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The french and indian war

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The french and indian war

  1. 1. 1 The French andThe French and Indian WarIndian War
  2. 2. 22 Was 1763 a "turning point" in British-colonial relationships???
  3. 3. 33 1. It increased her colonial empire in1. It increased her colonial empire in the Americas.the Americas. 2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt.2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt. 3. Britain’s contempt for the colonials3. Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings.created bitter feelings. Therefore, England felt that aTherefore, England felt that a major reorganization of hermajor reorganization of her American EmpireAmerican Empire was necessary!was necessary! Effects of the WarEffects of the War on Britain?on Britain?
  4. 4. 44 1. It united them against a1. It united them against a common enemy for the firstcommon enemy for the first time.time. 2. It created a socializing2. It created a socializing experience for all theexperience for all the colonials who participated.colonials who participated. 3. It created bitter feelings3. It created bitter feelings towards the British thattowards the British that would only intensify.would only intensify. Effects of the War onEffects of the War on the American Colonialsthe American Colonials
  5. 5. 55 BritishBritish • March in formation orMarch in formation or bayonet charge.bayonet charge. • Br. officers wanted toBr. officers wanted to take charge of colonials.take charge of colonials. • Prima Donna Br.Prima Donna Br. officers with servantsofficers with servants & tea settings.& tea settings. • Drills & toughDrills & tough discipline.discipline. • Colonists should payColonists should pay for their own defense.for their own defense. • Indian-style guerillaIndian-style guerilla tactics.tactics. • Col. militias servedCol. militias served under own captains.under own captains. • No mil. deference orNo mil. deference or protocols observed.protocols observed. • Resistance to risingResistance to rising taxes.taxes. • Casual,Casual, non-professionals.non-professionals. Methods ofMethods of Fighting:Fighting: MilitaryMilitary Organization:Organization: MilitaryMilitary Discipline:Discipline: Finances:Finances: Demeanor:Demeanor: British-AmericanBritish-American Colonial TensionsColonial Tensions ColonialsColonials
  6. 6. Competing EuropeanCompeting European ClaimsClaims  In the middle of the 18th century,In the middle of the 18th century, France and England hadFrance and England had competing claims for land in Northcompeting claims for land in North America.America.  The French held trapping andThe French held trapping and trade routes in the Ohio Valley.trade routes in the Ohio Valley.  The English colonies wereThe English colonies were encroaching on French territoryencroaching on French territory are the population grew.are the population grew.  They also competed over tradeThey also competed over trade issues with the Native Americansissues with the Native Americans in the disputed region.in the disputed region.
  7. 7. Competing European ClaimsCompeting European Claims
  8. 8. The Battle of Fort NecessityThe Battle of Fort Necessity  The French set up forts along toThe French set up forts along to protect their fur trading interests.protect their fur trading interests.  Some of these forts conflictedSome of these forts conflicted with English claims.with English claims.  Virginia Governor DinwiddieVirginia Governor Dinwiddie dispatched a young Georgedispatched a young George Washington in 1753 to deliver aWashington in 1753 to deliver a protest to the French. This protestprotest to the French. This protest was ignored.was ignored.  The British sent a party toThe British sent a party to construct a fort on the site ofconstruct a fort on the site of modern Pittsburg.modern Pittsburg. Young George Washington
  9. 9. The Battle of Fort NecessityThe Battle of Fort Necessity  The force was driven off by the French who, in turn, constructed Fort Duquesne on theThe force was driven off by the French who, in turn, constructed Fort Duquesne on the site.site.  The next year, Dinwiddie turned to Washington to expel the French from the site.The next year, Dinwiddie turned to Washington to expel the French from the site. Washington was quickly overwhelmed by superior French and Native AmericanWashington was quickly overwhelmed by superior French and Native American numbers.numbers.  Washington had to retreat to the hastily constructed Fort Necessity, which he had toWashington had to retreat to the hastily constructed Fort Necessity, which he had to surrender shortly there after. This incident was a prelude to the French and Indiansurrender shortly there after. This incident was a prelude to the French and Indian War.War. A recreation of Ft. Necessity.
  10. 10. The Albany CongressThe Albany Congress  In 1754, war was inevitable.In 1754, war was inevitable.  The colonies sent delegates toThe colonies sent delegates to Albany to discuss strategy forAlbany to discuss strategy for common defense.common defense.  They approved a documentThey approved a document written by Benjamin Franklinwritten by Benjamin Franklin promoting a substructure ofpromoting a substructure of government below Britishgovernment below British authority to govern the colonies.authority to govern the colonies.  The council would be comprisedThe council would be comprised of elected representatives fromof elected representatives from each colony and headed by aeach colony and headed by a President-General appointed byPresident-General appointed by the crown.the crown.  The colonies were not ready forThe colonies were not ready for political union and it is unlikelypolitical union and it is unlikely that the British government wouldthat the British government would have supported the plan.have supported the plan. "Join or Die" (1754) published by Franklin is considered the first political cartoon of the colonies.
  11. 11.  9. That the assent of the President-9. That the assent of the President- General be requisite to all acts of theGeneral be requisite to all acts of the Grand Council, and that it be his officeGrand Council, and that it be his office and duty to cause them to be carried intoand duty to cause them to be carried into execution.execution.  10. That the President-General, with the10. That the President-General, with the advice of the Grand Council, hold oradvice of the Grand Council, hold or direct all Indian treaties… and makedirect all Indian treaties… and make peace or declare war with Indian nations.peace or declare war with Indian nations.  11. That they make such laws as they11. That they make such laws as they judge necessary for regulating all Indianjudge necessary for regulating all Indian trade. …trade. …  15. That they raise and pay soldiers and15. That they raise and pay soldiers and build forts for the defence of any of thebuild forts for the defence of any of the Colonies…Colonies…  16. That for these purposes they have16. That for these purposes they have power to make laws, and lay and levypower to make laws, and lay and levy such general duties, imposts, or taxes…such general duties, imposts, or taxes…  ““[the President]…he shall take care that[the President]…he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed…”the laws be faithfully executed…”  ““[the President]…shall have power, by and[the President]…shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate,with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of theto make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur…”Senators present concur…”  ““[Congress will] regulate Commerce with[Congress will] regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the severalforeign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes…”States, and with the Indian Tribes…”  ““[Congress will] raise and support[Congress will] raise and support Armies…To provide and maintain aArmies…To provide and maintain a Navy…”Navy…”  ““The Congress shall have Power To layThe Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts andand collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises…”Excises…” From the Albany Plan of Union (1754) From the Constitution (1787)
  12. 12. Braddock’s DefeatBraddock’s Defeat  In July 1755, the British sent aIn July 1755, the British sent a force from Virginia to attack Fortforce from Virginia to attack Fort Duquesne.Duquesne.  The heavy force was defeated byThe heavy force was defeated by the smaller French force and theirthe smaller French force and their Native American allies.Native American allies.  Both the British commander,Both the British commander, Braddock, and the FrenchBraddock, and the French commander Beaujeu, were killed.commander Beaujeu, were killed.  23 year old George Washington23 year old George Washington won accolades for rallying thewon accolades for rallying the defeated British and preventingdefeated British and preventing the battle from turning into a rout.the battle from turning into a rout.  The first two years of fightingThe first two years of fighting were characterized by humiliatingwere characterized by humiliating defeats for the British.defeats for the British.
  13. 13. The Seven Years War in EuropeThe Seven Years War in Europe  The French and Indian War was essentially the North American theatre of a larger conflict,The French and Indian War was essentially the North American theatre of a larger conflict, the Seven Years War, in Europe.the Seven Years War, in Europe.  Britain, Prussia, and Hanover fought against an alliance of France, Austria, Saxony, Russia,Britain, Prussia, and Hanover fought against an alliance of France, Austria, Saxony, Russia, Sweden and Spain.Sweden and Spain.  Prime Minister Pitt of England provided subsidies to Prussia to fight in Europe andPrime Minister Pitt of England provided subsidies to Prussia to fight in Europe and committed British troops and resources to winning the war against the French in Northcommitted British troops and resources to winning the war against the French in North America.America.  The European phase of the war lasted from 1757 to 1763.The European phase of the war lasted from 1757 to 1763.
  14. 14. Fortunes ReverseFortunes Reverse  In 1757, expansion advocateIn 1757, expansion advocate William Pitt became the BritishWilliam Pitt became the British Prime Minister and vowed toPrime Minister and vowed to lead country to victory.lead country to victory.  Pitt concentrated on:Pitt concentrated on:  expelling the French fromexpelling the French from North AmericaNorth America  buying the cooperation by thebuying the cooperation by the colonists by stimulating thecolonists by stimulating the North American economy withNorth American economy with a massive infusion of Britisha massive infusion of British currencycurrency  buying the support of thebuying the support of the Native Americans withNative Americans with promises of fixed territorialpromises of fixed territorial boundaries.boundaries.
  15. 15. Fortunes ReverseFortunes Reverse  The greatly fortified force devastated the Cherokee to the South and beganThe greatly fortified force devastated the Cherokee to the South and began capturing strategic French forts and cutting off their supply lines.capturing strategic French forts and cutting off their supply lines.  The British conquered Quebec in 1759.The British conquered Quebec in 1759.  In 1760, they captured Montreal.In 1760, they captured Montreal.  In the final years of the war, the British defeated the French Navy and took FrenchIn the final years of the war, the British defeated the French Navy and took French colonies in the Caribbean.colonies in the Caribbean.  The French Empire in North America came to an end.The French Empire in North America came to an end.
  16. 16. French Defeat: Treaty ofFrench Defeat: Treaty of EastonEaston  The Treaty of Easton, signed inThe Treaty of Easton, signed in 1758, essentially sealed France’s1758, essentially sealed France’s fate.fate.  In the treaty, the British promisedIn the treaty, the British promised the Six Iroquois Nations to stopthe Six Iroquois Nations to stop settlements west of thesettlements west of the Alleghenies in exchange for theirAlleghenies in exchange for their neutrality in the war.neutrality in the war.  This caused the French toThis caused the French to abandon Fort Duquesne and, byabandon Fort Duquesne and, by 1760, Detroit and Montreal, the1760, Detroit and Montreal, the last two French strongholds inlast two French strongholds in North America, had fallen.North America, had fallen.  This was the end of major fightingThis was the end of major fighting in North America.in North America.
  17. 17. The Treaty of ParisThe Treaty of Paris  The 1763 Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War.The 1763 Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War.  The French transferred its claims west of the Mississippi to Spain and ceded itsThe French transferred its claims west of the Mississippi to Spain and ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to the British.territory east of the Mississippi to the British.  The Treaties of Easton and Paris limited colonization to the Eastern seaboard.The Treaties of Easton and Paris limited colonization to the Eastern seaboard.
  18. 18. 1818 France -->France --> lost her Canadian possessions, mostlost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claimsof her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River.to lands east of the Mississippi River. Spain -->Spain --> got all French lands west of thegot all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lostMississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England.Florida to England. England -->England --> got all French lands in Canada,got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, andexclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominancecommercial dominance in India.in India. 17631763  Treaty of ParisTreaty of Paris
  19. 19. Pontiac's RebellionPontiac's Rebellion  Native Americans quickly grewNative Americans quickly grew disenchanted with the British.disenchanted with the British.  The British exhibited little culturalThe British exhibited little cultural sensitivity, traded unfairly, and failedsensitivity, traded unfairly, and failed to stop encroachments on Indianto stop encroachments on Indian land. Settlers had been moving intoland. Settlers had been moving into western Pennsylvania in defiance ofwestern Pennsylvania in defiance of a treaty.a treaty.  This unrest culminated in a rebellionThis unrest culminated in a rebellion by Pontiac, a Native American leaderby Pontiac, a Native American leader who united various tribes with thewho united various tribes with the goal of expelling the British.goal of expelling the British.  The uprising lasted from 1763 toThe uprising lasted from 1763 to 1766.1766.  Massacres and atrocities occurredMassacres and atrocities occurred on both sides— most notably, Britishon both sides— most notably, British General Jeffrey Amherst gave theGeneral Jeffrey Amherst gave the Native Americans blankets infestedNative Americans blankets infested with smallpox.with smallpox.
  20. 20. Chief Pontiac: Address to Ottawa, Huron, andChief Pontiac: Address to Ottawa, Huron, and Pottawatomie IndiansPottawatomie Indians (May 5, 1763)(May 5, 1763)  ““It is important … that we exterminate from our lands this nationIt is important … that we exterminate from our lands this nation which seeks only to destroy us. You see as well as I do that we canwhich seeks only to destroy us. You see as well as I do that we can no longer supply our needs, as we have done from our brothers, theno longer supply our needs, as we have done from our brothers, the French. The English sells us goods twice as dear as the French do,French. The English sells us goods twice as dear as the French do, and their goods do not last. …and their goods do not last. … When I go to see the English commander and say to him that someWhen I go to see the English commander and say to him that some of our comrades are dead, instead of bewailing their death, as ourof our comrades are dead, instead of bewailing their death, as our French brothers do, he laughs at me and at you. If I ask forFrench brothers do, he laughs at me and at you. If I ask for anything for our sick, he refuses with the reply that he has no useanything for our sick, he refuses with the reply that he has no use for us. …for us. … Are we not men like them? … What do we fear? It is time.”Are we not men like them? … What do we fear? It is time.”
  21. 21. 2121 Pontiac’s RebellionPontiac’s Rebellion (1763)(1763)
  22. 22. The Royal Proclamation of 1763The Royal Proclamation of 1763  Violent incidents such as Pontiac's Rebellion prompted the English crown toViolent incidents such as Pontiac's Rebellion prompted the English crown to attempt to mandate an end to encroachments on territory promised to the Indians.attempt to mandate an end to encroachments on territory promised to the Indians.  Settlers were not to establish themselves west of the “Proclamation Line.”Settlers were not to establish themselves west of the “Proclamation Line.”  The effort was unsuccessful and is viewed by many to be a leading cause of theThe effort was unsuccessful and is viewed by many to be a leading cause of the Revolutionary War.Revolutionary War.
  23. 23. Bloody Pond Massacre
  24. 24. 24  In 1763 George Grenville became primeIn 1763 George Grenville became prime minister and the first lord of the Treasury.minister and the first lord of the Treasury. Grenville had to find a way to reduceGrenville had to find a way to reduce Britain’s debt and pay for the 10,000Britain’s debt and pay for the 10,000 troops now stationed in North America.troops now stationed in North America.  What do you think he did? 2 main things...What do you think he did? 2 main things... Think, what was a problem with theThink, what was a problem with the colonies in the first chapter?colonies in the first chapter? 24
  25. 25. 2525 1.1. Sugar Act - 1764Sugar Act - 1764 2.2. Currency Act - 1764Currency Act - 1764 3.3. Stamp Act - 1765Stamp Act - 1765 George Grenville’sGeorge Grenville’s Program, 1763-1765Program, 1763-1765
  26. 26. 2626 17671767  William Pitt, P. M. & CharlesWilliam Pitt, P. M. & Charles Townshend, Secretary of the Exchequer.Townshend, Secretary of the Exchequer. A Shift from paying taxes for Br. warShift from paying taxes for Br. war debts & quartering of troopsdebts & quartering of troops  paying col. govt. salaries.paying col. govt. salaries. A He diverted revenue collection fromHe diverted revenue collection from internal to external trade.internal to external trade. A Tax these importsTax these imports  paper, paint,paper, paint, lead, glass, tea.lead, glass, tea. A Increase custom officials atIncrease custom officials at American portsAmerican ports  established aestablished a Board of Customs in Boston.Board of Customs in Boston. Townshend DutiesTownshend Duties Crisis: 1767-1770Crisis: 1767-1770
  27. 27. Slide 2: http://www.clements.umich.edu/Exhibits/g.washington/case.07/07e.jpg Slide 3: http://www.teachkidshistory.com/revolutionary-war/french-indian-war.jpg Slide 4: http://www.georgewashington.si.edu/life/chrono_military.html Slide 5: http://www.fortedwards.org/cwffa/f-i-series/part5-27.jpg Slide 6: http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/us.capitol/one.jpg Slide 7: http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/amerdoc/albany.htm http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.articleii.html#section2 Slide 8: http://www.csulb.edu/~aisstudy/nae/chapter_1/001_002_1.46.jpg Slide 9: http://www.historyteacher.net/APEuroCourse/Maps/map-7YrsWar-1756-1763.jpg Slide 10: http://www.britishempire.co.uk/images3/chatham.jpg Slide 11: http://faculty.evansville.edu/rl29/art105/img/west_deathwolfe.jpg Slide 12: http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/1/1f/350px-FortDuquesne.jpg Slide 13: http://www.geo.msu.edu/geo333/images/british-era-1763-75.jpg Slide 14: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h598.html Slide 15: http://asp1.umbc.edu/newmedia/sites/chetah/pdf/r2.pdf Slide 16: http://classes.maxwell.syr.edu/his101/pix/proc.jpg Slide 17: http://www.hfcsd.org/marozell/images/bloody%20pond.jpg Photo and Text Citations

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