Week 10 EDS 220 Cognitive Approach to EDS-220 Learning WeekDr. Evrim Baran Baran Dr. Evrim
Assignment from last week• Conduct an interview with a friend (from another department) and ask about his/her study habits. Focus on specific self-regulatory strategies she/he uses and his/her awareness of what she does as she/he studies.
Behavioral Approach to Learning Situmulating positive behaviors and decreasing negative behaviors.
Cognitive view of learning 1800s to 1960s: Research on learning from the behaviorist origin World War II: Research on development of complex skills, computer revolution, research in language development Early 1970s. People do more than simply respond to the reinforcement and punishment.
Cognitive view of learning Concept learning Organizing the material that we learn Solving problems How do we forget? How is knowledge remembered? Planning responses
Cognitive view of learning• How is knowledge received, organized, and remembered?• How is existing knowledge related to new forms of knowledge?• How is knowledge formed?• What might help best in learning effectively?
Cognitive view of learning• Active processors of information• Seek information• Pay attention to certain information• Organize• Practice• Construct knowledge
Information processing view of learning Senses. Response Hearing, seeing, touchi ng…
Information processing view of learningRelies on computer as amodel for humanlearning Gathering and representing information: Encoding Holding information: Storage Getting the information when needed: Retrieval
What do you think?• What makes a lesson easy to learn and remember?• What information that you studied in the last two or three days do you expect to remember next week? Next year?• What is different about the information you probably expect to remember as opposed to the information you probably will forget?
Sensory Register• Allows to perceive information from the environment selectively and to send it to short-term memory.• Capacity is very large• Registrations in the forms of representations like visual and auditory pictures or symbols of original stimuli• Coded briefly in the sensory register• When paid attention sent to short term memory
Sensation• Sensation: Process of an environmental stimulus starting the chain events from one of four five senses to our brain, in order to be recognized.
Perception• Brain transforms sensory experiences into meaningful ideas that can be processed and understood.• Perception: Meaning we attach to the information received through our senses.• Your minds decides what just happened to you and what it means.
Attention• Select certain stimuli from the environment and, simultaneously, i gnore others.• We can pay attention to only small number of things.
Short Term Memory (Working Memory)• Close your eyes. Try to remember as many of the words I say as you can.• How many words did you remember?• Which ones did you remember? Brush Star Horse You are using your short Table term memory to Lemon Bottle complete the task. Ship Book Mouse
Short Term Memory (Working Memory) Once transformed into patterns of images or sounds, the information in the sensory register can enter the short-term memory system.• Temporary place where we keep information that is new before it has been made permanent.• What your mind is working on at any given moment.• Consciousness• Information kept is fragile and easily lost.
How big is short term memory? How many pieces of information can you keep in short term memory at any given time? Magic number 7+-2
Forgetting Time decay: Hold new information about 20-30 seconds. Forgetting occurs due to time decay. Interference: Remembering new information interferes with or gets in the way remembering old information.
Why is forgetting useful?• Without forgetting, people would quickly overload their short-term memories and learning would cease.• It would be a problem if you remembered permanently every sentence you ever read.• It is helpful to have a system that provides temporary storage.
Strategies to remember new information• Maintenance Rehearsal: Repeating information – Repeating the phone number• Elaborative rehearsal (Elaborative Encoding): Relating new information to something we already know. – Make associations of the names• Chunking: Regrouping units of information into fewer numbers of manageable units. – 3122104017 – 312 210 17
Advantages of Chunking• Try to remember the following letters: –APDIBOHGT• Try to remember the following letters: –DOGBATHIP Which one is easier to remember?
Long-term Memory• Holds the information that is well learned. – I.e. All the telephone numbers you know• Strong and durable
Capacity and Duration of Long Term Memory• Information enters short term memory very quickly• Requires more time and effort to move to the long term memory• Capacity is unlimited• Once the information is securely stored, it can remain permanently• The problem is to find the right information when it is needed.
Short term memory and long term memoryType of Input Capacity Duration Contents RetrievalmemoryShort term Very fast Limited Very brief- Words, Immediate 20-30 sec images, ideas, sentencesLong term Relatively Practically Practically Propositiona Depends on slow unlimited unlimited l networks, representati schemata, on and productions, organization episodes, perhaps images
How do we store information in the long term memory? The units of information are stored in relation to each other and structured in different ways Integrating new material with the information already stored in long-term memory.
How to we store information in the long term memory?• Elaboration: When new information is related to the old. • Use the old knowledge to understand the new.• Organization: When new information is placed in a certain structure. • Placing a concept into a structure (i.e. definitions, examples)
Retrieving Information from the Long- term Memory• Reconstruction: Recreating information by using memories, expectations, logic, and existing knowledge. – i.e. reading a North American Indian Myth to British College Students• Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
Forgetting and Long Term Memory• Nothing is ever really lost from long term memory• Freud—Repressing certain information• Time decay and interference – Memory for Spanish-English vocabulary decreases for about three years after a person’s last course in Spanish, then stays level for about 25 years, then drops again for the next 25 years. – Neural connections like muscles grow weak without use.
Forgetting and Long Term Memory• Retroactive interference: When new verbal associations make it difficult for a person to remember older information.• Proactive interference: If older associations make it difficult to remember new information.
Another View of Memory• Levels of processing memory: Instead of concentrating on the stores/structures involved (i.e. short term memory & long term memory), this theory concentrates on the processes involved in memory.• Psychologists Craik and Lockhart propose that memory is just a by-product of the depth of processing of information and there is no clear distinction between short term memory and long term memory• Depth is defined as "the meaningfulness extracted from the stimulus rather than in terms of the number of analyses performed upon it.” – Instead of asking students identify the characteristics of good teachers, ask them identify their best teachers and think about their characteristics.
Implications of Information Processing Model• Make sure you have students’ attention – Move around, use gestures, change the volume and tone of the voice, begin a lesson by asking questions, use their names when asking questions• Help students separate essential details from nonessential ones – Summaries, paraphrasing• Help students make connections between new information and what they already know – Review prerequisites, outlines, diagrams, give assignments for connections• Provide for repetition and review of information – Begin class with quick review, give frequent short tests, practice in games• Present material in clear and organized way – Make purposes clear, brief outline to follow, use summaries in the middle and in the end• Focus on meaning not memorization – Help with associations, grouping
Helping students become strategic learners• Rote memorization strategies: Help students remember information that has little inherent meaning but may provide the basic building blocks for other learning – Counting from 1 to 10 – Capitals of the countries• Mnemonic strategies: Techniques of remembering, art of memory.
Mnemonics• Pairing memorable objects or words with new information – Chaining – Loci method – Peg-word method – Keyword method – Acronym
Mnemonics-Chaining• Connect the first item to be memorized with the second, the second item with the third, and so on – Napoleon, ear, door, Germany – Story: Napoleon had his ear to the door to listen to the Germans in his beer cellar. – Try really thinking about the connections and forming a vivid picture in your mind • telephone • sausage • monkey • button • book
Mnemonics-Loci method• Associating items with specific places – Imagine a familiar place (your own house) – Pick out particular locations that you might notice in a walk through that place – Whenever you have a list, simply place each item from the list in one of these locations in the house• Remember buy milk, bread, butter, and cookies at the store – How would you use?
Mnemonics-Peg-word method• Associating items with cue words – One is buns – two is shoe – three is tree – four is door – five is hive – six is sticks – seven is heaven – eight is gate – nine is vine – ten is hen
Mnemonics-Keyword method• System of associating new words or concepts with similar sounding cue words• Learning new vocabulary and foreign language words – Spanish word: Carta---Letter – English word: Cart—Shopping cart filled with letters on its way to post office
Mnemonics-Acronym• Technique for remembering names, phrases, or steps by using the first letter of each word to form a new, memorable word – Fıstıkçı Şahap• Form an acronym to remember the Mnemonics methods: Peg, Loci, Acronym, Chaining, Keyword
Assignment for Next week• Use a mnemonic to teach a certain subject in your field.• Explain how you would use the particular mnemonic strategy.• Provide an example of a possible student output.
Next week• Applications of Cognitive Approach to Learning (Problem solving, critical thinking, transfer of learning, discovery learning, reception learning)
Five Stages Of Problem SolvingI Identify Problems And OpportunitiesD Define Goals & Represent The ProblemE Explore Possible StrategiesA Anticipate outcomes and ActL Look Back And Learn