Enhancing U.S.-China Cooperation:
Energy Solutions, Environmental
Governance and Low-Carbon Development
2010 Washington Fo...
2
About the Natural Resources
Defense Council (NRDC)
 NRDC’s purpose is to safeguard the Earth: its
people, its plants an...
Overview
 China’s Commitments
 Highlights of U.S.-China Cooperation
 CERC on Building Efficiency
 Renewable Energy Pol...
China’s Commitments
Energy Intensity
 Target: 20% reduction from 2005 levels by 2010
 Status: 15.6% by end of 2009
 Top...
GHG Reduction Potentials - 2030
 Energy Efficiency
2.4 Gt CO2
 Clean Energy
2.4 Gt CO2
China’s Green Revolution, 2009
Cost-benefit estimates of CO2 abatement (RMB/tCO2)
461
Buildings
41
Transportation
-133
Agriculture
-236
Industry
-287
Pow...
Building Efficiency Highlights
 Agenda 21 Building (completed
2004)
 Current standards: 50% reduction
for new buildings
...
US-China CERC: Building
Efficiency
 $50+ mil in joint U.S.-China
public-private funds
 5-year project
 LBNL-led U.S. Co...
NRDC Priorities for Improving
Building Efficiency in China
1. Implement building labels at local levels for both
commercia...
Renewable Energy Policies
 2009 Amendments to Renewable Energy
Law:
 Mandatory connection / purchase policy
 Renewable ...
Low-Carbon Development
 China is building 12 “clean energy economic zones”
 Converting old industrial facilities
 Leade...
Environmental Governance
Partnership with Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs (IPE)
 Pollution Information Tran...
 Amending China’s Air Law
 Begun with 2008 MEP workshop
 RAP-Energy Foundation-NRDC
 Lessons from U.S. Clean Air Act a...
Take Home Points
Vast potential for U.S.-China cooperation
on climate and energy across…
multiple levels of government
N...
Thank you!
 Contact:
 Michael Davidson (mdavidson@nrdc.org)
 Barbara Finamore, China Program Director
(bfinamore@nrdc.o...
Additional Slides
China’s Efforts to Reduce
Energy Use
 11th
Five-Year Plan
 Reduce energy intensity by 20% between 2006 and 2010
(save 70...
China’s Efforts to Reduce
Energy Use (2)
 Distribute 150 million energy efficient light bulbs
between 2008 and 2010
 Shu...
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NRDC - Enhancing U.S.-China Climate and Energy Cooperation

  1. 1. Enhancing U.S.-China Cooperation: Energy Solutions, Environmental Governance and Low-Carbon Development 2010 Washington Forum on China Michael Davidson, China Climate Fellow Natural Resources Defense Council November 4, 2010
  2. 2. 2 About the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC)  NRDC’s purpose is to safeguard the Earth: its people, its plants and animals and the natural systems on which all life depends.  We use law, science and the support of 1.3 million members and online activists to protect the planet's wildlife and wild places and to ensure a safe and healthy environment for all living things.  We have 5 offices in the U.S. and an office in Beijing, China
  3. 3. Overview  China’s Commitments  Highlights of U.S.-China Cooperation  CERC on Building Efficiency  Renewable Energy Policies  Low-Carbon Development (sub-national)  Environmental Governance: NGO partnerships
  4. 4. China’s Commitments Energy Intensity  Target: 20% reduction from 2005 levels by 2010  Status: 15.6% by end of 2009  Top-1000 Enterprises program: Reduce energy demand by 100 million tce by 2010 Carbon Intensity  Target: 40-45% reduction from 2005 levels by 2020  Inscribed in Copenhagen Accord 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015)  Energy Intensity Target: 15-20% reduction likely  Carbon Intensity Target  New strategic industries: half in EE/RE  Strengthen target responsibility system
  5. 5. GHG Reduction Potentials - 2030  Energy Efficiency 2.4 Gt CO2  Clean Energy 2.4 Gt CO2 China’s Green Revolution, 2009
  6. 6. Cost-benefit estimates of CO2 abatement (RMB/tCO2) 461 Buildings 41 Transportation -133 Agriculture -236 Industry -287 Power Every tonne of CO2 abated yields a net benefit of 461 RMB Can require large capital expenditures or result in low or negative ROI Positive contribution to "Profit & Loss" statement Negative contribution to "Profit & Loss" statement Every tonne of CO2 abated has a net cost of 287 RMB From Gray to Green: Buildings Source: From Gray to Green, NRDC (2009)
  7. 7. Building Efficiency Highlights  Agenda 21 Building (completed 2004)  Current standards: 50% reduction for new buildings  Energy retrofit target: 150 mil m2 cold-climate residential by 2010  Under development: energy rating and labeling for residential and commercial  If meet 11th FYP’s targets: 540 MtCO2 reduction* *Source: NRDC calculations based on LBNL, “Assessment of China’s Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction Accomplishments and Opportunities During the 11th Five Year Plan” (2010). Shanghai Building Energy Label
  8. 8. US-China CERC: Building Efficiency  $50+ mil in joint U.S.-China public-private funds  5-year project  LBNL-led U.S. Consortium: (NRDC is a U.S. partner)  Chinese consortium: Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development - lead  Industrial/cost share partners  Technology R&D: materials, lighting, insulation…  Analysis: markets, benchmarking, energy use/behavior  Case studies: low-energy buildings
  9. 9. NRDC Priorities for Improving Building Efficiency in China 1. Implement building labels at local levels for both commercial and residential buildings, existing and new, starting from government buildings. 2. Strengthen existing building codes, establish a revision cycle to make sure the codes continue, and strengthen enforcement and implementation. 3. Provide performance-based incentives and tax rebates to encourage new buildings go beyond building codes. 4. Provide feasible financing mechanisms for building retrofits, including integration of building EE into demand- side management (DSM) programs.
  10. 10. Renewable Energy Policies  2009 Amendments to Renewable Energy Law:  Mandatory connection / purchase policy  Renewable Energy Fund  Central-local coordination Lessons from the U.S.:  Renewables quota system:  Nevada, New Jersey: examples of RE type- dependent quotas and “multipliers”  Technical standards for interconnection:  Low-voltage ride through (LVRT) capability  Power factor control  Remote supervision/data collection  All required by wind power in the U.S. See: china.nrdc.org/files/china_nrdc_org/ NRDC - China Renewable Energy Legal Framework.pdf
  11. 11. Low-Carbon Development  China is building 12 “clean energy economic zones”  Converting old industrial facilities  Leaders in clean energy & EE deployment …potential for sub-national cooperation: California-Jiangsu model is leading the way  Exchanges for over 20 years  2009: MOU on energy and environment (first-ever sub-national climate agreement)  Suzhou Industrial Park (est. 1994)  Eco Science Hub: Low-Carbon Demonstration (2010)  GHG accounting / development guide  Green buildings  Low-carbon community practices
  12. 12. Environmental Governance Partnership with Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs (IPE)  Pollution Information Transparency Index (PITI)  2008: open environmental information measures take effect  Rated 113 cities on disclosure performance  Best practices:  user-friendly  detailed emissions data  lists of enterprise violations  prompt response to public information requests  Benefits of transparency (U.S. experience):  Empower media and public as environmental watchdogs  Toxics release inventories engage consumers, banks, corporations  Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests have uncovered countless violations See: china.nrdc.org/library/PITI-EN
  13. 13.  Amending China’s Air Law  Begun with 2008 MEP workshop  RAP-Energy Foundation-NRDC  Lessons from U.S. Clean Air Act and other international experience  Key areas:  Ambient Air Quality Standards  State Implementation Plans  Permitting programs  Information transparency  Enforcement  MEP also examining EPA’s GHG regulation  Kicking off project on permitting with China Research Academy of Environmental Sciences (CRAES) Environmental Governance (2) See: china.nrdc.org/AirLawAmendment
  14. 14. Take Home Points Vast potential for U.S.-China cooperation on climate and energy across… multiple levels of government NGOs, private sector as well all fields – renewables, energy efficiency, smart growth, governance…
  15. 15. Thank you!  Contact:  Michael Davidson (mdavidson@nrdc.org)  Barbara Finamore, China Program Director (bfinamore@nrdc.org)  Read our China blogs : switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/issues/greening_china/  See our new reports on China: http://china.nrdc.org/library/NRDCTianjin-side-event-reports  China-U.S. Energy Efficiency Alliance: www.chinauseealliance.org/
  16. 16. Additional Slides
  17. 17. China’s Efforts to Reduce Energy Use  11th Five-Year Plan  Reduce energy intensity by 20% between 2006 and 2010 (save 700 million tons of coal equivalent)  Top-1000 program to save 100 million tce by 2010 (263 mt CO2 reduction)  Government financial support: 7 billion RMB in 2007 (central/provincial)  Officials' political career prospects dependent in part on their energy-saving performance
  18. 18. China’s Efforts to Reduce Energy Use (2)  Distribute 150 million energy efficient light bulbs between 2008 and 2010  Shut down 71 GW of small inefficient coal power plants between 2006 and mid-2010  Implement efficiency dispatch rules – dispatch power plants based on coal consumption level  Adopt energy labeling for refrigerator, air condition, washing machine, water heater, induction cooker, fluorescent lamp, motor, copier, computer monitor, etc.

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