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  1. 1. What do we do with all this garbage?
  2. 2. Landfills  A landfill, also known as a dump, is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment. Historically, landfills have been the most common methods of organized waste disposal and remain so in many places around the world.
  3. 3. When constructing a landfill: • an area is filled in a single, well-defined "cell" • and a rubberized HDPE or clay landfill liner is put in place • this is to prevent contamination by leachates migrating downward through the underlying geological formation.
  4. 4. o o Leachate is liquid generated from rainfall and the natural decomposition of waste that is filtered through the landfill to a leachate collection system. The leachate collection system's job is to direct the leachate to collection sumps so it can be properly removed from the landfill. The leachate collection system is designed with a minimum 2 percent slope to drain to collection sumps. A leachate collection sump consists of an HDPE riser and submersible pump. Leachate drains to the leachate collection system, and the leachate is then piped to an onsite leachate storage tank. The leachate is transported to an approved offsite wastewater treatment plant for disposal.
  5. 5. • When the growth of a landfill is at its maximum capacity, landfill covers are installed. • Geosynthetic material keeps the waste from being exposed to the outside elements. • The accumulation and treatment of leachate can be reduced dramatically when the outside elements are kept from contacting the waste. • Once covered, gases are directed to a flare and/or vents. • This reduction of leachate and treatment is a definite cost savings
  6. 6. Faulty Foundations o All landfills will eventually fail and leak leachate into ground and surface water. o Plastics are not inert. o State-of-the-art plastic (HDPE) landfill liners (1/10 inch or 100 mils thick) and plastic pipes allow chemicals and gases to pass through their membranes, become brittle, swell, and breakdown. • Not only will household chemicals, such as moth balls, degrade HDPE, but much more benign things can cause it to develop stress cracks, such as, margarine, vinegar, ethyl alcohol (booze), shoe polish, peppermint oil, to name a few.
  7. 7. Leachate Problems     they clog up from silt or mud; they can clog up because of growth of microorganisms in the pipes; they can clog up because of a chemical reaction leading to the precipitation of minerals in the pipes; or the pipes become weakened by chemical attack (acids, solvents, oxidizing agents, or corrosion) and may then be crushed by the tons of garbage piled on them.
  8. 8. Problems with Covers        Erosion by natural weathering (rain, hail, snow, freeze-thaw cycles, and wind) Vegetation, such as shrubs and trees that continually compete with grasses for available space, sending down roots that will relentlessly seek to penetrate the cover; Burrowing or soil- dwelling mammals (woodchucks, mice, moles, voles), reptiles (snakes, tortoises), insects (ants, beetles), and worms will present constant threats to the integrity of the cover; Sunlight (if any of these other natural agents should succeed in uncovering a portion of the umbrella) will dry out clay (permitting cracks to develop), or destroy membrane liners through the action of ultraviolet radiation; Subsidence--an uneven cave-in of the cap caused by settling of wastes or organic decay of wastes, or by loss of liquids from landfilled drums-can result in cracks in clay or tears in membrane liners, or result in ponding on the surface, which can make a clay cap mushy or can subject the cap to freeze-thaw pressures; Rubber tires, which "float" upward in a landfill; and Human activities of many kinds.
  9. 9. Gasses found in landfills: • • • • The gasses that are produced in landfills are due to the anaerobic digestion by microbes on any organic matter. The typical constituents of gases produced by a municipal solid waste landfill: Component Percent (dry volume basis)* Methane 40-60% Carbon Dioxide 40-60% Nitrogen 2-5% Ammonia 0.1-1.0% Methane : It is often flammable and sometimes even explosive. • Carbon Dioxide: Non harmful to the environment • Nitrogen: Non harmful to the environment • Ammonia: Ammonia in air is an irritant and causes burning of the eyes, nose, throat and lungs.
  10. 10. Leading Importers of Waste     Pennsylvania Indiana Michigan Wisconsin
  11. 11. Leading Exporters of Waste           New York Illinois Missouri Maryland Massachusetts Washington Minnesota North Carolina Indiana Florida
  12. 12. Recyclable Materials Paper  Plastics  Metals  Glass Electronics  Clothing Materials  Rubbers 
  13. 13. Bacterial Plastics  In making bacterial plastics, biotechnologists introduce bacterial genes into plants. These genes code for the enzymes to make bacterial plastics. The plants are grown and harvested, and the plastics are extracted from the plant material.  Bioplastics have the advantage of being produced from renewable resources (bacteria, plants) rather than nonrenewable resources (oil, natural gas). Furthermore, bioplastics are biodegradable -they can break down in the environment.
  14. 14. Bioreactor Landfills  A bioreactor landfill operates to rapidly transform and degrade organic waste. The increase in waste degradation and stabilization is accomplished through the addition of liquid and air to enhance microbial processes. By efficiently designing and operating a landfill, the life of a landfill can be extended by as much as 20 years
  15. 15. References: “Landfills.” Wikipedia. The Wikimedia Foundation Inc, 2009. Web. 21 Nov. 2009. LANDFILLS: Hazardous to the Environment. Zero Waste America. 2009. Web. 21 Nov. 2009. “The Basics of Landfills.” Action Center. 2003. Web. 21 Nov. 2009 CRS Report for Congress. 2007. Print. 21 Nov. 2009. 2009. Web. 21 Nov. 2009. “How plastics work.” How Stuff Works. 2009. Web. 21 Nov. 2009