; the Portuguese led to the rebirth of national art. There followed a period ofAbbey of Santa Maria da Vitória (in the Gothic style); the natural realism that opened doors to new experiences that 5
  6. 6. aicep Portugal Global Portugal - Country Profile (April 2010)followed in the twentieth century; worth noting are the In the theatre, the outstanding figures are Gil Vicente, Antónioworks of Maria Helena Vieira da Silva in abstract painting José da Silva (known as “the Jew”) and Bernardo Santareno.and of Carlos Botelho in Lisbon street scenes. Popular music and dance and the traditional fado continueThe ceramic tile sector is equally very rich. Many sixteenth to be fundamental forms of musical expression of theand seventeenth century buildings are covered in tiles. country. The most famous fadista in the world was AmáliaThey were also chosen to decorate the walls of rooms Rodrigues, but today names like Carlos do Carmo or Marisaand entrance halls of various palaces and stately mansions keep alive this type of song long associated with Portugal.where there are panels of tiles, with blue and whitecolours predominating. ©António SacchettiExceptionally good examples can be seen in the Pátioof Carranca, in the Paço of Sintra, in the Church of SãoRoque in Lisbon and in the Quinta da Bacalhoa, in VilaFresca de Azeitão, near Setúbal. Even the Lisbon subway/underground authority decorated some of its stations withtiles signed by contemporary Portuguese artists.Literature stands out through the richness and varietyof its lyric poetry, through writings exalting history andfor subtlety in drama, biographies and essays. The firstsongbooks, known as “cancioneiros” are witness to Centro Cultural de Belém (Lisbon)a school of poetry based on love, a style that crossedthe border and influenced Spanish “cancioneiros”. The Lastly, speaking of Portuguese culture is tantamount to theromantic style absorbed the influence of our neighbours, ability to spread the language. Portuguese is the fifth mostalthough without preference for the heroic. spoken language in the world and the third most spoken in the West; more than 210 million people speak the language.The Lusíadas of Luís de Camões is the great epic work ofthe sixteenth century; it is the classic poem that exalts the It is the official language of Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde,exploits of the Portuguese beyond the sea. Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, and São Tomé and Príncipe. It is also one of the official languages of Equatorial GuineaThere exist other well known names in poetry as, for (together with Spanish and French), East Timor (with Tétum)example, Fernando Pessoa, Eugénio de Andrade, Florbela and Macao (with Cantonese).Espanca, Cesário Verde, António Ramos Rosa, MárioCesariny and Antero do Quental, among others. It is even spoken in former Portuguese India (Goa, Damão and Diu), Andorra, Luxembourg and Namíbia, in addition toAs for prose, there are Damião de Góis, Father António having official status in the European Union, Mercosul andVieira, Almeida Garrett, Eça de Queiroz, Camilo Castelo the African Union.Branco, Miguel Torga, Fernando Namora, José CardosoPires, António Lobo Antunes and José Saramago (winner ofthe Nobel Prize for literature in 1998). 6
  7. 7. aicep Portugal Global Portugal - Country Profile (April 2010)3. Geography and Socio-Economic generally of lower altitude, are distinct from the highlands of the interior. The highest altitudes are located in a Characteristics mountain chain situated in the centre of the country: the Serra da Estrela, at 1,991 meters in altitude, is the highest 3.1 Geography, climate point. In the archipelagos, the mountain of Pico (2,351 meters) is the highest point in the Azores and the PicoPortugal is geographically situated on the west coast of Ruivo (1,862 meters) is the top elevation in Madeira.Europe, in the Iberian Peninsula. It borders Spain on thenorth and east, and the Atlantic Ocean on the west and On the generally not so indented continental coastline,south. Its frontiers were defined as long ago as the thirteenth the main deltas are estuaries (Tagus and Sado). Then therecentury and include, in addition to the continental territory, are small bays (Peniche, Sines, Lagos) and lagoon-typethe Autonomous Regions of the Azores and Madeira, formations (Vouga-Aveiro, Óbidos, Faro). The capes of thearchipelagos situated in the Atlantic Ocean. coastline are few in number and small in size, but of greatWith a total area of 92,094 km2, Portugal benefits from an beauty: these are the capes of Mondego, Carvoeiro, Roca,excellent geographical location, being situated in a geo- Espichel, Sines, São Vicente, and Santa Maria.strategical position between Europe, America and Africa. The climate is characterized by mild winters and balmy summers. The rainiest months are November and December, while the period with the least precipitation occurs between April and September. 3.2 Socio-economic indicators In the last ten years a series of extensive reforms were adopted which had a significant impact on the level of economic development and social cohesion (protection and social inclusion) in Portugal. The fight against extreme poverty, minimum pensions, the Social Inclusion Income Law, and the Solidarity Supplement for the Elderly Regulation, were paradigm measures in social protection. As for measures relating to social inclusion, the highlight is the assistance to families through care centres, investment in equipment, including a network of continuing care for the elderly and dependent persons, and local intervention to combat poverty and exclusion, taking into account local requirements and theOn the continental territory, the Tagus (the longest river) people most in need of assistance.divides the more mountainous north from the south withits plains and lower elevations. Even the coastal areas, 7
  8. 8. aicep Portugal Global Portugal - Country Profile (April 2010)Socio-economic indicators Demography 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Total population (resident) Thousands 10,529 10,563 10,586 10,604 10,622 Birth rate Per Thousand 10.4 10.4 10.0 9.7 9.8 2001-2003 2002-2004 2003-2005 2004-2006 2005-2007 Life expectancy at birth Years 77.4 77.7 78.2 78.5 78.7 Education 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Preschool a Thousands 254 260 262 264 266 Elementary and secondary a Thousands 1,548 1,530 1,492 1,512 1,537 Higher education a Thousands 395 381 367 378 373 Public spending on education b % of GDP 7.4 7.6 7.1 5.8 4.4 Culture 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Museum visitors Millions 9.0 9.0 9.7 10.3 10.0 Art gallery exhibitions Nº 6,130 6,449 6,463 6,609 6,859 Publications c Nº 1,929 2,052 2,054 1,994 1,896 Local government spending 106 EUR 648.9 913.8 802.9 802.8 863.8 on cultural activities Health 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Doctors Nº 35,213 36,138 36,924 37,904 38,932 Hospitals Nº 209 204 200 198 189 Hospital beds Nº 38,239 37,330 36,563 36,178 35,762 Health centres Nº 376 379 378 377 377 Pharmacies and mobile pharmacy points Nº 3,012 3,034 3,037 3,038 3,037 Current public spending on health b % of GDP 7.1 7.3 7.1 6.8 5.6 Information Society 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Internet subscribers Thousands 1,224 1,436 1,580 1,612 1,675 Access to Internet service Rate of Penetration 11.6 13.6 14.9 15.2 15.8 Rate of Penetration/ Main telephone lines 40.3 40.1 40.0 39.6 38.9 100 Inhab. Subscribers Mobil telephone service subscribers 10,571 11,447 12,226 13,451 14,910 (thousands) Subscribers/ Penetration rate – land line service 100,0 108,0 115,0 127,0 140,0 100 Inhab. Cable television subscribers Thousands 1,343 1,400 1,421 1,490 1,475 Subscribers/ Penetration rate of cable network 13.0 13.0 13.0 14.0 14.0 % Population Receipts/ Share of the communications sector 5.8 5.8 5.5 5.4 5.6 % of GDPSources: INE - Instituto Nacional de Estatística; Autoridade Nacional de ComunicaçõesNotes: (a) Ministério da Educação (GEPE) and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior (b) INE - National Accounts (200 basis) actual data; Year 2008 - Public General Account (c) Daily, weekly, monthly, and annual frequency 8
  9. 9. aicep Portugal Global Portugal - Country Profile (April 2010)4. Political and Administrative are to approve constitutional changes, approve the political- administrative statutes of the Autonomous Regions, approve Organization the State Budget, make proposals to the President of the Republic concerning whether to hold referenda, evaluate 4.1 Political structure the programs of the Government, deal with tax matters and evaluate activities of the Government and the Administration.As concerns the political structure, the PortugueseRepublic is a nation founded on democratic law, based on The Assembly of the Republic can be dissolved by thepopular suffrage, pluralism of expression and democratic President of the Republic following a hearing with thepolitical organization, respect and the guarantee of parties represented in the Assembly as well as the Councilfundamental rights and liberties, and on the separation and of State. The current President of the Assembly of theindependence of powers. Republic is Jaime Gama and the distribution of the party seats is as follows: Socialist Party (PS) – 97 deputies; Social-The sovereign bodies are the President of the Republic, the Democratic Party (PPD/PSD) – 81 deputies; Popular PartyAssembly of the Republic, the Government, and the Courts. (CDS/PP) – 21 deputies; the Left Bloc (BE) – 16 deputies;In the Portuguese constitutional system, the President of and the Portuguese Communist Party and the Ecologistthe Republic is elected by direct and universal suffrage Party/ the Greens (PCP/PEV) – 15 deputies.in a secret ballot, and his mandate is five years. (Re-election for a third consecutive term is not permitted.) The The Government is the principal body in the PublicPresident of the Republic is the supreme representative Administration and is responsible for setting general policy forof the Portuguese Republic, he guarantees national the country. It is composed of the Prime Minister, the Cabinetindependence, the unity of the State and the normal and the Secretaries and Under-Secretaries of State.functioning of the democratic institutions, and is, in effect, The Prime Minister, who presides over the Council ofthe Supreme Commander of the Armed forces. Ministers (Cabinet) meetings, is nominated by the President of the Republic. The other members of the GovernmentAmong his sovereign powers, the most important are the are nominated by the President of the Republic upon thedissolution of the National Assembly, the nomination of proposal of the Prime Minister. The current Prime Minister isthe Prime Minister and the other members of the cabinet, José Sócrates, leader of the Socialist Party.the promulgation of laws and decree laws, the naming ofambassadors upon government proposal, and the ratification In essence, it is up to the Government to guarantee theof international treaties. The current President of the Republic operation of the public administration, to promote theis Aníbal Cavaco Silva, elected on 22 January 2006. satisfaction of collective needs and guarantee the proper execution of laws. It also has legislative competenciesLegislative powers are vested in the Assembly of the that in some cases are its own and in other cases theRepublic which is comprised of 230 deputies, elected by function is shared with the Assembly of the Republicdirect universal suffrage for a term of four years. The last (relative competence).elections took place on 27 September of 2009. The Courts are the sovereign bodies charged with theThe Assembly of the Republic has responsibilities at the jurisdiction of administering justice. They are independentpolitical, legislative and fiscal levels. Among some of its duties and are only subject to the law. 9
  10. 10. aicep Portugal Global Portugal - Country Profile (April 2010)The Portuguese judicial system comprises various categories latter, its competency relates to exclusively to theor rank of courts, independent among themselves, each evaluation and judgment of declarative actions whosewith its own structure and procedures. importance does not go beyond the jurisdiction of the Court of First Instance.Only two of these categories include a Court (theConstitutional Court and the Court of Audits); the restinclude a plurality of courts, with a hierarchical structure 4.2 Administrative organizationand a superior court at the top of the hierarchy. Following accession to the European Community, forThe Constitutional Court – It occupies a special and statistical purposes, the territory of Portugal was classifiedautonomous rank in the order of courts. Its very specific according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Unitsformation and functions make it stand out. It is the court of (commonly known as the NUT system from the Frenchrecourse relating to decisions of the other courts in matters acronym), to establish similar designations that allowconcerning constitutionality. It is composed of 13 judges, of comparisons with other countries within the Europeanwhich 10 are designated by the Assembly of the Republic Union. Portugal is designated NUT I, divided into 7 NUTand three co-opted by them. The judges, who elect the II units equivalent to “regions” – North Region; CentrePresident of the Constitutional Court, have a nine-year Region; Lisbon Region; Alentejo Region; Algarve Region;mandate that cannot be renewed. the Autonomous Region of Madeira; and the Autonomous Region of the Azores. They in turn are divided into 30 NUTThe Judicial Courts – They are the first category of III units equivalent to “sub-regions” (28 on the Continentcommon courts and they have their own hierarchical and the two Autonomous Regions).structure, with judicial courts of first and second instanceand the Supreme Court of Justice the topmost body. The Alentejo and the Centre share among themselves the largest territories in the country, with 34% and 31% ofThe Administrative and Fiscal Courts – These courts are the total, respectively, the Autonomous Region of Madeiraencharged with judgment of actions and recourse destined comprises the smallest area.to determine the litigation arising from administrativeand fiscal affairs. These courts have their own hierarchicalstructure, with the Supreme Administrative Tribunal the top Regions (NUT II) determined by areasranking court. Regions Areas (km2) % of total Alentejo 31,551 34.3The Court of Audits – This court not only has Centre 28,200 30.6jurisdictional functions (fiscalization of legality regarding North 21,284 23.1public expenditures and judgment of public accounts), Algarve 4,996 5.4but also expresses its views on the General Government Lisbon 2,940 3.2 Azores 2,322 2.5Budget, with the purpose of enabling the Assembly of Madeira 801 0.9the Republic to render evaluation and judgment. Total (a) 92,094 100.0 Source: INE - Portugal Statistical Yearbook Note: (a) Includes 362 km2 of interior waterwaysThere could also exist Maritime Courts, Courts ofArbitration and Justice of the Peace Courts. As for the 10
  11. 11. aicep Portugal Global Portugal - Country Profile (April 2010)Sub-Regions NUT III The new juridical regime of municipal association 1 determined the organization of municipal associationsRegions of the Continent which can be classified into two types: for multiple ends or North Minho-Lima for specific purposes. Cavado Ave Greater Porto The municipal associations with multiple purposes, Tâmega denominated intermunicipal communities (CIM), are Entre Douro e Vouga Douro comprised of municipalities that correspond to one or more Alto Trás-os-Montes NUTS III and take those names. Centre Baixo Vouga Baixo Mondego The municipal associations with multiple purposes, Pinhal Litoral Pinhal Interior Norte denominated intermunicipal communities (CIM), are Dão-Lafões comprised of municipalities that correspond to one or more Pinhal Interior Sul NUTS III and take those names. Serra da Estrela Beira Interior Norte Beira Interior Sul Municipal associations with specific purposes were created Cova da Beira to achieve those common goals of the municipalities that Oeste Médio Tejo comprise them, in the defense of collective rights of a Lisbon Greater Lisbon sectoral, regional or local nature. Península of Setúbal Alentejo Alentejo Litoral Major cities Alto Alentejo Alentejo Central It is worth highlighting the importance of cities, both in terms Baixo Alentejo Lezíria do Tejo of geography and politics. There are now 151 cities on the Algarve Algarve Continent, of which 19 are “District Capitals.” Among the oldest Portuguese cities are Lisbon, Oporto, Viseu, Braga, Coimbra, Évora, Guarda, Lamego, Silves, Faro, Lagos, andAutonomous Regions Tavira, with pre-Portucalian origins that are repositories of an A. R. Azores A. R. Azores urban history that is of Roman or Arab origin or sometimes A. R. Madeira A. R. Madeira both, as in the case of the cities in the South and even Lisbon.Source: INE – Instituto Nacional de EstatísticaNote: This division of regions and their subdivisions is based on the NUTS system(Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics). The city of Lisbon (population of about 565,000 – 1.9 million in Greater Lisbon) has been the capital of Portugal since the twelfth century, is the largest city in the country,According to the NUTS statistical classification, Portugal is the main economic hub, and has one of the largestdivided into 18 Districts on the Continent and they are the maritime ports and the largest airport. The city of Oportofollowing: Aveiro, Beja, Braga, Bragança, Castelo Branco, (about 216,000 inhabitants – 1.2 million in Greater Oporto)Coimbra, Évora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa, Portalegre, is the second largest city.Oporto, Santarém, Setúbal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real,and Viseu. The Districts and the Autonomous Regions aresubdivided into 308 Councils/Municipalities and 4,260 towns. 1 Law nº 45/2008 of 27 August 11
  12. 12. aicep Portugal Global Portugal - Country Profile (April 2010)5. Population Nonetheless, the demographic indicators relating to 2008 continue to reflect the main demographic trends observed in the last few years in Portugal and that is, a decline inDuring the first few years of the twenty-first century, total population growth and continuing population aging.Portugal remained a country with low fertility, a continuing On 31 December 2008, the resident population hadrise in life expectancy and with a declining net migration increased a mere 0.09% compared with the same periodbalance. In 2007, it registered a negative natural balance, a a year earlier, an increase that was due entirely to thesituation that had only occurred once before in 1918, and influx of migration. On the other hand, the trend towardsattributable to the deadly Spanish influenza. The rhythm population aging continued due to the decline in fertilityof population growth is very slow, with immigration flows and the increase in longevity.remaining the only element of growth while populationageing continues. The reduction in the number of Between 2003 and 2008 the proportion of young peoplemarriages, the sharp rise in births arising from cohabitation, (under 15 years of age) fell from 15.7% to 15.3% of thea rising divorce rate, and the higher average marriage age total population while at the same time the increase in therepresent today’s new family models in our country. share of the elderly population (age 65 and over) went from 16.8% to 17.6%. The confluence of both trendsAccording to the results of the 2001 census, Portugal had results in an aging of the overall population. The index ofat the time 10.3 million inhabitants. This outcome was aging has risen from 107 elderly per 100 youth in 2003 to5.1% higher than 10 years previously and significantly 115 in 2008. Between 2003 and 2008 the proportion ofhigher than had been estimated. youth (0-14 years of age) declined from 15.8% to 15.3%;Resident population of Portugal - 2001-2008 Trends 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Population on 10,329,340 10,407,465 10,474,685 10,529,255 10,569,592 10,599,095 10,617,575 10,627,250 31 December Male ratio (%) 93.4 93.7 93.7 93.8 93.8 93.8 93.8 93.8 Total live births 112,774 114,383 112,515 109,262 109,399 105,351 102,492 104,594 Total deaths 105,092 106,258 108,795 101,932 107,462 101,948 103,512 104,280 Net natural 7,682 8,125 3,720 7,330 1,937 3,403 -1,020 314 increase Migration 65,000 70,000 63,500 47,240 38,400 26,100 19,500 9,361 balance Population 72,682 78,125 67,220 54,570 40,337 29,503 18,480 9,675 change Natural 0.07 0.08 0.04 0.07 0.02 0.03 -0.01 0.00 growth (%) Migratory 0.63 0.68 0.61 0.45 0.36 0.25 0.18 0.09 growth (%) Actual 0.71 0.75 0.64 0.52 0.38 0.28 0.17 0.09 growth (%)Source: Instituto Nacional de Estatística – Demographic Statistics, 2008 12
  13. 13. aicep Portugal Global Portugal - Country Profile (April 2010)the share of the active population (15-64 years of age) also pensioners who have chosen to retire in this tourist region.fell, declining from 67.5% to 67.2%, while the share of As a result, the population distribution around the territorythe elderly population (65 years and over) gained in relative of the continent shows a contrast between the coast andimportance from 16.7% to 17.4% (114 individuals per the interior of the country.each 100 under 15 years of age). Similar to what was being observed throughout the country, inAccording to the median population scenario of the 2008 population growth was positive in most of the regions,“Projections of the resident population of Portugal, 2008- except in the Centre (-0.11%) given that net immigration was2060” (at 31 December), the resident population of not sufficient to compensate for negative natural populationPortugal will continue to increase up to 2034 when the growth, and in the Alentejo where there was an actual declinepopulation will reach 10,898,700 persons. Beginning that of 0.51% in the resident population. The Algarve is the regionyear, the trend will reverse, until the year 2053 when the with the highest actual population growth (0.86%), sustainedpopulation will be below the starting point year. In 2060, by a significant rate of migration growth (0.82%).the total population will reach 10,364,200 persons. In analyzing the demographic density of the Portuguese population according to the various regions of the country, 5.1 Regional breakdown Lisbon is the clear leader. In second place is Madeira with about one-third the population density of the first. TheMore than three-fifths of the Portuguese population is greatest gap seems to lie in the North Region which,concentrated in the North Region (which includes the city apart from having, in relative terms, the largest residentof Oporto) and the Lisbon Region. The population decline population, shows a population density about 5½ timesin the rural areas of the interior have continued to affect lower than that of Lisbon. Then follow the Autonomouspart of the North Region (excluding Oporto), the Centre Region of the Azores, the Centre Region, the Algarve (theand above all, the Alentejo. latter two are roughly the same), and finally the Alentejo,Regional breakdown (2008) with the lowest ratio of inhabitants/km2. % of Density Regionsa Populationb total (inhab./km2) In the coastal stretch between Viana do Castelo and Setúbal, North 3,745,439 35.24 176 Lisbon 2,819,433 26.53 957 one can spot two areas with particularly high densities, Centre 2,383,284 22.43 85 centered around the cities of Lisbon and Oporto. In fact, the Alentejo 757,069 7.12 24 13 cities with the highest number of inhabitants per km2 are Algarve 430,084 4.05 85 part of the Greater Metropolitan Areas: in Lisbon - Amadora, Madeira 247,161 2.33 308 Lisbon, Odivelas, Oeiras, Barreiro, Almada, Cascais, and Seixal; Azores 244,780 2.30 105 in Oporto - Oporto, São João da Madeira, Matosinhos, Vila Totala 10,627,250 100.0 115 Nova de Gaia, Valongo, and Maia. This phenomenon alsoSource: INE – Instituto Nacional de Estatística extends to other metropolitan areas, including most of theNotes: (a) Regions based on NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics); (b) Demographic Statistics, 2008 towns in the Algarve. On the other hand, a group of towns formed by Cinfães, Baião, Lamego, Resende, Mesão-Frio,Population growth has been greater around the coastal Peso da Régua, Santa Marta de Penaguião, Tabuaço, Funchal,areas of the Algarve, reaching 15.8% in the decade of the Coimbra, Castanheira de Pêra, and Nazaré, experienced a1990s, probably reflecting an increase in the number of decline in their resident population. 13
  14. 14. aicep Portugal Global Portugal - Country Profile (April 2010) 5.2 Migrations 26% came from Portuguese speaking African countries, 24.5% were Brazilians, 22.9% came from EasternThe contribution of migration to the dynamics of European countries and finally, 3% were from China.population growth depends on the interpretation, the The foreign population is much younger than the nativeinherent characteristics and its duration. Since 1993, population and comprises mostly members of the activenet migration has been the primary source of Portugal’s labour force. Classified by gender, the men are the largerpopulation growth. component, being the mostly lilkely to emigrate while their family members follow later and then they tend to providePortugal experienced inflows of immigrants from its former a more balanced situation.colonies in Africa, from Central and Eastern Europe,and more recently from Brazil, but there were also small Concerning Portuguese emigration, at first there was agroups of immigrants that originated from India, China big movement to Brazil that occurred at the beginning ofand Pakistan, as well as from some other countries of Latin the past century that lasted until the 1920s, followed byAmerica and the northern part of Africa. a trend towards Europe that occurred during the period of the colonial wars in the 1960s. Both were for periodsEconomic immigration is a recent phenomenon and of long duration. Starting at about the end of the 1980s,represents a radical change compared with what took there have been emigration flows that have a moreplace in the 1960s and 1970s when many Portuguese temporary nature and which continue today.used to emigrate in search of a better life. About 4.5million Portuguese live outside the country, a figurethat is equivalent to nearly half of the domestic resident 5.3 Active populationpopulation. Very large communities of expatriates exist inBrazil, France, Germany, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Canada, Immigration now is helping to sustain the population inand South Africa, among other countries. the labour force, whose rate of growth has not been able to compensate for the ageing of the population and theUntil the 1990s, most of the immigrants to Portugal came increase in life expectancy (74 years for men and 80.6from Portuguese speaking countries, especially Cape Verde years for women, according to the OECD), a factor whichand Angola. Beginning in 1999, Portugal began to receive is affecting not only Portugal, but the vast majority ofa different and massive kind of immigration coming from Western European countries.the Eastern European countries, divided into two groups:the Slavs – Ukrainians, Russians and Bulgarians; and the According to INE , the active population in Portugal 2Latin people from the east – Romanians and Moldavians. declined 0.8% in 2009 compared with the previous year, and totaled 5,582,700 persons. This decline was explainedIn 2003, this type of immigration fell, having been by the shrinkage of the active population between the agessubstituted by Brazilians and, to a lesser extent, by Asians of 15 and 34 years and those aged 65 and over. The activeof various origins (namely Indians, Pakistanis and Chinese). population comprising those having secondary and post secondary schooling and those having advanced degreesIn 2008, in Portugal there were 436,020 citizens of foreign increased, with 15.3% of the population having a highernationality that had legal residency status, showing anincrease of 8.6% over the previous year. Among these, 2 INE - Employment Statistics, 2009 14
  15. 15. aicep Portugal Global Portugal - Country Profile (April 2010)level of education. The employment rate of the active With the objective of making secondary education thepopulation (age 15 and over) was 61.9% that same year. asic minimum standard for Portuguese youth and adults and thus contributing, in the medium term, to increaseThe employed population, which totaled 5,054,100 the country’s competitiveness and boost employment andpersons in 2009, showed a decline of 2.8% compared salaries, the New Opportunities Program (Programa Novaswith the previous year. In the same year, the employment Oportunidades) was launched, based on two fundamentalrate (aged 15 and over) was 56%, but below that of points: to allow the qualification of a million persons in2008 due to a decline in the working population and to the active population by 2010, and expand the numberan increase in the overall active population. of qualifying professional courses at the secondary level in order that they represent, within the same time frame, halfIn terms of the short/medium term, the distribution of of the total offers at the secondary level.population employed by sectors of activity is relativelystable. There has been a movement going on for the Focusing on youth, there has been a very positive responsepast 25 or 30 years towards a greater number of people in terms of student enrollment in the professional coursesfinding employment in the services sector (60,6% of the made available to them. In the 2008/2009 school year,total in 2009), a trend that also has been observed in our there were 124,651 youth matriculated at the secondaryother European partners. school level in courses allowing double certification, with the likelihood that the total would exceed the 150,000Trends in population employed level in the 2009/2010 school year.by sector of activity 1986 2007 2008 2009 (%) The response of the adult population (comprising the active Agriculture, forestry 21.9 11.6 11.2 11.2 population, both employed and unemployed) to similar and fishing initiatives has also been very high. From 2006 until 30 Industry, construction, 33.7 30.5 29.3 28.2 energy & water June 2009 more than 700,000 enrolled in programs and Services 44.3 57.9 59.5 60.6 160,770 received school certification.Source: INE – Employment Statistics, 2009 As far as the Technological Specialization Courses (Cursos de Especialização Tecnológica or CET) are concerned, which 5.4 Schooling levels have as their objective the qualification of youth and adults of the active population as well as the requalification of those employed, in January 2010 there were 376 courses available, mostly in thoseWithin the framework of the demands of the new global schools such as the Public Polytechnic Institutes for Highereconomy, the qualification of persons in the labour force is Education (62% of the total) of which more than 37%a major factor affecting competitiveness, economic growth, comprised technology areas, with a total enrollment of thatemployment, and possible salary improvement. exceeded 5,500 students in the 2008/2009 school year.As already noted, Portugal shows some not so positive The significant increase in the number of enrollees wasindicators regarding the education and skill level of its active in great measure due to the enhancement of the Newpopulation that have been the focus of public policy efforts Opportunities Centres network. There are currently 450to upgrade qualifications in the human resources area. New Opportunities Centres in Continental Portugal and six 15
  16. 16. aicep Portugal Global Portugal - Country Profile (April 2010)in the Autonomous Region of Madeira, supported by both 6.1 Roadwayspublic and private entities, especially schools in the publicnetwork of the Ministry of Education, with the objective of Portugal currently has one of the most developedreaching a goal of 500 centers in operation by 2010. roadway systems in all of Europe, including Highways (Auto-Estradas, AE), Main Trunk Roads (Itinerários Principais, IP), Secondary Roads (Itinerários6. Infrastructure networks Complementares, IC); National Roads (Estradas Nacionais, EN); and Regional Roads (Estradas Regionais).With the assistance of European Community Funds during In 2008, the national roadway network reached 12,990the past several years, Portugal was able to make a strong km in Continental Portugal divided into the basicinvestment effort to improve transport infrastructure and network (2,197 km of IP), the secondary roads (1,470 kmthat has resulted in modern networks of motorways, of IC and EN) and the regional roads (4,409 km). Withrailways, airports, and maritime ports. the inclusion of the Auto-Estradas, they amount to 2,623 km, that is, one-fifth of the total roadway network.Although maritime transport continues to be the majormode of transport in Portugal’s foreign trade, railway In the 1990s there was a significant development oftransport has assumed a growing importance, especially in roadway infrastructure in Portugal and one factorconnection with European markets. With the completion contributing to this development was the event of theof the high speed railway (TGV) project, this transport Lisbon World’s Fair in 1998. This major project acted as amode will become yet another alternative for the rapid catalyst for the construction of major public works, suchmovement of merchandise. as the second bridge over the Tagus River – the Vasco da Gama Bridge – and the railway line that was built on ©José Manuel the existing 25th of April Bridge, establishing for the first time, a continuous railway link between the northern and southern parts of the country. These infrastructures contributed in a significant way to improve north-south traffic and create new access routes in various parts of the capital, mostly in the eastern part of the city of Lisbon. In 2010, the plan that encompasses the awards of new roadway concessions will move forward, some are in the launch phase and others already under way, that once they are finished will contribute towards a 50% expansion of the roadway network. 6.2 Railways The biggest challenge in this area is to strengthen the integration of the national railway system with the IberianVasco da Gama bridge – Tagus River and European network, in order to assure the same 16
  17. 17. aicep Portugal Global Portugal - Country Profile (April 2010)operating system as the European and trans-European 6.3 Portsrailway transport. One of the key projects in the government’sinfrastructure program is the construction of a high speed line The geographical position of Portugal, with an extensivelinking Oporto, Lisbon and Madrid and three other Spanish Atlantic coastline, offers excellent conditions to promotecities, to facilitate not only access to our neighbouring and develop maritime connections.country but primarily to the rest of Europe. On the continent there are nine ports: Viana do Castelo and ©José Manuel Leixões, in the North Region; Aveiro and Figueira da Foz, in the Centre; Lisbon and Setúbal, in the region of Greater Lisbon; Sines, in the Alentejo; Faro and Portimão, in the Algarve. The Autonomous Region of the Azores has five ports and the Autonomous Region of Madeira has three. The five principal national ports located on the Continent (Leixões, Aveiro, Lisbon, Setúbal, and Sines), moved about 59 million tons of merchandise in 2009 (97.4% ofGare do Oriente (East station) – Parque das Nações (Park of Nations) the total). Significant increases are expected in the next few years following the end of the effects of the globalThe existing railway network is 3,600 km, of which 2,842 km economic crisis and in accordance with the new strategywith railway traffic (about half of which is electrified), which defined by the government. In 2015 it is estimated thatserves a population of approximately 8.5 million inhabitants more than 100 million tons of merchandise will be handledand assures North-South links along the coastal strip of the by these five ports combined.Portuguese continent as well as transversal links. The railwaynetwork density tends to be greater in regions where there © Câmara Municipal de Sinesare greater concentrations of population.On the horizon for 2015 various projects are planned,including the construction of 12 new conventional trainlines, for passengers and freight, which represent a totalinvestment of around 1.1% of the country’s GDP.According to INE, the volume of goods transported byrail in 2008 surpassed 10 million tons. In analyzing theregional contributions of goods transported, the Alentejo(basically due to cargo shipments entering into the Port Port of Sines – Alentejoof Sines) and Lisbon, were the regions of origin thatregistered the highest volume of goods transported (more The deep water port of Sines, the national leader whenthan seven million tons), and these accounted for 71% of it comes to the quantity of goods moved (24.4 milliontotal volume. Lisbon and the North stand out as the major tons in 2009, or 40% of the total), boasts unique naturaldestination regions, together having received more than conditions along the Portuguese coast to handle all types59% of total merchandise shipped by other regions. of ships. Endowed with modern terminals it has unequalled 17
  18. 18. aicep Portugal Global Portugal - Country Profile (April 2010)characteristics, being on the one hand the principal gateway The contraction of growth in the major economies of thefor the country’s energy supply (petroleum derivatives, coal world together with historically low levels of confidenceand natural gas), and on the other an important cargo contributed to a reduction in the willingness to travel.container port with strong growth potential. According to IATA , passenger air transportation declined 3.5% 3This port, with its industrial zone and advanced logistics, in 2009. Freight traffic was equally affected by the decline inwith more than 2,000 hectares is already a multifaceted world trade, having fallen by 10.1% compared with 2008.logistics platform on an international scale (maritime-port,industrial and logistical), that will count on full integration In Portugal, the recovery experienced in the month ofwith the urban national platform of Poceirão and with the December 2009 (+6.4%), was not enough to offset thecross-border platform of Elvas/Caia. overall annual reduction in the number of passengers carried through Portuguese airports which declined 3.2%. 6.4 Air transport However, the decline in Portugal was smaller than thePortugal’s air transport system includes a network of 14 average experienced by all European airports (-6%). Theairports and 21 airfields that have 44 runways, of which largest contraction was felt by the Faro airport (-7.1%) and18 located in the North Region and 14 in the Centre the least by Oporto (-0.6%). Data for the month of JanuaryRegion of the continent. 2010 already point to a recovery in passenger traffic, with Portuguese airports having recorded an increase of 5%On the continent there are three international airports, all relative to the same period of last year.situated on the coastal border, with a new internationalairport on the drawing board for Lisbon, on the southern Freight transport was also affected and registered aedge of the city, in the Alcochete zone. decline of 8.9% in total freight hauled in 2009, compared with the year before.The fact that the autonomous regions are made up ofislands explains the presence there of a larger number of In 2009, the Francisco Sá Carneiro Airport, in Oporto, wasairports, as can be seen in the following table. once again designated by the Airports Council International (ACI) as the third best airport in Europe. It was previouslyMain Portuguese airports awarded this prize in 2006 and 2008, and in 2007 was even considered the best European airport with a capacity of up Aeroportos Número Localizações to five million passengers. Continent 3 Lisbon, Oporto and Faro Ponta Delgada, Santa Maria, Horta, Flores, Moreover, the John Paul II Airport in Ponta Delgada (Azores) A. R. Azores 9 Corvo, Graciosa, Pico, São Jorge, Terceira won the ACI prize for being the European airport that A. R. Madeira 2 Funchal and Porto Santo registered the most significant increase in Quality of Service indicators between 2008 and 2009.Most international airlines serve the principal airports ofthe country. TAP Portugal is the Portuguese national air carrier.In a markedly unfavorable macroeconomic environment,passenger traffic was affected on a global scale. 3 IATA – International Air Transport Association 18
  19. 19. aicep Portugal Global Portugal - Country Profile (April 2010) 6.5 Technological infrastructuresIn the last few years, infrastructures relating to thetelecommunications sector were substantially improved andmodernized, allowing Portugal to stand in a comfortablespot among its European partners. In this area there arethree types of systems: a voice system (fixed line telephoneand mobile); data services (Internet access) and videoservice (TV signal), and three types of networks: traditionalfixed network, mobile network and TV distribution bysatellite, cable and other radio-electric means. In 2007, a new mobile service appeared designated phone- ix launched by CTT which uses, by agreement, the physicalThe deregulation of fixed and mobile networks and network of TMN.the entry of new telecommunications operators in thePortuguese market increased competition, improved quality With the arrival of third generation mobile networks, Internetand reduced rates charged. access in broadband and TV distribution were made available to mobile network clients. Today in Portugal satellite networksPortugal Telecom (PT), continues to be the principal are used primarily to provide TV distribution services.provider of telecommunications services, above all in The wager in the New Generation Networks (Redes defixed lines, with a 72% market share in 2007. The mobile Nova Geração – RNG), with fiber optics as support, as atelecommunications market is served by three operators: means of guaranteeing access to technologically innovativeTMN - Telecomunicações Móveis Nacionais (Portugal products and services for most consumers (connection byTelecom), Vodafone Portugal (Vodafone - United Kingdom) fiber optic of 1.5 million users at the end of 2009), allowedand Optimus (Sonae and France Télécom’s Orange – 20% Portugal to enter for the first time in 2009 in the Europeanof the capital), which have had third generation (3G) service TOP 20 list of fiber optic penetration to the residence of the user (Lithuania was the leader in this ranking), reachingavailable since 2004. 14th place. There are about one million households in Portugal having pre-installed fiber optics in a market that actually has about 400,000 subscribers. According to a report published by ANACOM , between 4 2000 and 2008 the global development of electronic communications of the various networks and means of access to telecommunication systems was as follows: the mobile networks have increased their lead by growing on average about 11% per year (representing half of total access). Meanwhile, the traditional fixed network (15% of total access) has tended to decline, on average, about 4% per annum and in 2008 the decline was 12%. 4 ANACON - Autoridade Nacinal de Comunicações (The National CommunicationsOptic fibber Authority) 19

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