The Nervous SystemThe Nervous System
Functions of the Nervous SystemFunctions of the Nervous System1.1. Control center for all body activitiesControl center fo...
Central Nervous SystemCentral Nervous SystemNeuronsNeurons : microscopic: microscopicnerve cells that makenerve cells that...
Anatomy of a NeuronAnatomy of a NeuronEach neuron contains:Each neuron contains:-- Cell bodyCell body withwithnucleusnucle...
• Neurons do NOT touch;Neurons do NOT touch;there is a gap betweenthere is a gap betweenthem called athem called a synapse...
Communication BetweenCommunication BetweenNeuronsNeurons- The use ofThe use ofneurotransmittersneurotransmitterscauses an ...
Brain TeaserBrain TeaserIf you were running a race, and you passedIf you were running a race, and you passedthe person in ...
Two Major DivisionsTwo Major Divisionsof the Nervous Systemof the Nervous System
Central Nervous SystemCentral Nervous SystemBrainBrain : a mass of 100: a mass of 100billion neurons locatedbillion neuron...
Anatomy of the BrainAnatomy of the BrainCerebrumCerebrum : largest part of: largest part ofhuman brainhuman brain- Respons...
Retrieval of a MemoryRetrieval of a MemoryA memory is not aA memory is not asnapshot stored in thesnapshot stored in thebr...
Anatomy of the BrainAnatomy of the BrainCerebellum : at base ofbrain-Responsible for:- Muscle coordination- Balance- Posture
Anatomy of the BrainAnatomy of the BrainBrain StemBrain Stem : connects: connectsbrain to spinal cordbrain to spinal cord-...
Central Nervous SystemCentral Nervous SystemSpinal CordSpinal Cord : Column of: Column ofnerves from brain tonerves from b...
Brain TeaserBrain TeaserA H I M N O T U V WWhich of the letters above does not belongwith the rest?N It is not a mirror-im...
Peripheral Nervous SystemPeripheral Nervous SystemNervesNerves : visible bundles: visible bundlesof axons and dendritesof ...
-Responsibilities:-Responsibilities:-- Sensory nervesSensory nerves --carry messages fromcarry messages frombody to brain ...
Brain TeaserBrain TeaserThere is a town where 5% of all the peopleThere is a town where 5% of all the peopleliving there h...
Problems of the Nervous SystemProblems of the Nervous SystemConcussionConcussionA temporary disturbanceA temporary disturb...
ParalysisParalysisA loss of sensation andA loss of sensation andmovement of part ofmovement of part ofthe body due to anth...
Parkinson’s DiseaseParkinson’s DiseaseThe brain does not produce enough of theThe brain does not produce enough of theneur...
Alzheimer’s DiseaseAlzheimer’s DiseaseA gradual shrinking of the neurons in the cerebrumA gradual shrinking of the neurons...
EpilepsyEpilepsyAbnormal transmission of messages between theAbnormal transmission of messages between theneurons in the b...
24Schizophrenia• Definition• By Mayo Clinic staff• Schizophrenia is a group of severe brain disorders in which peopleinter...
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27Depression• By Mayo Clinic Staff• Depression is a medical illness that causes a persistent feeling ofsadness and loss of...
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Nervous system

  1. 1. The Nervous SystemThe Nervous System
  2. 2. Functions of the Nervous SystemFunctions of the Nervous System1.1. Control center for all body activitiesControl center for all body activities2.2. Responds and adapts to changes that occurResponds and adapts to changes that occurboth inside and outside the bodyboth inside and outside the body(Ex: pain, temperature, pregnancy)(Ex: pain, temperature, pregnancy)
  3. 3. Central Nervous SystemCentral Nervous SystemNeuronsNeurons : microscopic: microscopicnerve cells that makenerve cells that makeup the brain, spinalup the brain, spinalcord, and nervescord, and nerves- 30,000 neurons can fit- 30,000 neurons can fiton a pinheadon a pinhead
  4. 4. Anatomy of a NeuronAnatomy of a NeuronEach neuron contains:Each neuron contains:-- Cell bodyCell body withwithnucleusnucleus-- DendritesDendrites : fibers that: fibers thatreceive messages fromreceive messages fromother neuronsother neurons-- AxonsAxons : fibers that: fibers thatsend messages to othersend messages to otherneuronsneurons
  5. 5. • Neurons do NOT touch;Neurons do NOT touch;there is a gap betweenthere is a gap betweenthem called athem called a synapsesynapse• Messages are sentMessages are sentacross the synapses byacross the synapses byspecial chemicals calledspecial chemicals calledneurotransmittersneurotransmitters
  6. 6. Communication BetweenCommunication BetweenNeuronsNeurons- The use ofThe use ofneurotransmittersneurotransmitterscauses an electricalcauses an electricalcurrentcurrentThere is enoughThere is enoughelectrical current in theelectrical current in thebrain to power abrain to power aflashlightflashlight
  7. 7. Brain TeaserBrain TeaserIf you were running a race, and you passedIf you were running a race, and you passedthe person in 2the person in 2ndndplace, what place wouldplace, what place wouldyou be in now?you be in now?SecondSecond
  8. 8. Two Major DivisionsTwo Major Divisionsof the Nervous Systemof the Nervous System
  9. 9. Central Nervous SystemCentral Nervous SystemBrainBrain : a mass of 100: a mass of 100billion neurons locatedbillion neurons locatedinside the skullinside the skull-Learning occurs as more-Learning occurs as moreand strongerand strongerconnections are madeconnections are madebetween neuronsbetween neurons
  10. 10. Anatomy of the BrainAnatomy of the BrainCerebrumCerebrum : largest part of: largest part ofhuman brainhuman brain- Responsible for:- Responsible for:- Thought- Thought- Language- Language- Senses- Senses- Memory- Memory- Voluntary movement- Voluntary movement
  11. 11. Retrieval of a MemoryRetrieval of a MemoryA memory is not aA memory is not asnapshot stored in thesnapshot stored in thebrain – it must be putbrain – it must be puttogether fromtogether frominformation stored ininformation stored invarious parts of thevarious parts of thebrainbrain
  12. 12. Anatomy of the BrainAnatomy of the BrainCerebellum : at base ofbrain-Responsible for:- Muscle coordination- Balance- Posture
  13. 13. Anatomy of the BrainAnatomy of the BrainBrain StemBrain Stem : connects: connectsbrain to spinal cordbrain to spinal cord-Responsible for:-Responsible for:- Breathing- Breathing- Swallowing- Swallowing- Heartbeat- Heartbeat- Blood pressure- Blood pressure
  14. 14. Central Nervous SystemCentral Nervous SystemSpinal CordSpinal Cord : Column of: Column ofnerves from brain tonerves from brain totailbone – protected bytailbone – protected byvertebrae of spinevertebrae of spine- Responsible for:Responsible for:- Conducting- Conductingimpulses between theimpulses between thebrain and the rest ofbrain and the rest ofthe bodythe body*Impulses may travel as*Impulses may travel asfast at 268 miles/hrfast at 268 miles/hr
  15. 15. Brain TeaserBrain TeaserA H I M N O T U V WWhich of the letters above does not belongwith the rest?N It is not a mirror-image of itself
  16. 16. Peripheral Nervous SystemPeripheral Nervous SystemNervesNerves : visible bundles: visible bundlesof axons and dendritesof axons and dendritesthat entend from thethat entend from thebrain and spinal cord tobrain and spinal cord toall other parts of theall other parts of thebodybody
  17. 17. -Responsibilities:-Responsibilities:-- Sensory nervesSensory nerves --carry messages fromcarry messages frombody to brain (pain,body to brain (pain,pressure, temperature)pressure, temperature)-- Motor nervesMotor nerves – carry– carrymessages from brainmessages from brainto body to respondto body to respond
  18. 18. Brain TeaserBrain TeaserThere is a town where 5% of all the peopleThere is a town where 5% of all the peopleliving there have unlisted phone numbers.living there have unlisted phone numbers.If you selected 100 names at random fromIf you selected 100 names at random fromthe town’s phone directory, on average,the town’s phone directory, on average,how many of these people would havehow many of these people would haveunlisted phone numbers?unlisted phone numbers?0 They would not be in the phone book if0 They would not be in the phone book iftheir number was unlistedtheir number was unlisted
  19. 19. Problems of the Nervous SystemProblems of the Nervous SystemConcussionConcussionA temporary disturbanceA temporary disturbanceof the brain’s ability toof the brain’s ability tofunction due to a hardfunction due to a hardblow to the headblow to the head
  20. 20. ParalysisParalysisA loss of sensation andA loss of sensation andmovement of part ofmovement of part ofthe body due to anthe body due to aninjury of the spinalinjury of the spinalcord or braincord or brain
  21. 21. Parkinson’s DiseaseParkinson’s DiseaseThe brain does not produce enough of theThe brain does not produce enough of theneurotransmitter that transmits messages from theneurotransmitter that transmits messages from thebrain to the musclesbrain to the musclesSymptoms: tremors, rigid muscles, shuffling walk,Symptoms: tremors, rigid muscles, shuffling walk,and loss of facial expressionand loss of facial expressionRed areas showRed areas showwhere chemicalwhere chemicalis storedis stored
  22. 22. Alzheimer’s DiseaseAlzheimer’s DiseaseA gradual shrinking of the neurons in the cerebrumA gradual shrinking of the neurons in the cerebrumSymptoms: memory loss, emotional disturbances,Symptoms: memory loss, emotional disturbances,inability to function on own, deathinability to function on own, death
  23. 23. EpilepsyEpilepsyAbnormal transmission of messages between theAbnormal transmission of messages between theneurons in the brainneurons in the brainSymptoms: seizuresSymptoms: seizures
  24. 24. 24Schizophrenia• Definition• By Mayo Clinic staff• Schizophrenia is a group of severe brain disorders in which peopleinterpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia may result in somecombination of hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinkingand behavior.• Contrary to some popular belief, schizophrenia isnt splitpersonality or multiple personality. The word "schizophrenia" doesmean "split mind," but it refers to a disruption of the usual balanceof emotions and thinking.• Schizophrenia is a chronic condition, requiring lifelong treatment.24
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  27. 27. 27Depression• By Mayo Clinic Staff• Depression is a medical illness that causes a persistent feeling ofsadness and loss of interest. Depression can cause physicalsymptoms, too.Also called major depression, major depressive disorder and clinicaldepression, it affects how you feel, think and behave. Depressioncan lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems. Youmay have trouble doing normal day-to-day activities, anddepression may make you feel as if life isnt worth living.More than just a bout of the blues, depression isnt a weakness, nor isit something that you can simply "snap out" of. Depression is achronic illness that usually requires long-term treatment, likediabetes or high blood pressure.27
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