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Early Childhood Development & Assessment


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Early Childhood Development & Assessment

  1. 1. Child Development and Developmental Assessments http://www.preschoollearningonline.comWhat Child Development is:Child development is studying the changes of children over time as infants; toddlers, preschoolers, andschool aged children grow.There are different areas of development to look at. Physical, Intellectual, Linguistic, Emotional, andSocial.Physical: Physical development is the development of fine motor and gross motor skills, muscledevelopment, changes that occur when a child grows, etc.Intellectual Development: Intellectual development is the development of memory, perception, spatialreasoning, cognition, imitation, and many other mental processes.Linguistic: Linguistic development isthe development of language skills in receptive, and expressivelanguage, gestures, reading and writing are included in this area, grammar, etc.Emotional Development: Emotional Development is the development of self. Self-concept, personality,emotions, self-control, etc.Social Development: Social Development is the development of forming relationships with thosearound them. How a child associates in associative play, solitary play, relationships to people aroundthem, places, and also environmental functioning, etc.
  2. 2. Definitions of Fine Motor and Gross Motor Skills:*Gross Motor Skills:Gross motor involves the use of the largest muscles in the body. Gross motor skillsare developed by activities or skills such as jumping, running, climbing, riding a bike, etc.*Fine Motor Skills:Fine motor involves the use of the smaller muscles in the body. Small motor skills aredeveloped by activities or skills such as picking up small objects, colouring with crayons or pencils,exploring small objects with hands etc.*Gross and fine motor skills will really start to develop and improve in the late stages of infancy and asthey progress to toddlerhood and beyond.Please note that the following milestones are guidelines. All children will develop at slightly differenttimes but should be close to the time frames outlined in these developmental assessments. If you haveany questions, or concerns, please contact your doctor.
  3. 3. INFANT DEVELOPMENTAL ASSESSMENT We have included a very wide range of milestones. Not all infants will be doing ALL milestones. If your infant can accomplish the first 3 or 4 milestones in each list, there should be no concerns.Baby’s First Year:Your baby’s first year is one of the most enjoyable. In the first year you will see a wide range ofmilestones most of these being physical at first. They will include:PhysicalDevelopment~(1-6months)-able to lift head while on tummy-able to keep head lifted for short periods of time-able to hold head steady-rolls over (tummy to back)(back to tummy)-able to hold small objects (rattles, small toys, teething rings, etc.)-raises hands to touch and hit dangling toys-able to lift shoulders and head off floor while lying on tummy using strength of arms and neck-while being held in upright position baby is able to stand assisted by an adult-able to sit unassisted for short periods-able to sit unassisted for longer periods-able to sit unassisted-throws body forward-may start to crawl-may see first signs of teethIntellectual Development~ (1-6months)-follows people/object with eyes-able to recognize people by scent-able to recognize people by appearance-able to recognize people by voice-able to focus on black and while images-recognizes own name-notices different bold colors-able to distinguish where loud sounds some from (may turn head in direction of sound)Linguistic Development~ (1-6months)-able to vocalize, coo’s, etc.-gurgles-start to imitate sounds-combines sounds-squeals
  4. 4. Emotional Development~ (1-6months)-laughs-notices own body parts (hands and/or feet& may play with them)-puts objects in own mouth-may show signs of separation anxietySocial Development~ (1-6months)-smiles-turns head towards familiar voices-babbles or coo’s in response to you talking to them-laughsPhysical Development ~ (7-18 months)-will sit upright without support-able to crawl-able to stand with help or holding onto something-stand for small periods without help-able to stand and get back down to floor-“walks” for short periods hanging onto furniture (table, couch, etc)-takes a few steps-able to walk for short periods-able to walk-able to takes steps backwards-able to walk backwards-able to run-dances with music-able to bend down to pick something up and return to standing position-uses fine motor skills (picks up small objects with fingers)-able to pull them self up-able to pull objects/toys-able to push objects/toys-starts to climb-uses fine motor skills for turning pages in books-uses gross motor skills to use riding toys-uses gross motor skills to play games, (hide and seek, chase, ball, etc.)-able to hold crayons
  5. 5. Intellectual Development ~ (7-18 months)-able to understand that objects are still there even when hidden or covered-able to understand people are still there even when not seen-can grab two objects at once-able to hit two objects together-puts smaller objects in larger ones-able to imitate what others are doing-knows who mommy and daddy are-can make marks or scribbles on paper with crayons-able to put simple objects together, (two pieces of Lego, etc.)-may start grouping/sorting toys by their colour or shape-can match objects or toys together-understands use of certain objects, phone, spoon, fork, toothbrush, etc.-understands use of words (yes, no, do you want this)-empties and fills containers-stacks blocksLinguistic Development ~ (7-18 months)-able to call mommy “mama” and daddy “dada”-will start to copy and/or say other simple single words-can have a conversation with babbles, jabbering, you will hear combinations of syllables-uses words with their meaning, “hi”, “bye”, “yes”, “no”-has a variety of words to use between 2-5 words (may use them together)-has a variety of words to use between 6-9 words (some might have a few more words)-starts to talk in small phrasesEmotional Development ~ (7-18 months)-may develop anxieties to strangers, or separation anxiety from parent(s)-communicates personal wants with gestures-communicates personal wants with gestures and words-looks at self in mirrors-looks at self reflections-knows own body parts and can point when asked, (where are your eyes, nose, ears, etc.)-attachment to a favourite book, doll, toy, blanket- temper tantrums if not given their way-temper tantrums when frustrated-likes to pretend
  6. 6. Social Development ~ (7-18 months)-waves to people-waves and says hi and bye-calls mommy and daddy when needed-plays games-will initiate game play-imitates actions of others-involved with daily routines like helping get dressed, eating together-will act on requests such as, can I have a hug, kiss, etc.-likes to play with others Toddler Developmental Assessment~ (19months-2½ years) *Toddlers want to be independent but in most cases will need adult help in some of the following areas below. By the end of their Toddler years (2-2 ½ years) Toddlers should be doing most of these skills independently. Some may take a little longer which is to be expected as they all develop at different rates.Physical Development:-walking up and down steps, raised edges, etc.-running independently-throwing balls, objects, over and underhand-able to kick balls-jumps with both feet leaving ground-balances on one foot (long or short period of time)-walks with smooth motion~ little to no stumbling, (heel-toe) not on tippy toes only, or heels only.-uses fine motor skills to eat with spoon or fork-opens doors
  7. 7. Intellectual Development:-able to understand what is being said (a few hundred words or more)-recognizes an object or picture when named and will point to it-picks up objects and places in correct spots (toys in toy box, garbage in garbage can, etc.)-able torecognize an object and say it verbally-able to follow simple directions (i.e. go get your bottle and bring it here)-able to understand opposites in various areas (under-over, big-small, etc.)-understands abstract concepts (after supper we will play outside) or (before we eat we need to washour hands)-understands descriptions of certain things (this teddy bear is soft)-draws on paper (may draw circles, vertical lines, scribbles)-able to see differences in things and arrange them in categories (big, small, colors, etc.)-may be able to name one or more colorsLinguistic Development:-learns words more rapidly (about 5-10 a day)-uses about 40-65 words or more-shows signs of singing or may sing fun little tunes-uses words like (I, me, you)-will speak with some words being understandable and gradually speak to where most or all words areunderstandable-able to name body parts (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, feet, hands, etc.)-starts to recognize ABC’sEmotional Development:-brushes own teeth with help /brushes own teeth with little to no help-washes own hands with help/washes own hands with little to no help-starts to undress all by themselves or with very little help-starts to dress themselves with little help-takes notice of their own body parts including genitals-ready to graduate from a crib to a bed-talks about self-starts to ask why-more in tune to self, likes, dislikes, preferences, etc.-knows when he/she needs to use the bathroom
  8. 8. Social Development:-wants to help with things (yard work, around the house, cleaning, etc.)-takes care of doll(s), feeds, cradles, etc.-wants to play with others, especially other children-recognizes gender differences-knows friends, able to name them or one of them-likes to be with family/friends, socializes as much as he/she can *For Fantastic Preschool Activities & Resources: Educational Lenses: