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  1. 1. Online practice tests, live classes, tutoring, study guides Q&A, premium content and more .
  2. 3. <ul><li>lipids are insoluble (hydrophobic) in water </li></ul><ul><li>due to the predominant presence of hydrocarbon groups </li></ul><ul><li>however, some possess polar or hydrophilic groups which tend to be soluble in water </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>molecules which contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups </li></ul><ul><li>(Greek – amphi – (both), pathos – passion) </li></ul>amphipathic
  4. 5. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul><ul><li>Sphingolipids </li></ul><ul><li>Bile salts </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol (to some extent) </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Fatty Acids – contain a hydrocarbon chain which is hydrophobic and a carboxyl (COO¯) group which is hydrophilic </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipids – have a hydrophilic head </li></ul><ul><li>( phosphate group attached to choline, ethanolamine, inositol etc.) and a long hydrophobic tail </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>when the amphipathic lipids are mixed in water </li></ul><ul><li>(aqueous phase) </li></ul><ul><li>the polar groups (heads) orient themselves towards aqueous phase while the non polar (tails) orient towards the opposite directions </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>leads to the formation of micelles </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>micelle formation, facilitated by bile salts is very important for lipid digestion & absorption </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>represented as a polar or hydrophilic head with a non-polar or hydrophobic tail </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>in case of biological membranes, a bilayer of lipids is formed orienting the polar heads to the outer aqueous phase on either side and the nonpolar tails into the interior </li></ul><ul><li>the formation of a lipid bilayer is the basis of membrane structure </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>are produced when amphipathic lipids in aqueous medium are subjected to sonifications </li></ul><ul><li>they have intermittent aqueous phases in the lipid bilayer </li></ul><ul><li>liposomes in combination with tissue specific antigens are used as carriers of drugs to target tissues </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>are produced when non polar lipids (e.g. triacylglycerols) are mixed with water </li></ul><ul><li>the particles are larger in size and stabilized by emulsifying agents (usually amphipathic lipids, - bile salts & phospholipids ) </li></ul>
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