Publishing Articles in Journals
Why and How!!
Should I write a manuscript?
“Scientists are rated by what they
finish, not by what they attempt”
 Science must be commun...
Do I have a story to tell?
Have you done something new and
interesting – original and innovative??
 Is there anything cha...
Do I have an Audience?
More original and innovative, more
people interested
 Local or international audience?

Choosing the Right Journal
Does it fit the AIMS & SCOPE of the
Journal?
 Is the Journal invitation only?
 Evaluate the q...
Process of Publication
Author

Editor

Reviewer

START

Submit a
paper

Basic requirements met?
[Yes]
Assign
reviewers
[No...
Organisation of Manuscripts
Title

Reflects content, entices reader

Author

Ensures recognition of the researcher

Abstra...
Title
Describe the major emphasis of the
paper
 Reflect articles content clearly &
precisely
 As short as possible – sim...
Unnecessary Title Phrases


A Study of… A Study to Determine Results of…



An Innovative Method…



Contributions to (...
Authors
Intellectual contribution to research
 Take responsibility for data &
conclusions
 Approved the final version of...
Keyword List
List of important words that reflect the
research
 Used by abstracting and indexing
services

Abstract
Summarise the study objective, the
method, the results, the conclusions
 Describe the new contribution made
by t...
Introduction







Brief – Provide context & background
State clearly the problem being
investigated, the background...
Method
Material & Methods  Experimental
Methods
 Provides readers with enough details
that they can replicate your resear...
Method
If methods are new, explain them in
detail
 If published before, name and cite
previous work
 If modified, refer ...
Method
Frequency of observations, types of
data recorded
 Precisely describe measurements
 Name statistical tests used t...
Method
If human participants involved, include
ethics statement – patient‟s informed
consent, permission to publish
 Outl...
Results
Present findings objectively
 Set them in logical sequence based
on tables and figures that best present
the find...
Results
Include legend for figures
 Do not interpret results – Discussion &
conclusion

Discussion & Conclusion
What results mean, specifically in
context of what was already known
about the subject
 Link back...
Discussion & Conclusion
Explain how this research has moved
scientific body forward
 Conclusions should be directly
suppo...
Make sure:
Results directly support your
conclusions
 Use specific descriptions and
quantitative expressions
 Use alread...
Acknowledgements
Include names of individuals who
helped you with research:
contributors, suppliers
 Disclose any financi...
References
Any information not from your
experiment, and not „common
knowledge‟ should be acknowledged
 Any quoted text s...
Supplementary Material
Additional content like raw data or
video footage, if useful for the reader
may be included online
...
Presentation
Report findings and conclusions
clearly and concisely as possible
 Each journal has specific style: write in...
Grammar tips
Use active voice when possible
 Present tense – for known facts and
hypotheses
 Past tense – for experiment...
Language Quality
Correct grammar, spelling and
punctuation – smooth review process
 Enables focus on academic merit

Cover Letter
What and why you are submitting to
the journal
 Name the corresponding author and
contact address
 Informat...
Peer Review
Act as filter – ensure only good
research is published
 Determine validity, significance and
originality
 Im...
What gets accepted?
Attention to details
 Check and double check your work
 Consider the reviews
 English must be as go...
Responding to reviewers



Complete additional experiments if needed
Address all comments in a point-by-point
fashion
◦ ...
Ethical responsibilities
Intellectual honesty
 Accurate assignment of credit
 Fairness in peer review
 Transparency in ...
Redundant publication


Definition
◦ Using text or data
from another
paper/prior
publication (usually
your own) in a new
...
Human and animal welfare
issues


Definition
◦ Treatment of
experimental
subjects that does
not conform with
accepted sta...
Authorship disputes


Definition
◦ Disputes arising
from the
addition, deletion, or
change in the order
of authors



Ho...
Duplicate publication


Definition



How to avoid

◦ Submission of or
◦
publication of the
same paper or
substantial pa...
Data fabrication/falsification


Definition
◦ Changing or making
up data in a
manuscript
◦ Intended to
“improve” the resu...
Unacceptable figure
manipulation
Improper editing
 Improper grouping
 Improper adjustment


◦ Authors should not



...
Plagiarism


Definition
◦ Taking the work of
another
◦ Copying a
figure, table, or even
wording from a
published or
unpub...
Conflicts of interest


Definition
◦ Real or perceived
conflict due to
employment,
consulting, or
investment in
entities ...
Advice to Authors
Read the instructions and format your paper
exactly to standards.
 Don‟t be careless
 Good English wor...
Prepare Your Manuscript
Carefully




Incorrect style irritates reviewers and editors, and
the wrong style suggests that...
“There is no way to get experience
except through experience.”
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Ukriz publishing articles in journals

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How to publish articles.. esp in an endodontic perspective..

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Ukriz publishing articles in journals

  1. 1. Publishing Articles in Journals Why and How!!
  2. 2. Should I write a manuscript? “Scientists are rated by what they finish, not by what they attempt”  Science must be communicated to exist  ◦ Published articles are the medium ◦ Results do not become scientific evidence without being published
  3. 3. Do I have a story to tell? Have you done something new and interesting – original and innovative??  Is there anything challenging in your work??  Is the work directly related to a current hot topic??  Have you provided solutions to any difficult problems – based on sufficient, robust data?? 
  4. 4. Do I have an Audience? More original and innovative, more people interested  Local or international audience? 
  5. 5. Choosing the Right Journal Does it fit the AIMS & SCOPE of the Journal?  Is the Journal invitation only?  Evaluate the quality of the journal and probability of acceptance  Readership  Current hot topics (go through recent abstracts)  Submit to only one journal at a time!! 
  6. 6. Process of Publication Author Editor Reviewer START Submit a paper Basic requirements met? [Yes] Assign reviewers [No] REJECT Revise the paper Collect reviewers’ recommendations [Reject] Make a decision [Revision required] [Accept] ACCEPT Review and give recommendation
  7. 7. Organisation of Manuscripts Title Reflects content, entices reader Author Ensures recognition of the researcher Abstract Summarises research & conclusions Keywords Ensures correct identification of the article in abstracting & indexing services Body Text Introduction Puts the work into context Methods Explains how the data was collected Results Describes what was discovered Discussions & Conclusions Explores implications of the findings Acknowledgements Ensures who helped with the research are recognised References Ensures previously published work is recognised Supplementary Material Provides online additions, such as raw data,
  8. 8. Title Describe the major emphasis of the paper  Reflect articles content clearly & precisely  As short as possible – simple, catchy & specific  Main advertisement for the article  Omit abbreviations, jargon and unnecessary words 
  9. 9. Unnecessary Title Phrases  A Study of… A Study to Determine Results of…  An Innovative Method…  Contributions to (of)…  Investigations on (concerning, about)…  Observations on…  A Trial Comparing…
  10. 10. Authors Intellectual contribution to research  Take responsibility for data & conclusions  Approved the final version of manuscript 
  11. 11. Keyword List List of important words that reflect the research  Used by abstracting and indexing services 
  12. 12. Abstract Summarise the study objective, the method, the results, the conclusions  Describe the new contribution made by this study  250 word limit  Written last by many authors – Use past tense  Omit references, figures or tables 
  13. 13. Introduction      Brief – Provide context & background State clearly the problem being investigated, the background that puts the problem into context, the reason for conducting research Introduces and defines terms and abbreviations Explain any findings of others that you are challenging or extending Lead the reader to your hypothesis, if relevant – briefly!
  14. 14. Method Material & Methods Experimental Methods  Provides readers with enough details that they can replicate your research  How you studied the problem, identify the procedures followed 
  15. 15. Method If methods are new, explain them in detail  If published before, name and cite previous work  If modified, refer original work and include your amendments  Identify equipment, describe materials, specify source, if variation in quality of materials 
  16. 16. Method Frequency of observations, types of data recorded  Precisely describe measurements  Name statistical tests used to validate numerical results  Use past tense, avoid first person 
  17. 17. Method If human participants involved, include ethics statement – patient‟s informed consent, permission to publish  Outline criteria used to select participants, the relevance of criteria 
  18. 18. Results Present findings objectively  Set them in logical sequence based on tables and figures that best present the findings  Raw data is rarely included  Data is analysed & presented in form of tables, figures, graphs & description of observations 
  19. 19. Results Include legend for figures  Do not interpret results – Discussion & conclusion 
  20. 20. Discussion & Conclusion What results mean, specifically in context of what was already known about the subject  Link back to introduction, refer to the question or hypothesis  Indicate how results relate to the expectation and the literature cited  Results contradict or support previous theories? 
  21. 21. Discussion & Conclusion Explain how this research has moved scientific body forward  Conclusions should be directly supported by results, avoid undue speculations  Suggest practical applications and outline next steps in your research 
  22. 22. Make sure: Results directly support your conclusions  Use specific descriptions and quantitative expressions  Use already established terms  Base all interpretations and speculations in fact 
  23. 23. Acknowledgements Include names of individuals who helped you with research: contributors, suppliers  Disclose any financial or other conflict of interest 
  24. 24. References Any information not from your experiment, and not „common knowledge‟ should be acknowledged  Any quoted text should be within quotations, and should include a reference 
  25. 25. Supplementary Material Additional content like raw data or video footage, if useful for the reader may be included online  Raw data tables, audio or video footage, photographs, complex 3D models  Maybe included as Appendices 
  26. 26. Presentation Report findings and conclusions clearly and concisely as possible  Each journal has specific style: write in it to increase chances of getting accepted  Keep it simple – avoid unnecessary words and phrases 
  27. 27. Grammar tips Use active voice when possible  Present tense – for known facts and hypotheses  Past tense – for experiments and results that you conducted 
  28. 28. Language Quality Correct grammar, spelling and punctuation – smooth review process  Enables focus on academic merit 
  29. 29. Cover Letter What and why you are submitting to the journal  Name the corresponding author and contact address  Information to support your submission – original data, relevance, etc  Relevant details of work with humans, animals or other biohazard method 
  30. 30. Peer Review Act as filter – ensure only good research is published  Determine validity, significance and originality  Improve quality of the research submitted  Consider your methodology and ethical approach  Recommend the editor to accept, accept with revisions or reject 
  31. 31. What gets accepted? Attention to details  Check and double check your work  Consider the reviews  English must be as good as possible  Presentation is important  Take your time with revision  Acknowledge those who have helped you  New, original and previously unpublished  Critically evaluate your own manuscript  Ethical rules must be obeyed 
  32. 32. Responding to reviewers   Complete additional experiments if needed Address all comments in a point-by-point fashion ◦ Resist the temptation to prepare an impassioned response to points with which you disagree ◦ Stand firm (diplomatically) if that is truly the right thing to do  Sincerely thank the editor and reviewers for helping you to improve your work ◦ They have invested a lot of time, mostly on a voluntary basis  Ask a neutral colleague to review your response
  33. 33. Ethical responsibilities Intellectual honesty  Accurate assignment of credit  Fairness in peer review  Transparency in conflicts of interest  Protection of human and animal subjects 
  34. 34. Redundant publication  Definition ◦ Using text or data from another paper/prior publication (usually your own) in a new paper ◦ Also called auto- or self-plagiarism  How to avoid ◦ Do not include material from a previous study in a new one, even for statistical analysis ◦ Repeat control groups as needed
  35. 35. Human and animal welfare issues  Definition ◦ Treatment of experimental subjects that does not conform with accepted standards and journal policy  How to avoid ◦ Obtain prospective IRB/IACUC approval for the study protocol ◦ Do not deviate from the protocol ◦ Obtain approval for amendments as needed before altering the protocol
  36. 36. Authorship disputes  Definition ◦ Disputes arising from the addition, deletion, or change in the order of authors  How to avoid ◦ Agree on authors and their order before starting the study ◦ Ensure all authors meet criteria for authorship ◦ Sign publishers‟ authorship forms
  37. 37. Duplicate publication  Definition  How to avoid ◦ Submission of or ◦ publication of the same paper or substantial parts of a ◦ paper in more than one place Do not submit a paper to more than one journal at a time Wait until your paper is rejected before submitting elsewhere ◦ Withdraw a paper if you decide not to re-submit after being invited to do so
  38. 38. Data fabrication/falsification  Definition ◦ Changing or making up data in a manuscript ◦ Intended to “improve” the results ◦ Includes digital manipulation of images (blots, micrographs, etc.)  How to avoid ◦ Present the exact results obtained ◦ Do not withhold data that don‟t fit your hypothesis ◦ Don‟t try to beautify images with Photoshop - any manipulations must apply to the whole image
  39. 39. Unacceptable figure manipulation Improper editing  Improper grouping  Improper adjustment  ◦ Authors should not      Move Remove Introduce Obscure Enhance any specific feature within a image. Images should appear as captured in the lab
  40. 40. Plagiarism  Definition ◦ Taking the work of another ◦ Copying a figure, table, or even wording from a published or unpublished paper without attribution  How to avoid ◦ Provide citation to the work of others ◦ Obtain copyright permission if needed ◦ Do not copy exact wording from another source, even if referenced, unless in quotes
  41. 41. Conflicts of interest  Definition ◦ Real or perceived conflict due to employment, consulting, or investment in entities with an interest in the outcome of the research  How to avoid ◦ Disclose all potential conflicts to the Editor and within the manuscript
  42. 42. Advice to Authors Read the instructions and format your paper exactly to standards.  Don‟t be careless  Good English works  Brevity is beautiful Brevity usually delivers the message more clearly, gives the journal more pages for other authors, impresses reviewers. 
  43. 43. Prepare Your Manuscript Carefully   Incorrect style irritates reviewers and editors, and the wrong style suggests that another journal previously rejected the paper Edit carefully ◦ Eliminate spelling, punctuation, and grammar errors ◦ Good writing requires rewriting  Check accuracy of references with original sources ◦ Incorrect citations inconvenience the publisher and are a disservice to the reader  Double-check numerical data ◦ Numbers in abstract, text, tables, figures, legends, and text must be consistent and correct
  44. 44. “There is no way to get experience except through experience.”

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