Lights Fantastic: The Current State of Fiber Optics


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These slides cover fiber fundamentals but mostly focused on the current state and trend of fiber optics.

These slides were used in a speech by the President of Experior Laboratories, Lorenz Cartellieri

1. Fiber Basics
2. Telecommunication Trends
3. Military and Aerospace Trends
4. Industrial and Automotive Trends
5. Medial Trends
6. Summary

Headquartered in Oxnard, Southern California, Experior Laboratories, Inc. is a third party, independent testing, design verification and qualification test laboratory. Specializing in fiber optics, electrical connectors and general environmental testing, Experior provides services to component manufacturers, military contractors, integrators and system providers within the telecom, datacom, military, aerospace and industrial markets. The company also provides ISO accredited calibration services for fiber optic / lightwave test instruments. Provided testing services are in accordance with Bellcore/Telcordia requirements and the company is MIL-STD-790 approved by DLA/DSCC for QPL testing of electrical and fiber optic components. Experior Labs is also a member of the prestigious Verizon FOC (Fiber Optic Component) Program as a certified ITL (Independent Test Lab).

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Lights Fantastic: The Current State of Fiber Optics

  1. 1. FLECK RESEARCH Lights Fantastic:The Current State of Fiber Optics Presented by Lorenz Cartellieri President, Experior Laboratories Co-Authored by Dennis Horwitz VP, Micronor Inc. 1
  2. 2. Testing • Certification • CalibrationHeadquartered in Oxnard, Southern California, Experior Laboratories, Inc. is a third party, independenttesting, design verification and qualification test laboratory. Specializing in fiber optics, electricalconnectors and general environmental testing, Experior provides services to componentmanufacturers, military contractors, integrators and system providers within the telecom, datacom,military, aerospace and industrial markets. The company also provides ISO accredited calibrationservices for fiber optic / lightwave test instruments. Provided testing services are in accordance withBellcore/Telcordia requirements and the company is MIL-STD-790 approved by DLA/DSCC for QPLtesting of electrical and fiber optic components. Experior Labs is also a member of the prestigiousVerizon FOC (Fiber Optic Component) Program as a certified ITL (Independent Test Lab). Lorenz Cartellieri President and co-founder Phone: 805-483-3400 2
  3. 3. Testing • Certification • Calibration Environmental testing Fiber optic connector Climatic/Dynamic Testing/qualification ISO accredited Electrical connector calibration services Testing/qualification Training division Material testing Experior University FOA Certified School 3
  4. 4. Outline1. Fiber Basics. Why Fiber Optics?2. Telecommunications/Broadband Trends3. Military and Aerospace Trends4. Industrial Trends5. Medical Trends6. Summary7. Q & A 4
  5. 5. Some Common Acronyms• COTS = Commercial Off The Shelf (products or technology)• TCO = Total Cost of Ownership• MMF = Multimode Fiber (Typical operation at 850 or 1300nm)• BW = Bandwidth, measured in MHz-km• POF = Plastic Optical Fiber (Large Core MMF, up to 1000 mm)• HCS = Hard Clad Silica Multimode Fiber (Typically 200/230 MMF)• OM1 = Standard BW 62.5/125 MMF (200/500 MHz-km)• OM2 = Standard BW 50/125 MMF (500/500 MHz-km)• OM3 = Laser Optimized Medium-BW 62.5/125 MMF (Effective BW=2000 MHz-km)• OM4 = Laser Optimized High BW 50/125 MMF (Effective BW=4700 MHz-km)• GbE = Gigabit Ethernet (1 Gb/s)• SMF = Single-Mode Fiber (1300, 1550 and 1625nm)• OS1 = Standard 9/125 SMF• OS2 = Low Water Peak 9/125 SMF• WDM = Wavelength Division Multiplexing• CWDM = Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing• DWDM = Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing 5
  6. 6. 1. Fiber Basics Dispersion Input Output High-Order Pulse Pulse Mode Multimode Step Index Fiber n2 n1 • Short distance links, <100 m • 10-100 Mb/s, Single λ Multimode Step Index Low-Order Mode • POF (1mm) or HCS (200/230)Input Output DispersionPulse Pulse Multimode Graded Index Fiber n2 n1 • Short-Medium distance links, 10m - 2000m • 100 Mbs - 10Gb/s, Single λ Multimode Graded Index • 50/125 (OM2/OM4) or 62.5/125 (OM1/OM3)Input OutputPulse Pulse Single Mode Fiber n2 n1 • Long distance links, 1000m -100km • 2.5/10/40 Gb/s, Single λ or WDM Single-Mode Step Index • 50/125 or 62.5/125 6
  7. 7. Advantages of Fiber Optics POF PCS 140 RG-62• Small Size and Light Weight RG-58 120 RG-59 Attenuation (dB/km) 100 80• Highest Bandwidth-Density Product 60 40 20 MM-GI SM• Ground Isolation 0 200 400 600 Modulation Bandwidth (Mhz) 800 1000• Noise Immunity Data Errors Copper• Intrinsic Safety Power Line• Lightning and EMP Protection No Data Errors Fiber• Intrusion Resistant• Wide Temperature Range Copper Data Errors• Non-Obsolescence• Material Availability Fiber No Data Errors 7
  8. 8. Disadvantages of Fiber Optics• More expensive Fiber optic components, connectors and cable assemblies are generally more expensive than copper-based components. $$• Requires More Training Fiber optic installers need more training than copper cable installers.• Requires More Care Fiber optics is very susceptible to mishandling and dirt. Workers dealing with fiber optics have to use extreme care not to damage or degrade performance of the fiber optic system. 8
  9. 9. How is Fiber Optics Used?Communications/Signal Transport• Wired and Optical Wireless• Digital Links, Data Bus, Network• RF PhotonicsSensors• Intrinsic (All Fiber) - Bragg Gratings, Smart Structures• Extrinsic (Hybrid) – Rotary Encoder, Fiber Optic GyroLight and Image Transmission• Illumination – spot lighting, medical• Imaging Optics – borescopes, surgery• Laser Cutting & Marking – surgery, industrial fabrication 9
  10. 10. 2. Telecommunications TrendsWhat is most important fiber attribute in telecom?• Fiber offers the lowest TCO for long haul transmission• Highest bandwidth over long distances• Upgradable for increasing data rates• TCO of Fiber and Copper equipment is near-parity but the high cost of Fiber To The Premises (FTTP) construction favors new housing over existing housing.What is driving fiber construction?• Ever increasing need for more bandwidth by consumers and businesses as well as potential operational cost savings from PON networks. 10
  11. 11. March 2010 Ten Most Important Trends of the Next Decade #3. Bandwidth Is The New Black GoldInternet Traffic is ever increasing … and new Network Equipment is becoming internally more Optical to keep pace! 11
  12. 12. Telecom News Briefs of 2011• For data centers, Google considers MMF too limited and too expensive – the cost of the fiber is more than the optics. Each blade is expected to have 20 100G ports – that’s 2 Tb/s per blade.• Managing 40 SMFs at the blade is a lot easier than the multimode options that would involve 400 fibers per blade. Just consider the cost and fiber management issues!• Google supports new 10GX10λCFP module for SMF to 2 km. Later 10X10MSA.ORG industry group announcements offered 10km and 40km versions.• Google is trying to drive down the cost of hardware! 12
  13. 13. More Telecom News Briefs…• In May 2011, Corning announced that it has more orders for fiber than it can handle. Verizon is one of the reasons for the shortfall. The company has ordered 20% more fiber than expected – despite shifting its FiOS deployments from passing homes to customer acquisition. Good news for fiber manufacturer OFS too!• Utah Telecommunication Open Infrastructure Agency (UTOPIA), is a group of 16 Utah cities that joined together to form a state-of-the-art fiber- optic network. Where FTTH investment is lacking by the broadband sector, municipalities are choosing to make the investment to bring high speed broadband to residents and businesses. 13
  14. 14. Fiber Optic Cable Growth 14
  15. 15. About Telecom Connector TrendsMore Bandwidth = Requires More FibersMore Bandwidth = Smaller & Denser InterconnectsMore Bandwidth = Ultimate shift from MMF to SMF?• SMF-based DWDM technology evolves further in Submarine, Backbone and Metro networks. More wavelengths ultimately means more fibers required.• Traditional MMF applications such as Data Centers and LANs will migrate to faster 40G and 100G Ethernet which is based on Parallel Optics Transmission. But Google makes a good case for moving to SMF because of ultimate MMF BW limitations – fewer fibers to manage.• Lower cost ST and SC are giving way to smaller LC as the dominant connector for transceiver interfaces. Multifiber interfaces employ MTP/MPO array connectors. Duplex LC 12-fiber MTP/MPO MTP 15
  16. 16. 3. Military & Aerospace TrendsThe Future is Light(Aviation Week, 24-October-2011)By Nan Mattai, VP-Eng & Tech, Rockwell CollinsThe delivery of the first Boeing 787 represented more than First 787 Delivery to ANAjust the aircraft’s revolutionary composite materials, fuel-efficient engines and health monitoring and reporting systems… fiber optics played a critical role in the avionicssystems, saving weight and protecting againstelectromagnetic interference.Fiber is presently used similar to traditional copper wiring,simply carrying a single digital signal between two fixed pieces 787 Cockpitof equipment. In the future, aircraft networks will carrymultiple analog and digital signals along a single cable viadifferent wavelengths of light …10,000 times faster than today. 16
  17. 17. China Building Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) WeaponsWashington Times, October 2011A declassified intelligence reports China’s military isdeveloping EMP weapons that Beijing plans to use againstU.S. aircraft carriers in any future conflict over Taiwan.EMP weapons mimic the gamma-ray pulse caused by anuclear blast that knocks out all electronics, includingcomputers and automobiles, over wide areas. Thephenomenon was discovered in 1962 after an abovegroundnuclear test in the Pacific disabled electronics in Hawaii.First Look: Electronic Warfare MissileAviation Week, November 2011The U.S. has built, flown, pointed and triggered a missiledesigned specifically to carry a directed energy weapon (DEW).The payload, expected to be operational soon, will be able todisrupt, shut down, spoof or damage electrical systems.Boeing has been working with AFRL on the Counter-ElectronicsHigh-power microwave Advanced Missile Project (CHAMP). 17
  18. 18. VPX Bulks Up With New SpecsMilitary Embedded Systems, January-2009VITA 46.12 (Fiber Optics on VPX) for embedded computing systems assigns thelocation of the P5/P6 VPX connector as the home for the fiber optic connector,which can be one of the following:• Mechanical Transfer (MT): 8 or 12 channel ribbon connector• Expanded Beam (EB) multichannel connector• ARINC 801 (Radial LUXCIS) connectors 18
  19. 19. Military and Aerospace Connectors• Military Aerospace is dominated by MIL-DTL-38999 Series III /60 and /61 Tight Tolerance Fiber Optic- Specific and ARINC 801 series (Radiall Luxcis) fiber optic connectors. Some specific applications use ITT Cannon PHD and Deutsch MC3/MC5 series connectors.• Commercial Aerospace is dominated by Boeing-preferred ARINC 801 (Radiall Luxcis) and Airbus-preferred EN4531 (Souriau ELIO) optical connectors.• Existing NAVSEA applications dominated by MIL-PRF- 28876 (Circular) and MIL-C-85322 (MIL-ST) /16 and /17 fiber optic connectors. Next Generation NAVSEA and NAVAIR applicators may see start of deployment of MIL- PRF-64266 (NGConn) optical connectors.• US Army/Marine Tactical Ground applications are dominated by MIL-PRF-83526 series TFOCA hermaphroditic connectors. 19
  20. 20. 4. Industrial and Automotive TrendsWhat are the leading issues and trends?• Safety, security and reliability• Environmental friendly• Reducing operating costs via automation Automate processes Deploy enterprise-wide high-speed networks• Reduce operating costs via energy conservation Replace old equipment with smart, energy efficient models Replace large high capacity motors with energy efficient Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) such as used in HVAC, pumps, elevators, conveyors and machine tools 20
  21. 21. Where does fiber optics fit in?• Deploying fiber optic cabling and networks around the factory eliminate EMI problems caused by RF/wireless interference and large electrical equipment• Fiber optic sensors solve EMI issues introduced with replacing old energy- hungry motor drives with new VFD systems.• Passive fiber optic sensors can be easier to install and cheaper to deploy in hazardous locationsWhat are the challenges to using fiber optics?• Unlike the well-trained and procedure-oriented Telecom and Military/Aerospace sectors, the industrial world is mean, dirty and hazardous – with lesser emphasis on proper training• Optical products must be especially designed to be easy to deploy, user friendly and user tolerant• Industrial market can be very “old school” and prefer copper solutions 21
  22. 22. Lower-cost Harsh Environment Fiber Connectors BasedOn Commercial Standards Begin To Displace ExpensiveMilitary Style ConnectorsNews: Corning Multifiber Connector Earns IP69K Industrial Rating Connector Specifier, September 2008 OptiTip MT connector has passed the test requirements of Corning OptiTip MT Connector rated IP69K IP69K and IP68 standards for industrial applications. Products rated to IP69K must be able to stand up to high- pressure and high-temperature wash-down procedures at close range—out to six inches away. IP68-rated products must be able to withstand long periods of under-pressure immersion in liquids while also providing protection from dust or other debris. Other connector manufacturers have also introduced Molex adds New ruggedized optical connectors by integrating environmental Rugged Optical protection with COTS connector designs. Industrial Connectors 22
  23. 23. News: Laser Sparks Hope of Reduced Auto Emissions Photonics Spectra, July 2011Experiments by Japanese researchers haverevealed that laser-induced ignition offers significantadvantages over a conventional spark-ignitionsystem, such as higher probability to ignite leanermixtures, reduction of erosion effects, increases ofengine efficiency, or shorter combustion time.Automobiles clearly represent an ultimatedestination for laser spark plugs, but industrialengines less restricted by weight and cost may seesuch ignition systems sooner.NOTE: Fiber optic-based automobile networks havebeen available for over 10 years now. MOST(Media Oriented Systems Transport) uses POF and MOST Automotive NetworkHCS. 23
  24. 24. 5. Medical TrendsMolex Circular MT Expanded Beam InterconnectSolution for Medical, Video andTelecommunications Wins 2010 ChicagoInnovation AwardConnector Ensures Reliable Data Link BetweenSurgeon and Patient(Chicago Sun Times, November-2010)The Circular MT Expanded Beam Interconnect precision lensensures that surgical-equipment connections deliver optimal peakperformance. The rugged interconnect can handle a hospitaloperating-room environment while being plugged and unpluggedthousands of times without losing its effectiveness. Connections Da Vinci Surgical Robotcan be cleaned quickly and effectively by any hospital staff member, is a prime example of where interconnectsaving the expense and time of waiting for a special technician. reliability is critical. 24
  25. 25. Force Sensing Ablation CatheterCalculates Pressure Applied WithEmbedded FBG SensorDiagnostic and Interventional CardiologyApril 2010The next generation TactiCath force-sensingablation catheter was recently granted CE markand unveiled at German Cardiac Society meetingin Mannheim, Germany. The product givesphysicians a real-time, objective measure ofcontact force during the treatment of cardiacarrhythmias. It includes a smaller fiber optic sensorat the tip, a force-time integral display andautomatically generated summary reports of theprocedure.Contact force is derived by three optical fiberswhich measure micro deformation of the cathetertip using Fiber Bragg Grating technology. 25
  26. 26. MRI-Micronor MRI-Compatible Fiber OpticEncoder wins Control Engineering’s 2010Engineer’s Choice AwardControl Engineering, June 2010Micronors MR318 MRI-Compatible Fiber Optic RotaryEncoder won Control Engineerings 2010 EngineersChoice Award in the Motion Control category. With areadership of nearly 90,000, CE readers voted for bestproducts in 29 categories in the control marketplace.The MR318 is the worlds first and only commercially-available non-metallic rotary encoder specifically designedto operate "transparently" in extreme electromagneticfields and has become an enabler for functional-MRIresearch and advanced MRI phantoms. 26
  27. 27. 6. SummaryTechnical• EMI has become a greater design and real world mitigation issue with technology shifts, higher data rates and denser products. Fiber optic links, networks and sensors are displacing copper as a mainstream solution.• Fiber’s nearly infinite bandwidth and low loss over distance have always been its natural selling point over copper in telecom and datacom.• Cloud computing drives bandwidth needs and smaller, higher density interconnect solutions in the CO and data centers as well as outside plant applications (e.g. cell sites)Market Opportunities• Large Telecom/Broadband programs such as FTTH are dominated by just a few large OEMs. It is especially tough and expensive to qualify as a supplier to major customers such as Verizon who require extensive product testing, ongoing continuous improvement programs and periodic site audits by certified Verizon-Approved Auditors.• Outside of Telecom/Broadband/Datacom markets, all facets of fiber optic supply chain serving the Harsh Environment Markets have traditionally experienced annual double digit growth. 27
  28. 28. Short Course 291:Hands-On Fiber Optics For Engineers Designing For Military, Aerospace, Shipboard and Industrial Harsh Environmental ApplicationsThis short course provides a very practical, hands-on overview to fiberoptics with an emphasis on designing and deploying the technology inharsh and hazardous environments – including military, aerospace,shipboard and industrial applications.OFC-NFOEC 2012 is March 4-8, 2012 in Los Angeles-CA 28
  29. 29. 7. Questions? Headquarters Experior Laboratories, Inc. 1635 Ives Avenue • Oxnard, California 93033 Phone: +1.805.483.3400 Fax: +1.805.483.5484 Customer Service Jessica Pielaet Phone: +805. 483.3400 Email: Sales – Domestic Roger Rutz Phone: +1.805.402.8118 Email: 29