Glacial Features On Topographic Maps


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Glacial features on topographic maps in relation to photographs and satellite images

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Glacial Features On Topographic Maps

  1. 1. Glacial Features<br />Caitlin Spence, Hyun Kyung Park, Makoto Dodo<br />
  2. 2. U Shaped Valley<br />Glen Clova, Angus, Great Britain<br />A valley that forms when a glacier erodes a river valley from its original V shape to a U shape<br />
  3. 3. Where photograph was taken<br />U shaped valley<br />Truncated spurs<br />Misfit stream<br />Flat glacial trough; no contour lines<br />
  4. 4.
  5. 5. Cirque (or Corrie)<br />Llyn y Gadair, Gwynedd, Great Britain<br />A bowl-shaped depression carved out of a mountain by an alpine glacier<br />A steep-walled hollow, shaped like a half-bowl, formed by glaciation and frost wedging<br />Cirques are found in mountainous regions populated with glaciers, or which have had a history of being glaciated<br />
  6. 6. Cirque<br />Contour lines suggest height  mountains, where cirques are found<br />
  7. 7. Ribbon Lake<br />Long and narrow, finger-shaped lake, usually found in a glacial trough<br />
  8. 8. N<br />Narrow width<br />Long length<br />
  9. 9. Hanging Valley<br />A shallow glacial trough that leads into the side of a larger, main glacial trough<br />A valley most often formed as a result of glaciation, where a large glacier erodes a valley, at a perpendicular angle to the hanging valley, to a deeper extent. The result is that of a small valley intersecting a larger valley at an elevation noticeably above the bottom of the larger valley. Hanging valleys can be, but are not always, eroded by a glacier.<br />
  10. 10. Hanging Valley animation<br /><br />Hanging Valley<br />Stream leading to hanging valley<br />Lake carved out by large glacier<br />
  11. 11. Arête<br />A sharp narrow ridge found in rugged mountains<br />A sharp-edged ridge of rock formed between adjacent cirque glaciers<br />An arête is a thin, almost knife-like, ridge of rock which is typically formed when two glaciers erode parallel U-shaped valleys. The arête is a thin ridge of rock that is left separating the two valleys.<br />
  12. 12. GribGoch, Snowdia <br />National Park in <br />Gwynedd, Wales<br />Arête<br />Cirque<br />RibbonLake<br />
  13. 13. Topographic Map of Crib Goch<br />Cirque<br />Arête<br />Ribbon <br />Lake<br />
  14. 14. Horn<br />A high mountain peak that forms when the walls of three or more glacial cirques intersect.<br />A pyramidal peak, or sometimes in its most extreme form called a glacial horn, is a mountaintop that has been modified by the action of ice during glaciation and frost weathering. <br />
  15. 15. Mount Wilbur,<br />Glacier National <br />Park in Montana<br />Glacial Horn<br />RibbonLake<br />Cirque<br />
  16. 16. Topographic map of Mount Wilbur<br />Ribbon Lake<br />Glacial Horn<br />Cirque<br />U-shape Valley?<br />
  17. 17. Moraines<br />Glacial moraine at Borrowdale, Lake District, Cumbria<br />Moraine : a French word that refers to any glacier-formed accumulation .<br />Terminal moraine : an accumulation at the outermost edge of where a glacier or ice sheet existed. <br />Recessional moraine: moraine located &quot;behind&quot; the outermost edge of a glacier, formed when the glacier lingers in one spot for a long time. <br />Ground moraine: gently rolling hills and plains deposited by ice. <br />Lateral moraine: ridges of till on the sides of a glacier. <br />Medial moraine: a moraine formed when two glaciers merge (a tributary and trunk glacier) and their lateral moraines come together to form a single moraine. <br />Push moraine: a moraine created by till that was a moraine deposited by an earlier glacier that once covered the area. <br />Ablation moraine: a moraine formed from material that fell upon the glacier.<br />
  18. 18. Moraine<br />
  19. 19. This ridge along the edge of a field is evidence that this area was covered by ice about 10,000 years ago. It was not constructed, but was left at the front of a melting glacier, as with melting glaciers in Canada or Norway today. As glaciers move, they scrape along the valley floor, eroding large amounts of rock material. They also transport frost-shattered boulders that fall from the valley sides and land on the glacier. When the glacier melts, this mixture of finely-ground rock, pebbles, and large boulders – moraine – is left as ridges both at the glacier “snout” (terminal moraine) and along the valley sides (lateral moraine).<br />