The Confederate Seal
MOTTO “With God As Our
The Opposing Sides
In 1860 The United States had 8
military colleges, and 7 of them
were in the South. The confederacy
had a large number of trained
officers to lead its armies.
The North had strong naval power.
3/4 of the U.S. Navy's officers came
from the North.
The Navy’s warships and all but
two of the nation’s shipyards
remained under Union Control.
North had a larger population.
Financing the War: N
Both sides had to raise money for the war.
The North controlled the treasury, but concern about their
ability to win the war, people wanted to withdraw gold and
silver from the banks.
The banks could not buy government bonds without G & S,
and without that, could not pay their troops.
Congress passed the Legal Tender Act (February 1862)
Created a national currency and allowed the government to
issue paper money.
Called greenbacks because
Financing the War: S
Compared to the North, The Confederacy was poor.
Most Southern planters were in debt and unable to buy
They taxed trade, but shortly after the war began, the
Union Navy blockaded Southern ports which reduced trade
They imposed new taxes, but many Southerners refused to
Lacking sufficient money, they printed paper money to pay
bills. This caused rapid inflation in the South. By the end of
the war the South experienced 9,000% inflation compared
to 80% in the North.
Party Politics in the North
Divisions within his own party! Who is he?
Many Republicans were abolitionists, but Lincoln’s goal was to
preserve the Union, even if it meant allowing slavery to
He also had the Democrats
War Democrats= supported a war to restore the Union but
opposed ending slavery
Peace Democrats=opposed the war and called for reuniting
the states through negotiation rather than force
Party Politics in the North
people to enter the
military service (if not
Riots erupted in
a legal order for an inquiry to
determine whether a person has
been lawfully imprisoned
To enforce militia law, Lincoln
suspended writs of habeas
When this is suspended, a person
can be imprisoned indefinitely
without a trial.
Lincoln suspended the writ for
anyone who openly supported the
rebels or encouraged others to
resist the militia draft
Weak Southern Government
states’ rights over a central
This often interfered with
President Jefferson Davis’s
ability to conduct the war.
Many Southern leaders
supported the war, but
opposed Davis when he
supported conscription and
established marital law early
Europe was in a difficult position. The United States
did not want them interfering.
Confederate leaders wanted the opposite. They
wanted the Europeans (especially British) to
recognize the Confederate States of America as
independent and provide military assistance.
British and French relied on their cotton.
They all met. The French said they would recognize
if the British did so. British leaders were not ready to
risk war with the U.S. Until the Confederacy won
some victories, and proved they would survive the
war, they would not risk it.
Able to inflict
At the beginning of the war, Jefferson Davis hoped to
encourage his generals to wage a defensive war of attrition
(wearing down by constant harassment or attack). He believed
that this would eventually exhaust the Union’s resources and
troops, forcing it to negotiate with the Confederacy. However,
Southerners largely rejected this strategy, believing it did not
highlight their strength and bravery.
Union General Winfield Scott devised the Anaconda Plan,
which was meant to slowly squeeze the life out of the Southern
rebellion. He wanted to establish a Union blockade of Southern
ports and split the Confederacy by taking the Mississippi,
eliminating its ability to receive supplies. Many Northerners,
however, wished to achieve a quick victory through a large,
powerful invasion of the South.
Ulysses S. Grant
The Confederate Generals
Robert E. Lee
Preparing For War
First Battle of Bull Run One of the most important battles
of the early war was the First Battle of Bull Run. After a
strong start, the Union faltered, allowing Confederate
forces to surge to victory. The loss showed that the
Union would need a large, well-trained army to win the
Conscription By 1862 volunteer enlistment on both sides
of the conflict had dropped greatly. The Confederacy
instituted the draft in April 1862, and the Union instituted
a law requiring state militias to serve three months later.
The following year, the Union instituted a formal draft.
The Union Blockade By the spring of 1862, the Union had
successfully blockaded nearly every Southern port along the
Atlantic. This significantly dampened the Confederacy’s ability to
trade with European nations and halted the importation of supplies.
Conflict at Sea Confederate ships built in Britain worked out of
foreign ports to attack Union merchant ships. Britain’s tacit support
of the Confederacy by granting permission for the ships’
construction generated tensions between the Union and Great
Control of New Orleans Union leaders made a push to
capture the port of New Orleans, the Confederacy’s largest city and
an important trading center. In April 1862, a Union naval fleet led by
David Farragut captured New Orleans.
Early Phases of War
Battle of Shiloh
Battle of Shiloh
In early 1862, Grant began efforts to take control of the
Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers, thus splitting the
Confederacy. He quickly controlled Kentucky and large parts of
Tennessee, and soon mounted an attack near Shiloh,
Tennessee. Although he ultimately forced Confederate forces to
retreat, the battle resulted in some 20,000 casualties.
Early Phases of War
then made an
unsuccessful foray into
Kentucky, even as
Union forces made a
slow advance on
Chattanooga. The two
sides met in an
indecisive battle near
Peninsula Campaign Union general McClellan fought persistently
to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia. But a series
of attacks from Confederate general Lee inflicted heavy casualties on
McClellan’s troops, forcing the latter to retreat. Although it was not a
decisive victory for the South, the Seven Days’ Battles, as they
became know, encouraged Lee to mount his own invasion of the
Battle of Antietam General Lee again met McClellan’s troops in
the bloodiest one-day battle in American history. The conflict ended
with some 6,000 dead and 17,000 wounded. Despite heavy losses to
both sides, Lee’s retreat to Virginia marked a major Union victory that
prevented the British from openly recognizing the Confederacy.
Battle of Antietam
“Bloodiest Single Day of the War”
September 17, 1862
The Emancipation Proclamation
The victory at Antietam set the stage for Lincoln to end
slavery in the South.
Democrats opposed any move to end slavery.
Republicans were divided.
Lincoln first described the conflict simply as a war to
preserve the Union.
A year later, many Northerners, including Lincoln, began
to conclude that slavery had to end.
Representative George Julian
Republican from Indiana
Republican from Indiana
“[W]hen I say that this rebellion has its source and life
in slavery, I only repeat a simply truism...The mere
suppression of the rebellion will be an empty
mockery of our sufferings and sacrifices, if slavery
shall be spared to canker the heart of the nation
anew, and repeat its diabolical deeds.”
-from The Congressional Globe, January 14, 1862
As Lee’s forces marched toward Antietam, Lincoln said
that if the Union could drive those forces from Northern
soil, he would issue a proclamation ending slavery.
On September 22, 1862, Lincoln kept his promise.
He would free all enslaved persons in states sill in
rebellion after January 1, 1863.
He freed enslaved African Americans only in states at
war with the Union. Yet, by its existence, made the
conflict not a war to preserve the Union, but a war of
Life During War
Southern Economic Problems The South faced significant
problems by the end of 1862 due to the absence of usable
transportation, such as with railroads, and a trade system that had
become crippled by the Union naval blockade. Endless troop
movements in Virginia and Tennessee damaged cropland, which
contributed to major food shortages. Inflation resulting from the
shortage of goods and the relative worthlessness of Confederate
currency led to riots in cities across the South.
Northern Economic Strength The North, however, enjoyed
relative economic prosperity, due in large part to its booming
manufacturing industries. Increased productivity, trade, and relatively
strong currency kept the North’s economy stronger than that of the
Life During the War
The Emancipation Proclamation formally allowed African Americans
to enlist in the Union military.
African Americans Enlist Thousands in the Union forces. Some
180,000 African Americans joined the Union army, and up to 18,000
African Americans served in the navy.
Some African Americans hoped that military service would help
decrease racial prejudice, but there was still fighting discrimination.
Valiant African Americans such as soldiers of the 54th
Massachusetts were widely recognized for their contributions to the
54th Massachusetts Infantry
Fought valiantly at Fort Wagner near Charleston
Harbor in July 1863
Half of its soldiers were killed or wounded
A Northern newspaper declared the heroism of the 54th
Regiment and forever answered the question of wether
or not African Americans could make good soldiers