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Human Anatomy


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Human Anatomy

  1. 1. Online practice tests, live classes, tutoring, study guides Q&A, premium content and more .
  2. 2. Human Anatomy The Scientific study of the Human Body
  3. 3. History of Anatomy <ul><li>500 B.C. formal study in Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest description done in papyrus 3000 and 2500B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocrates, early taught in Greece(460-377 B.C.) </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle, first to use anatome ( 384-322BC), cutting or taking apart or “Dissecare” </li></ul><ul><li>Versalius, 1543 . “De Humani Corporis Fabrica”masterpiece </li></ul>
  4. 4. History……. <ul><li>Hieronymus Fabricius, 1537-1619. constructed the Anatomical theater in Padua. discovered the valves in the veins </li></ul><ul><li>William Harvey, discovered blood circulation, 1628. Exercitatio anatomica De Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus. </li></ul><ul><li>17 th Century, human dissection became important feature in European medical schools. </li></ul><ul><li>18 th and 19 th century anatomist published treaties for standard medical study of human body. Body snatchers. </li></ul><ul><li>1832, Britain parliament passed the Anatomy Act, legalizing medical schools to accept cadaver donations for anatomical studies. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Approaches to the study of Anatomy <ul><li>Regional anatomy – topographical study by regions. Surface anatomy, P.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic anatomy – studying by systems, e.g. circulatory or reproductive, skeletal, integumentary, arterial, muscular, nervous, circulatory, digestive, respiratory, urinary, endocrine systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical anatomy – with clinical correlation, emphasis by structure and function </li></ul>
  6. 6. Anatomical positions <ul><li>Anatomical position </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomical planes: </li></ul><ul><li>> Median plane </li></ul><ul><li>> Sagittal plane </li></ul><ul><li>> Coronal plane </li></ul><ul><li>> Horizontal plane ( transverse) </li></ul><ul><li>Sections </li></ul><ul><li>> Longitudinal </li></ul><ul><li>> Transverse </li></ul><ul><li>> Oblique </li></ul>
  7. 7. Terms of Relationship <ul><li>Superficial, intermediate, deep </li></ul><ul><li>Medial, lateral </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior, dorsal, anterior,ventral </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior, caudal </li></ul><ul><li>> inferomedial </li></ul><ul><li>> superolateral </li></ul><ul><li>Proximal, distal </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsum </li></ul>
  8. 8. Terms of laterality/ Movement <ul><li>Ipsilateral </li></ul><ul><li>Unilateral </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral </li></ul><ul><li>Contralateral </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion, dorsiflexion, plantarflexion </li></ul><ul><li>Extension, hyperextension, </li></ul><ul><li>Abduction, adduction, circumduction </li></ul><ul><li>Opposition, protrusion </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation, Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Eversion, Inversion </li></ul><ul><li>Pronation, Supination. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Skin and fascia <ul><li>Characteristics and function: </li></ul><ul><li>> biggest organ </li></ul><ul><li>> Protection </li></ul><ul><li>> Heat regulation </li></ul><ul><li>> Sensation – afferent nerves for pain, touch and temp. </li></ul><ul><li>Layers: </li></ul><ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul><ul><li>Dermis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair follicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrector muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sebaceous glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweat glands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tension lines – Langer lines ( collagen & elastic fibers) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Skin and fascia……. <ul><li>Subcutaneous tissue – with loose fatty tss. Acting as thermo-regulators, as well as protection from bony prominencies </li></ul><ul><li>Skin ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>Deep fascia </li></ul>
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