Female Reproductive System


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Female Reproductive System

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  2. 2. The Female reproductive system The ovary
  3. 3. Follicullar growth and development <ul><li>Each ovarian follicle consists of an immature ovum, PRIMARY OOCYTE, surrounded by spheroidal cells, with large vesicular nucleus and a prominent nucleolus. </li></ul><ul><li>Infants has 400,000 follicles, with progressive reduction in number as the female matures and menstruate until virtually none is left after menopause. </li></ul><ul><li>AS it grows the flattened follicular cells becomes cuboidal then columnar in shape, divide actively to produce a stratified layer around the ovum. </li></ul><ul><li>It soon increase in size, becomes a cavity ( ANTRUM) filled with clear fluid ( Liquor folliculi) rich in hyaluronic acid, </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulus oophorus, is formed by a projection into the antrum. </li></ul><ul><li>Membrana granulosa, is formed as a continuous stratified follicular cells around the antrum cavity. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Follicullar growth and development <ul><li>Theca folliculi is then formed as the follicle increase in size and is organized into capsules. It is separated from the membrana granulosa by basal lamina – Glassy membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>It then differentiates into 2 layers; </li></ul><ul><li>a. inner vascular, Theca interna, with enlarged epitheloid stromal cells with numerous capillaries inbetween. </li></ul><ul><li>b. outer fibrous layer, Theca externa, composed of closely packed collagenous fibers and fusiform cells merge peripherally into the surrounding ovarian stroma. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The follicle with the Theca Interna and the Theca Externa
  6. 6. Mature Graafian follicles <ul><li>Requires 10 to 14 days to reach maturity. </li></ul><ul><li>10 mm in dm. and occupies the whole breadth of the cortex and indents the medulla. </li></ul><ul><li>It bulges on the free surface of the ovary – Stigma. </li></ul><ul><li>The enlarged antrum is filled with fluid and is bound by the membrana granulosa, is surrounded by a thick Zona pellucida. </li></ul><ul><li>On maturity the cell spaces are filled with fluid weakening the connection between the ovum and the membrana granulosa. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The cortex of the ovary contains numerous follicles embedded in a thick stroma .  Most of the follicles are resting primordial follicles .  Follicles which have been stimulated to develop progress through primary and secondary stages to become mature tertiary or Graafian follicles
  8. 8. <ul><li>Maturation of the Ovum: OOgenesis </li></ul><ul><li>The large cell within each follicle is an oocyte .  The cells which surround each follicle are granulosa cells .  Flattened granulosa cells indicate resting primordial follicles .  Cuboidal granulosa cells indicate primary follicles , which have begun the process of maturation toward ovulation.   Atretic follicles have begun to degenerate. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The cortex of the ovary contains numerous follicles embedded in a thick stroma .  Most of the follicles are resting primordial follicles . Follicles which have been stimulated to develop progress through primary and secondary stages to become mature tertiary or Graafian follicles , in which a large fluid-filled cavity, the antrum, is surrounded by many layers of granulosa cells .   Stromal cells around the follicle form the theca interna, which secretes estrogen.
  10. 10. At the end of the monthly cycle, or at the end of pregnancy, the corpus luteum degenerates into a fibrous scar called a corpus albicans . The corpus luteum forms by reoganization of granulosa and theca cells following ovulation.
  11. 11. <ul><li>Ovulation = the follicle reaches maturity, filled with watery liqour secretions & expands, called PreOvulatory swelling. </li></ul><ul><li>Maturation of the Ovum: OOgenesis </li></ul><ul><li>The ovum that is released at ovulation is a secondary oocyte ( immature). </li></ul><ul><li>Oogonia = primitive ova with diploid chromosomes divide by mitosis to produce the primary Oocytes in the fetal ovary. </li></ul><ul><li>On ovulation, the nucleus of the 2ndary oocyte starts the 2 nd maturation division which stops in the metaphase and remains in this condition until fertilization. The penetration of the spermatozoa triggers the completion of the 2 nd maturation division. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Corpus Luteum <ul><li>The folded collapse follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Granulosal cell differentiate into large vesicular nuclei called the “Granulosa Lutein cells” </li></ul><ul><li>Theca interna becomes the “Theca Lutein Cells” </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus luteum of menstruation = unfertilized, discharges ovum </li></ul><ul><li>400 follicles reach maturity at 30 years and only 1 ovum is discharged every month. </li></ul><ul><li>Atresia = involution of a follicle. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Interstitial cells = large Spheroidal cell filled with small lipid droplets,found in the ovarian stroma. </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones of the Ovary = produce sex hormones estrogen ( from the follicle ) and progesterone ( Uterine glands). </li></ul><ul><li>Blood vessels and lymphatics = branches from the ovarian and uterine arteries, form a spiral vessel called helicine vessel. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Fallopian tubes
  15. 15. The regions of the fallopian tubes <ul><li>Infundibulum – funnel shaped opening into the peritoneal cavity with margins drawn out into numerous folds called fimbriae. </li></ul><ul><li>Ampulla – the expanded intermediate segment, 2/3rds of the total length. </li></ul><ul><li>Isthmus – slender, narrow tube connects the fimbriae to the uterus. </li></ul><ul><li>Intramural(interstitial) portion, the continuation of the canal thru the uterine wall. </li></ul><ul><li>The walls of the tube thickens progressively towards the uterus, the lumen diminishes in size. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Layers of the fallopian tube walls <ul><li>Mucosa = lining are in longitudinal folds, simple columnar cells both ciliated (occur in small groups) and non ciliated (narrow and peg-shaped, secretory in nature). </li></ul><ul><li>Muscularis – broad inner circular layer and thin outer layer with scattered bundles of fibers oriented longitudinally. Peristaltic contractiosn aid the ovum trip to the uterine cavity. </li></ul><ul><li>Serosa – invested with a fold of reflected peritoneum, with loose connective tissue surfaced with mesothelium. Deeper layer contains the longitudinal bundles of the muscularis. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Blood vessels , Lymphatics and nerves <ul><li>Blood vessels and lymphatics are numerous and found in the lamina propria and the serosa. </li></ul><ul><li>Nerves form rich plexus and supply muscle fibers and the mucosa. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The wall of the fallopian tube includes an elaborately folded mucosa surrounded by a muscularis .  In the ampulla, shown here, the mucosa is quite elaborate and the muscularis is relatively thin.   Mucosal folds occupy most of the potential lumenal space, so that cilia on the epithelial surface can effectively move the egg toward the uterus.   The simple columnar epithelium of the mucosa contains both secretory cells and ciliated cell
  19. 19. The wall of the fallopian tube includes an elaborately folded mucosa surrounded by a muscularis .  The thickness of both layers varies along the length of the tube
  20. 20. In the isthmus, shown here, the mucosa is relatively simple and the muscularis is quite thick.  The ampulla, where elaborate mucosal folds occupy most of the potential lumenal space and the muscularis is relatively thin.
  21. 21. The uterus
  22. 22. Layers of the Uterine Wall <ul><li>Outer layer = the Serosa or perimetrium </li></ul><ul><li>Middle layer = the muscularis ore myometrium. </li></ul><ul><li>The Inner layer = the mucosa of the endometrium. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Perimetrium = typical serosa with single layer of mesothelial cells supported by a thin layer of connective tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Myometrium = massive coat of smooth muscle about 12 to 15 mm thick. Muscles are arranged in a bundle separated by connective tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>3 layers of muscles: </li></ul><ul><li>a. stratum subvasculare = inner muscle layer with longitudinal fibers. </li></ul><ul><li>b. stratum vasculare = thick mid layer with blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>c. stratum supravasculare = outer longitudinal layer beneath the perimetrium. </li></ul>
  24. 24. The uterus has an extremely thick muscular wall, the myometrium , and a thick mucosa, the endometrium with tubular glands lined by simple columnar epithelium.  The endometrium undergoes extensive changes during the menstrual cycle.
  25. 25. The myometrium consists of smooth muscle.  The endometrium consists of a thick stroma containing numerous irregularly-shaped tubular glands lined by columnar epithelium.  This image shows the endometrium in proliferative phase.
  26. 26. Cyclic changes in the Endometrium <ul><li>The menstrual stage with external menstrual discharge. </li></ul><ul><li>Proliferative ( follicular) stage = concurrent with follicular growth and estrogen secretion. </li></ul><ul><li>Progestational ( luteal ) stage = associated with active corpus luteum. </li></ul><ul><li>Ischemic ( premenstrual ) stage = when there is interruption of blood flow in the coiled arteries. </li></ul>
  27. 27. During the proliferative phase , when the stratum functionalis is growing, the endometrial glands have a relatively smooth contour and mitotic figures are common.
  28. 28. Endometrium, Proliferative stage. A helical (corkscrew) shape permits the spiral artery to extend into the thickening stroma of the proliferative endometrium and also, later, to retract back into the stratum basalis when the stratum functionalis is eventually sloughed off.  Because of its corkscrew shape, each spiral artery typically appears as an aligned cluster of profiles (asterisks) deep in the endometrium.
  29. 29. The endometrial glands have matured in the secretory phase , their contour is more tortuous and the epithelium consists of mature secretory cells. The endometrium is highly vascular, and the blood vessels also participate in the menstrual cycle.  Distal vessels are sloughed off, while the spiral arteries (named for their helical shape) retract into the stratum basalis and constrict to limit blood loss during menstruation.  The spiral arteries then extend again (like springs) as the stratum functionalis regenerates
  30. 30. Functions of the Placenta <ul><li>Transfers blood and nutrition from the mother to the fetus. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer waste product from the fetal metabolism to the maternal circulation for disposal. </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal circulation is separated from the materanal circulation: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Syncitial trophoblast. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Cytotrophoblast from the 1 st trimester of pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Basal lamina of the trophoblast. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Fetal connective tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>e. Basal lamina of the fetal capillaries. </li></ul><ul><li>f. Fetal endothelium. </li></ul><ul><li>* Hormones produce = estrogen, progesterone, relaxin, renin, chorionic gonadotropins </li></ul>
  31. 31. Many chorionic villi are seen in the vicinity of the uterine wall .  Both large and small chorionic villi have the same basic structure, a surface of syncytiotrophoblast surrounding a core of mesenchyme containing fetal blood vessels.  Fetal blood vessels are visible here only in the largest villi.  The small villi vastly increase the surface area available for material interchange with maternal blood.  Decidual cells are large cuboidal cells derived from endometrial stroma.
  32. 32. The External Female genitalia
  33. 33. The cervix and vagina represent the distal portion of the reproductive tract, lined by stratified squamous epithelium. Surface samples of cervical epithelium ( Pap smears ) are used to screen for cervical cancer.
  34. 34. Coats of the Vaginal wall <ul><li>Mucosa = with transverse folds or rugae. </li></ul><ul><li>Lined with thick stratified squamous non- keratinized cells, lacks glands, is lubricated by mucus from the cervix. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscularis = smooth muscle fibers arranged in interlacing bundles. Inner bundle is circular and thin. The outer bundle is thicker, longitudinally arranged, continuous with the myometrium. </li></ul><ul><li>Adventitia = the thin layer of dense connective tissue, blends with other surrounding organs. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>The Clitoris = incomplete counterpart of the Penis. </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of 2 cavernous erectile bodies which ends in a small glans clitoridi. Covered by a thin stratified squamous cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Labia Majora = folds of mucous membrane forming the lateral wall of the vestibule. </li></ul><ul><li>Labia majora = folds of skin that covers the labia minora externally.. Outer layer is covered by a cornified epidermis w/c contains hairs, sweat glands, sebaceous glands. </li></ul><ul><li>Vestibule = where the vagina and urethra opens. Lined by stratified squamous epithelium. With numerous small vestibular glands around the opening and near clitoris.( glands of Littre) </li></ul><ul><li>Bartholins glands( major vestibular gland). = analogous to the bulbourethral glands of males. Produce lubricating mucous. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>The Mammary gland = specialized cutaneous glands locate within the subcutaneous tissue. Develops at puberty. Has 15 to 20 lobes each. </li></ul><ul><li>Nipple and areola = traversed by lactiferous ducts, opens by a pore on the skin surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Glands of Montgomery = special dark areolar glands. </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy = colostrum is produced at the end of pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Lactation = Production of milk at the end of pregnancy by the granular endoplasmic reticulum and the golgi complex vacoules. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Hormonal control = Estrogen and progesterone influenced the growth of the duct system at puberty. Lactation is induced by the presence of prolactin from the pars distalis of Hypophysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxytocin from the posterior pituitary initiates contraction of the glands to ejection of milk from the alveoli and the ducts. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxytocin is produced by the nerve impulses reaching the hypothalamus after stimulation of tactile receptors in the nipple area. </li></ul>
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