•Develop understanding of genre
Genre has a set of codes and conventions
Genre is not fixed and changes over time
•Apply genre theory to a selection of
•Analyse how genre changes over time
Genre so far…
We have analysed the opening of Scream to see how it fits
horror genre and how director scares audience.
‘Things’ that make the opening of Scream a horror film?
The correct terminology for this list is ICONOGRAPHY.
Iconography is an important aspect of genre. We expect to see
certain objects on screen when we see a particular genre, for
example, in a Horror, isolated locations, low key lighting, shadows,
sound to cause tension, murder weapons etc…
Producer of the film
• Genre acts as a template to work within
• Genre provides assumptions about who the audience is. This
helps market films to a specific audience.
• The audience knows what to expect from the film
Altman states that genres are “Usually defined in terms of
certain signs (semantic) or certain plots and themes (syntactic)
• Semantic- signs/ objects
• Syntactic: themes, narratives, ideologies
• Go back to Scream- what are the semantic/ syntactic
David Buckingham/ Steve Neale
Buckingham and Neale both argue that genre does change over
time however certain codes and conventions remain the same.
Genre is not simply ‘given’ by the culture, rather it is in a
constant process of negotiation and change” (1993)
Pleasure is derived from ‘repetition and difference’ (1980)
‘There would be no pleasure without difference’
We enjoy the stretching of the genre in new directions and the
consequent shifting of our expectations.
you oneoftheseexamplesto watchon youtube.
1980s American Werewolf in London
1990s Blair Witch Project
2000s The Descent/ Eden Lake
• Make a list of all the semantic elements (objects that make it
fit the horror genre)
• What are the syntactic elements (narrative, ideology)
You are then going to show the clip and and feedback your ideas
to the rest of the class.
While we watch the clips (in chronological order) see if, as a
class you can apply Buckingham and Neale’s theories.
How are the example horrors the same but how have they
changed over time to keep the audience interested and