Bellringer… Examine the cartoon. Then,answer all of the followingquestions about it in completesentences. What event is the artistalluding to in this cartoon? What message is beingimplied? Is the implication effective?Why or why not?
The Art of IndirectPersuasion If you’ve ever enjoyed watching late-night comedyshows, you know how effective and fun this approachcan be when it comes to changing perception of thesubjects being lampooned. You’ll immerse yourself in the art of satire, exploringhow writers use a range of genres and techniques,including parody, to present their messages in indirectways.
The Art of IndirectPersuasion Additionally, you’ll explore how diction and syntax canbe used to create humor as well as a wide range ofsatirical tones. Finally, you’ll explore how satirists manipulate andparody the conventions and content of other formatsand genres to advance their purposes as writers.
Satire Satire is a literary genre that uses irony, wit,and sometimes sarcasm to exposehumanity’s vices and foibles, giving impetus,or momentum, to change or reform throughridicule. It is a manner of writing that mixes a criticalattitude with wit and humor in an effort toimprove mankind and human institutions.
Satire While some writers and commentators use aserious tone to persuade their audiences toaccept their perspective on various issues,some writers specifically use humor toconvey a serious message.
7What is Satire? Though he laughs, the satirist tells the truth Compels readers to look at a sight theymissed or shunned - move them to protest Through laughter, aims to cure folly andpunish evil
8Two Types of Satirists Optimist Likes people, but thinks they arerather blind and foolish Tells the truth with a smile Cures people of their ignorance Writes in order to heal
9Two Types of SatiristsPessimistLoves individuals, hatesmankindAim is to wound, to punish,to destroyJuvenalian satire
Types of Direct Satire Horatian satire is a type of directsatire which pokes fun at human foibleswith a witty even indulgent tone. Juvenalian satire is a type of directsatire which denounces, sometimeswith invective, human vice and error indignified and solemn tones.
Horatian Satire This type of satire is named after the Roman satiristHoratian. It seeks to criticize, rather than attack, immorality orstupidity. In general, Horatian satire is gentler, more sympathetic, andmore tolerant of human folly. Unlike Juvenalian satire, it serves to make us laugh athuman folly as opposed to holding our failures up forneedling. Horatian satire tends to ridicule human folly in general or bytype rather than attack specific persons. It tends to produce a smile.
13Types of Satire• Horatian: gentle, sympathetic form ofsatire. Mildly mocks the subject. Theaudience is asked to laugh at themselvesas much as the players.
Juvenalian Satire This type of satire is named after the Roman satiristJuvenal. It is harsher than Horatian satire because it oftenattacks and shows contempt for people. Often, it seeks to address some evil in societythrough scorn and ridicule. The Juvenalian satirist approaches his work in amore serious manner and uses dignified language toattack erroneous thinking or vice. In this way Juvenalian satire evokes feelings ofscorn, shock, and righteous indignation in the mindof the reader.
Characteristics ofSatiric Writing The following slides describe the variouscharacteristics that often appear in satiricwriting. As you read the literature in the remainderof this unit, your goal will be to identify andanalyze these characteristics and theireffect on the various texts.
Irony Irony is a mode of expression, throughwords (verbal irony) or events (irony ofsituation), conveying a reality differentfrom and usually opposite to appearanceor expectation. The surprise recognition by the audienceoften produces a comic effect, makingirony often funny.
Irony When a text intended to be ironic does notseen as such, the effect can bedisastrous. To be an effective piece of sustainedirony, there must be some sort ofaudience tip-off, through style, tone, use ofclear exaggeration, or other device.
Hyperbole Hyperbole is deliberate exaggeration toachieve an effect; overstatement.
Litotes Litotes are a form of understatement that involvesmaking an affirmative point by denying its opposite. For Example: “Being tortured with fire must have been somewhatuncomfortable.” “Rap videos with dancers in them are not uncommon.“ “There are a few Starbucks in America."
Caricature A caricature is an exaggeration or otherdistortion of an individuals prominentfeatures or characteristics to the point ofmaking that individual appear ridiculous. The term is applied more often to graphicrepresentations than to literary ones.
24Forms of Satire Caricature, Exaggeration: Distortion for emphasis Usually focuses on powerful subjects Emphasize physical characteristics in order tomake deeper criticism
Wit Wit is most commonly understood as cleverexpression, whether aggressive or harmless;that is, with or without derogatory intent towardsomeone or something in particular. We also tend to think of wit as beingcharacterized by a mocking or paradoxicalquality, evoking laughter through apt phrasing.
Sarcasm Sarcasm is intentional derision, generallydirected at another person and intended to hurt. The term comes from a Greek word meaning “totear flesh like dogs” and signifies a cuttingremark. Sarcasm usually involves obvious, verbal irony,achieving its effect by jeeringly stating theopposite of what is meant so as to heighten theinsult.
Ridicule Ridicule is the use of words intended tobelittle a person or idea and arousecontemptuous laughter. The goal is to condemn or criticize bymaking the thing, idea, or person seemlaughable and ridiculous.
Parody A parody is an imitation of an author orhis/her work with the idea of ridiculing theauthor, his/her ideas, or the work itself. A parodist exploits the peculiarities of anauthor’s expression—the propensity touse too many parentheses, certain favoritewords, or other elements of the author’sstyle.
34Parody Imitation which, through distortion andexaggeration, evokes amusement,derision, and sometimes scorn Borrows a pre-existing form The Daily Show, The Colbert Report Spaceballs
Invective Invective is speech or writing that abuses,denounces, or attacks. It can be directed againsta person, cause, idea, or system. It employs a heavy use of negative emotivelanguage. For Example: “I cannot but conclude the bulk ofyour natives to be the most pernicious race oflittle odious vermin that nature ever suffered tocrawl upon the surface of the earth.” (Swift,Gulliver’s Travels)
38Invective: Direct attack Stated without irony or sarcasm Do not have to figure out what thesatirist is trying to say Dennis Miller, Chris Rock, GeorgeCarlin
Assignment Watch the following video: http://youtu.be/OSXNU1_bouc 1. As you watch, jot down all of thevarious characteristics of satire you seein the video. 2. Then, determine whether the video isHoratian or Juvenalian satire and writea sentence or two explaining why.