Social studies terminology


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Social studies terminology

  1. 1. Social Studies Terminology <br />Related Issue #1 – Identity <br />Liberalism: a political orientation that favors social progress by reform and by changing laws rather than by revolution<br />Individualism: Belief in the primary importance of the individual and in the virtues of self-reliance and personal independence.<br />Common Good: A collective idea of what is right<br />Collectivism: The principles or system of ownership and control of the means of production and distribution by the people collectively, usually. (Communism)<br />Ideology: an orientation that characterizes the thinking of a group or nation<br />Progressivism: the political orientation of those who favor progress toward better conditions in government and society<br />Economic Freedom: The freedom to produce, trade and consume any goods and services acquired without the use of force, fraud or theft<br />The rule of Law: a state of order in which events conform to the law<br />Private Property: Land owned by an individual.<br />Public Property: Land owned by a government<br />Collective Responsibility & Interests: Decisions and desires of a society that are shared <br />Cooperation: Two or more people or groups working together to achieve goals<br />Economic Equality: a state of economic affairs in which the participants of a society are of equal standing <br />Collective Norms: indicators of society<br />Related Issue #2 – Resistance to Liberalism <br />John Locke: English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience<br />Baron de Montesquieu: French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers<br />Adam Smith: Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade<br />John Stuart Mill: English philosopher and economist remembered for his interpretations of empiricism and utilitarianism<br />Laissez Faire Capitalism: a policy of allowing events to take their own course<br />Industrialization: the development of industry on an extensive scale<br />The Class System: Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in societies or cultures.<br />Limited Government: a government outline where any more than minimal governmental intervention in personal liberties <br />Classic Conservatism: a reaction to Liberalism, characterized by a desire to preserve what exists (tradition). <br />Marxism: the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined<br />Socialism: a political theory advocating state ownership of industry<br />Welfare Capitalism: the practice of businesses providing services to employees.<br />Labour Standards: conventions, treaties and recommendations designed to eliminate unjust and inhumane labour practices.<br />Unions: an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas and working conditions<br />Universal Suffrage: the right to vote to adult citizens<br />Welfare State: a government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions<br />Human Rights: basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled<br />Feminism: a doctrine that advocates equal rights for women<br />Communism: a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership and a political theory favoring collectivism in a classless society <br />Fascism: a political theory advocating an authoritarian hierarchical government<br />Expansionism: the doctrine of expanding the territory or the economic influence of a country<br />Containment – Truman Doctrine and Domino Theory: served to inhibit the formation of coalition governments that included communist elements.<br />Deterrence: a negative motivational influence <br />Brinksmanship: the practice of pushing a dangerous situation to the verge of disaster in order to achieve the most advantageous outcome.<br />Détente: the easing of tensions or strained relations<br />Non-alignment: Not allied with any other nation<br />Liberation Movements: an organization fighting a rebellion against a colonial power, often seeking independence based on a nationalist identity<br />Neo-Conservatism: an approach to politics or theology that represents a return to a traditional point of view<br />Environmentalism: Advocacy for or work toward protecting the natural environment from destruction or pollution<br />Post-modernism: after the modernist movement<br />Extremism: any political theory favoring immoderate uncompromising policies<br />Related Issue #3 – Contemporary Liberalism <br />Consensus: agreement in the judgment or opinion reached by a group as a whole<br />Direct vs. Representative Democracy: either the actual governing is carried out by the people governed (direct democracy), or the power to do so is granted by them (as in representative democracy). <br />Authoritarianism: a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator<br />Command Economies: an economic system in which the government or workers' councils manage the economy.<br />Free market economies: based on the division of labor in which the prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system set by supply and demand.<br />Traditional economies: an economic system in which resources are allocated by inheritance, and which has a strong social network<br />Mixed economies: a combination of the different economies co-existing<br />American Bill of Rights: the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. <br />Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms: guarantees certain political and civil rights of people in Canada from the policies and actions of all levels of government<br />Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms: defines fundamental human rights<br /> War Measures Act: act of the Canadian Parliament that gave the federal Cabinet emergency powers, especially during wartime<br />Patriot Act: increases the ability of law enforcement agencies to search telephone, e-mail communications, medical, financial, and other records; eases restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering within the United States. <br />Debt: money or goods or services owed by one person to another<br />Poverty: the shortage of common things such as food, clothing, shelter and safe drinking water, all of which determine the quality of life<br />