Diencephalon

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Diencephalon

  1. 1. www.Examville.com Online practice tests, live classes, tutoring, study guides Q&A, premium content and more .
  2. 2. DIENCEPHALON
  3. 3. CEREBRUM <ul><li>Largest part of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Situated in the anterior and middle cranial fossa </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into two parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Telencephalon </li></ul><ul><li>Diencephalon </li></ul>
  4. 4. Diencephalon <ul><li>Sits on top of the brain stem </li></ul><ul><li>Enclosed by the cerebral hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>Made of four parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epithalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subthalamus </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Diencephalon <ul><li>Consists of the 3 rd ventricle and the structures that form its boundaries, most rostral part of the brainstem. </li></ul><ul><li>Ant.: Intervent. fora. </li></ul><ul><li>Post.: where the 3 rd vent. Forms the cerebral aqueduct. </li></ul>
  6. 6. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MIDBRAIN-DIENCEPHALIC JUNCTION <ul><li>Addition of several masses of neurons surrounding the rostral part of the post. and lat. Mesencephalon. </li></ul><ul><li>Medial and lateral geniculate body fiber. </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral aqueduct expands into 3 rd vent. </li></ul><ul><li>Sup. Colliculi replaced by pre-tectal region </li></ul><ul><li>Fasc. Retroflexor – vertical fibers traversing the medial portion of the red nucleus. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Inferior surface of the Diencephalon <ul><li>Only exposed area to the surface in the intact brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus and other structures: </li></ul><ul><li>Optic chiasma </li></ul><ul><li>Infundibulum with the tuber cinerium </li></ul><ul><li>Mamillary body </li></ul>
  8. 8. Superior surface of the Diencephalon <ul><li>Concealed by the fornix : thick bundle of nerve fibers from the hippocampus of temp. lobe and arches posteriorly over the thalamus to join the mamillary body </li></ul><ul><li>Roof of 3 rd vent. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Lateral surface of the Dierncephalon <ul><li>Bounded by the internal capsule </li></ul>
  10. 10. Medial surface of the Diencephalon <ul><li>Superior part by the medial surface of the thalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior part by the hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>These 2 areas are separated by a shallow sulcus the Hypothalamic sulcus. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Diencephalon
  12. 12. Diencephalon
  13. 13. Diencephalon
  14. 14. Diencephalon: Thalamus <ul><li>“ Gateway to cerebral cortex” </li></ul><ul><li>Most sensory stimuli project to the thalamus, which in turn projects to the cerebrum. </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamus also influences moods and activities associated with strong emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>(Two concepts: Sensory integration and Mood ) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Diencephalon:Thalamus <ul><li>Large ovoid mass of gray matter forming a greater part of the Diencephalon. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell station to all main sensory system except the olfactory pathway. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Diencephalon
  17. 17. HYPOTHALAMUS
  18. 18. HYPOTHALAMUS
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