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Types of reactions


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types of reactions

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Types of reactions

  1. 1. 10.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions •Synthesis •Combustion •Decomposition •Single Replacement •Double Replacement
  2. 2. Synthesis Reactions “The Dating Game” • Two or more substances react to form one product – A + B  AB Word Equation: Lithium metal and chlorine gas react to form solid lithium chloride Skeleton Equation: Li(s) + Cl2(g) → LiCl(s) Balanced Equation 2Li(s) + Cl2(g) → 2LiCl(s)
  3. 3. Synthesis Demo!!! • Magnesium metal reacts with oxygen gas and when heated produces solid magnesium oxide. • Equation:
  4. 4. Combustion Reactions “where there’s smoke there’s fire” • An element or a compound reacts with oxygen, producing energy in the form of heat and light. – i.e. H2(g) + O2(g)  H2O(g) – This looks like a synthesis reaction! • When the reactant is a hydrocarbon (contains H and C), the product will be carbon dioxide gas, water vapor, and energy
  5. 5. Word Equation: Propane gas (C3H8) in a grill reacts with oxygen gas to yield carbon dioxide gas, water vapor and heat energ Skeleton Equation: C3H8(g) + O2(g) → CO2(g) + H2O(g) + energy Balanced Equation: C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) → 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(g) + energy
  6. 6. Combustion Demo!!! • Methane gas (CH4) burns in a bunsen burner. • Equation:
  7. 7. Decomposition Reactions “The Big Break-up” • One substance decomposes to form two or more products – AB  A + B Word Equation: Solid copper(I) carbonate when heated forms solid copper(I) oxide and carbon dioxide gas Skeleton Equation: Cu2CO3(s) → Cu2O(s) + CO2(g) Balanced Equation: Cu2CO3(s) → Cu2O(s) + CO2(g)
  8. 8. Decomposition Demo!!! • Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) decomposes upon heating in to solid sodium carbonate, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor. • Equation:
  9. 9. Single Replacement Reactions “The Bully Reaction” • Atoms of one element replace the atoms of a second element in a compound (A + BC  BA or AC). • For example, a metal replaces a metal and a nonmetal replaces a nonmetal…like replaces like!
  10. 10. Skeleton Equation: Cu2SO4(aq) + Fe(s) → Cu(s) + FeSO4(aq) Word Equation: Aqueous copper(I) sulfate reacts with iron metal to form copper metal and aqueous iron(II) sulfate Balanced Equation Cu2SO4(aq) + Fe(s) → 2Cu(s) + FeSO4(aq)
  11. 11. Predicting Products • When given 2 reactants, you should be able to predict the products. – Determine if the lone element is a metal or a nonmetal. – Determine the metal or nonmetal it will replace in the compound. – Check your activity series. – Replace the metal/nonmetal in the compound with the lone metal/nonmetal. • Make sure to criss cross for the new compound
  12. 12. Activity Series • An activity series helps you to decide if a single replacement reaction will occur • When looking at the activity series, the elements that are listed first can replace the elements listed after them • So, a reaction will happen if the element to be replaced is lower than the element doing the replacing!
  13. 13. Activity Series of Metals Name Lithium Potassium Calcium Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Zinc Iron Lead Hydrogen Copper Mercury Silver Symbol Li K Ca Na Mg Al Zn Fe Pb H Cu Hg Ag DecreasingActivity
  14. 14. Activity of the halogens Name Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine Symbol F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 Decreasing Activity
  15. 15. So, Li can replace K, Ca, Na, etc. i.e. Li + NaCl → LiCl + Na This reaction will occur because Li is higher on the activity series then Na so it can replace Na In the following reaction, no product will be formed. Zn + MgO → no reaction This reaction won’t occur because Zn is lower on the activity series then Mg so it’s activity isn’t high enough to replace Zn
  16. 16. Predict whether the following reactions will occur. If the reaction WILL occur, tell me the products and balance the equation. 1. Br2 + NaI → Br2 + 2NaI → 2NaBr + I2 2. Cu(s) + FeSO4 → Cu(s) + FeSO4 → no reaction Cu is lower on the activity series then Fe so no reaction will occur
  17. 17. Single Replacement Demo!!! • Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) decomposes upon heating in to solid sodium carbonate, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor. • Equation:
  18. 18. Double Replacement Reactions “Square Dance” • Two compounds react to yield two different compounds (AB + CD  AD + CB).• The metals and nonmetals of the two different compounds switch places. • One of the products must be a solid precipitate, water, or a gas always!!!!!
  19. 19. Skeleton Equation: Li3PO4 + Zn(NO3)2 → LiNO3 + Zn3(PO4)2 Word Equation: Lithium phosphate reacts with zinc nitrate to form lithium nitrate and zinc phosphate. Balanced Equation 2Li3PO4 + 3Zn(NO3)2 → 6LiNO3 + Zn3(PO4)2
  20. 20. Predicting Products • When given 2 reactants, you should be able to predict the products. – Split each compound in to it’s cations and anions. – Make new compounds using cations and anions from the different compounds • Make sure to criss cross for the new compounds – Determine the state of the new compounds
  21. 21. How do you predict the state of the product???? • Use the solubility rules to find the state of the products made in either a single or double replacement reaction. • Always start by looking at the anion/negative ion then the cation/positive ion – Soluble=aqueous – Not soluble=solid
  22. 22. So, according to our example seen previously, let’s try to predict the state of the reactants and products... Balanced Equation 2Li3PO4 + 3Zn(NO3)2 → 6LiNO3 + Zn3(PO4)2 Balanced Equation with states 2Li3PO4(aq) + 3Zn(NO3)2(aq) → 6LiNO3(aq) + Zn3(PO4)2(s/ppt)
  23. 23. Double Replacement Demo!!! • Aqueous lead(II) nitrate reacts with aqueous potassium iodide. • Equation: