Wayfinding involves navigating on the open ocean without sextant, compass, clock, radio reports, or satellites reports. The wayfinder depends on observations of the stars, the sun, the ocean swells, and other signs of nature for clues to direction and location of a vessel at sea. Wayfinding was used for voyaging for thousands of years before the invention of European navigational instruments. In the 20th centuryA decade later, Andrew Sharp, a New Zealand civil servant turned historian, published a bombastically polemical book called Ancient Voyagers in the Pacific, in which, while accepting the orthodox view that settlement had been from the west, he resurrected Lang's theory that the islands of Polynesia had been settled accidentally by hapless canoe voyagers driven randomly across the sea by stormy westerly winds1936-37 Kaimiloa (double hull): Hawaii > France 1947 Kon-Tiki (raft): Peru > Tuamotu Islands Thor Heyerdahl‘sTheory"American Indians in the Pacific,"1956-58 Tahiti-Nui (raft) Tahiti-Nui (raft): Tahiti > off Chile Tahiti-Nui (raft): Peru > northern Cook Islands 1964 Rehu Moana (catamaran): Tahiti > AotearoaNew Zealander David Lewis 1965-66 Nalehia (double hull): Hawaiian Islands In the mid-1960s, a New Zealand historian named Andrew Sharp claimed that our ancestors did not explore and settle the Pacific on purpose.
Since the ancient voyaging canoes and their navigators had disappeared from the Pacific, the obvious course was to experiment, to recreate the voyaging canoes and ways of navigating without instruments and then try them out at sea. In other words, the situation called for a nautical application of experimental archaeology, that branch of prehistory concerned with the reconstruction and testing of ancient artifacts and techniques. This experimental effort got underway in the mid-1960s, when David Lewis navigated his catamaran from Tahiti to New Zealand
Mau Piailug, from the Micronesian island of Satawal in the state of Yap, was Hokule’a’s first navigator. He guided the canoe on a 2,300 mile voyage to Tahiti in 1976, the first voyage in over 600 years navigated without instruments on this ancestral Polynesian sea route.
BulaMy name is Peni VunakiI am a crewman on Uto NiYalo,Fiji’s voyaging vaka.This is my story of myadventure on the PacificOcean
My home is Solodamu, a small village on the islandof Kadavu.In Solodamu, I was a yagona farmer. I neverbelieved I would leave the village, let alone travel theworld. But in 2008 I started sailing in Fiji on HibiscusIII and Ratbag.And in 2011 I had the opportunity to sail across thePacific on Uto Ni Yalo.
As Fijians, we grow up knowingabout the drua.We know our ancestors were greatsailors and boat builders.But our generation has never sailed.Even for my grandfather, it is adistant memory. We only know the40hp Yamaha. And pre-mix getsmore and more expensive.
Today, we are joining with othervoyaging societies across thePacific to re-learn and re-claimour sailing history.We hope we can use these skillsand knowledge to highlight thepressing environmental concernsfacing our islands and our ocean.We want to learn to use sailing foreveryday use and reduce ourdependence on fossil fuels.
Modern Voyaging or Wayfinding1947 Kon TikiThor Heyerdahl, was out todemonstrate how SouthAmerican Indians couldhave settled Polynesia byraft1964 Rehu MoanaNew Zealander David Lewisnavigated his catamaranfrom Tahiti to New Zealandwithout instruments
HOKULEA launched 1975Hawaiian artist Herb Kanedesigned Hokulea, a 19-metre-long voyaging canoe.Hokulea was built mostlywith modern materials .However, it sailed like atraditional canoe.
July 12th, 2010Papa Mau, master navigator, died on his home island ofSatawal in the Federated States of Micronesia, aged 78The success of Maus navigation sparked pride in Pacific sailing culture and a rebirth of voyaging and canoe building that has continued to grow
Hokulea has been followed by vaka fromacross the Pacific – Aotearoa, Rarotonga,Tahiti .. and now the fleet of Te Mana o TeMoana
Uto ni Yalo – Heart of Spirit•22 metres or 72 feet in length•Weighs 14 tons•16 crew members•Average speed 8 knots or 15 kilometers per hour•Top speed recorded on 2010 voyage 22knots or 41 kilometersper hour
Historically, the majestic ocean voyaging canoe, “The Drua” was oncethe domain of only high ranking chiefs who had the means and vastresources to build and maintain such a vessel.
Paciﬁc I sland Countries & Territories2010 - A Total distance of 7,000n.m or 13,000km
Last year 112 voyagers from Aotearoa, CookIslands, Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Solomons, Tahiti, Tonga & Vanuatu set out on a voyage called Te Mana O Te Moana” - The Spirit of the Ocean.
TE MANA O TE MOANA – 2011/2012VOYAGE A Total distance of 19,000n.m or 35,000km
Arriving by canoe was very unique. We were treated with dignity and great respect.
Fiji Islands Voyaging Society AIMS AND OBJECTIVES• To undertake open ocean voyages along ancient Pacific migratory routes to contribute to revival and strengthening of Pacific regional links• To form alliances with other Voyaging Societies and projects to contribute to the Pacific movement of ocean voyaging revival, and cultural and environmental sustainability• Revive and sustain traditional Fijian canoe building, sailing and navigational knowledge, skills and customs• Contribute to sustainable development and the preservation of the Fiji Islands marine and land
What have we achieved so far?• Since early 2010, the Fiji Islands Voyaging Society has trained over 50 sailors to New Zealand Coastguard standard (Day Skipper, Boat Master and Coastal Skipper)• By the end of the current voyage, these sailors would have covered 27,000 nautical miles or 50,000 kms• More than once around the earth at the equator (1.35 x)• These sailors are now future leaders and “Ocean Champions” who have the ability to become Canoe Captains in their own right
Voyaging has taught us that our ancestors were greatpeople who lived in tune with nature. Today we are a testimony of their skills, confidence, courage and intelligence in building and sailing these magnificent canoes, thousands of miles across a vast ocean to discover these islands.
For the first time in hundreds of years, Fijians have navigated acanoe using traditional methods over 2200 nautical miles fromNuku Hiva in the Marquesas to Hilo in Hawaii.These are the men Captain Johnathan Smith, SetarekiLedua, teacher Jack Thatcher (Aotearoa), Kai’afa Ledua (HeadNavigator) and Angelo Smith.