Literary Terms Review Wohoo!(Yes, that’s an onomatopoeia.)
Imagery • Use of words to create a sensory experience or image• Uses the 5 senses• Helps you imagine the place, smell the food, get angry, etc.• Ex: The family dinner was a “combination of boisterous conversation, badly burnt chicken, and the scent of freshly baked bread.”
Imagery#1 Write a sentence that isFILLED with imagery• Your examples:• A sunset (sight)• A bowl of ice (touch)• A song you love (sound)• Or choose something on your own
Simile• Figure of speech that makes a comparison between two seemingly unlike things by using a connective word—like, as, than, or resembles• “My love is like a red, red rose.” - Robert Burns• “And the sudden ﬂurries of snow- birds, Like brown leaves whirling by.” –James Russell Lowell• His skin was as cold as ice.• http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=sWDSxmMo9Z0
• The desks overhead sounded like the thunderous dancing of elephants.• My eyes pooled like rivers Simile during the wedding vows.• #2 Write a simile• Your examples:• Anger tastes like . . .• Kindness smells like . . .• Or anything you would like...
Metaphor• Figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things without using a connective word such as like or as. Metaphors can be direct, implied, extended, or mixed• Ex: “I am soft sift/ In an hourglass.” –Gerard Manley Hopkins
Metaphor• “All the worlds a stage, And all the men and women merely players in it.” -William Shakespeare• America is a melting pot.• How could she date a snake like that?
#3 Write a metaphor• Your example: ﬁll in the blank with an object• Friendship is . . .• Music is . . .• She is...• Or use anything to make a comparison 9
Personiﬁcation• Gives human qualities to an animal, thing, or concept• The tree sighed sadly in the cold wind.• The warm sun wrapped me in a blanket of peace.
Personiﬁcation• “The ruddy brick ﬂoor smiled up at the smoky ceiling; the oaken settles, shiny with long wear, exchanged cheerful glances with each other; plates on the dresser grinned at pots on the shelf . . .” --The Wind in the Willows• #4 Your example:• Describe a place in the style above--giving a feeling to the place by adding personiﬁcation.
Hyperbole• Figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion or create a comic effect• Ex: The limousine was as long as the Titanic.• Julie wears so much make-up she has to use a sandblaster to get it off at night.
Hyperbole• “At last the garbage reached so high That ﬁnally it touched the sky. And all the neighbors moved away, And none of her friends would come out to play. And ﬁnally Sarah Cynthia Stout said, “OK, I’ll take the garbage out!” But then, of course, it was too late. . . --Shel Silverstein#5 Your example:I laughed until . . .I was hungry enough . . .
Symbolism• Represents something else and itself• Always actually occurs in the text, usually more than once, instead of as a comparison• Common symbols: – Rose – Flag – Rain
Symbolism• “All this last day Frodo had not spoken, but had walked half- bowed, often stumbling, as if his eyes no longer saw the way before his feet. Sam guessed that among all their pains he bore the worst, the growing weight of the Ring, a burden on the body and a torment to his mind.” -J.R.R. Tolkien• # 6 Your example: Come up with your own symbol that represents two different meanings.
Irony--3 kinds• A deliberate contrast between two levels of meaning• Verbal—implying a different meaning than what is directly stated – Different than sarcasm, which is much more direct and harsh• Situational--the opposite of what is expected happens• Dramatic—audience knows something that one or more of the characters does not
Irony—which kind?• Donkey: Can I stay with you? Please?• Shrek: Of course.• Donkey: Really?• Shrek: NO.• A couple appears in court to ﬁnalize a divorce, but during the proceeding, they remarry instead.• Juliet is actually not dead, but asleep with the help of a strong potion. Romeo sees her lying in the tomb and kills himself because he believes her to be dead.
Irony—your turn!• #7 Verbal Irony--a teenager is being yelled at for being out past curfew. What does he/she say in reply?• #8 Situational Irony--You meet the man/woman of your dreams and expect to make a good impression. Instead, . . .• #9 Dramatic Irony--Think of a recent movie in which the audience knows something the characters do not.
Allusion• Reference to a statement, person, place, event, or thing that is known from literature, history, religion, myth, politics, sports, science, or the arts• Examples: "Christy didnt like to spend money. She was no Scrooge, but she seldom purchased anything except the bare necessities".
Allusion• Ex: The students were sure that their teacher had drunk from the river Styx because of her complete inattention to their pranks.• #10 Your example—think of a recent example you’ve heard or seen in which someone references a well-known work
Paradox• A statement that appears to be contradictory, but actually expresses a truth• Ex: “Less is more”• “Truth must dazzle gradually/ Or every man be blind” -Emily Dickinson• “Success is counted sweetest/ By those who ne’er succeed” - Emily Dickinson• “It is in giving that we receive” -Francis of Assisi
Paradox• “Though this be madness, yet there is method in’t” -Polonius in Hamlet• Humans are the best examples of paradoxes.• Mrs. Bell is rarely on time and yet chose a career that is governed by time and a bell schedule.
Oxymoron• Figure of speech which seems to be self contradictory, but is actually true; a compressed paradox• Ex: Romeo describes love using several oxymorons, such as “cold ﬁre,” “feather of lead” and “sick health”• Ex: She had a terrible beauty. There was a deafening silence.
Allegory• A constant set of symbols operating on two levels in a story• Ex: Plato’s Allegory of the Cave--People are chained in a cave and think that the shadows they see are truth. When people break free, they leave the cave and see things as they truly are.• George Orwells Animal Farm is a historical allegory of the Cold War/Bolshevik Revolution in Soviet Union. The book is actually about animals rebelling against the farmers, but then the pig leader abuses his power and manipulates the rest of the animals, just like how Joseph Stalin ruled the Soviet Union in real life.
• Ex: “Young Goodman Brown” ignores warning of his wife Faith, travels into the forest and meets a man with a snake staff and witches. He loses his faith.• In the story the husband is questioning his religion and his relationship with his wife is faltering, it is allegorical because his wifes name is symbolic of both his loss in religious belief and loss in "Faith" aka his wife. 25
Satire• Genre of comedy ridiculing human faults such as vanity, hypocrisy, stupidity, and greed--the aim is to evoke laughter, to expose and criticize• Ex: Anything on Saturday Night Live or The Daily Show• Austin Powers--ridicules the spy movies and heroes• Swift’s “A Modest Proposal” in which he proposes a solution to the problem of over-population in Ireland--the children of the poor should be a food source for the rich
Point of View• The identity of the narrative voice; the person or entity through whom the reader experiences the story.• First-person is narrated by a character in the story or a direct observer).• Second person style which addresses the reader as you, hoping to make you identify with the character• Third-person Omniscient knows all about all the characters and is only limited by what she may want to tell you.• Third-person Limited describes a narrator who knows everything but only follows the point of view of one particular character.