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  1. 1. ALLOPHONE Group 4 Class 2.A # Meva Noviana # Ike Supriyanti # Gina Triana # Sigit Syahrial
  2. 2. Phones are speech-sounds; phonemessounds which speakers usually are groups of think of as "one sound"; allophones within each group are the variations
  3. 3. Allophones is the variations from a norm (the phoneme) In general allophones is conditioned variants of a phoneme; generated by phonological conditioning (= a matter of language-specific 'rules of pronunciation')
  4. 4. PHONEMES are realised as ALLOPHONES: PHONEMES ALLOPHONES Significant non-significant Unpredictable Predictable contrastive distribution complementary distribution broad transcription /.../ narrow transcription [...]
  5. 5. A phoneme's allophones are all alternative pronunciations for a phoneme, the specific allophone selected in a given situation is often predictable. “Any sound or subclass of sounds which is in complementary distribution with another so that the two together constitute a single phoneme is called allpophone of that phoneme. A phoneme is, therefore, a class of allophones.” (Gleason 1955:263)
  6. 6. The difference comes from different phonetic 1. Phoneme /p/, /t/, /k/ In IPA transcription, adding a superscript [ h ] after the symbol in question it’s called aspiration. ASPIRATED are pronounce at the initial position. Example : Pill [phιl] Till [thιl] Kill [khιl] UNASPIRATED are pronounce at the final or the middle position. Example : Cup [k˄p] Rabbit [ræbιt] Peacock [‘pi:kɒk]
  7. 7. 2. Phoneme /l/ Clear [ l ] =tipis= The tip of the tongue is touching the teeth ridge behind the upper teeth, and the other part of the tongue is raised into the front of the mouth palate. Example : lip, lizard Dark [ l ] =tebal= the tip of the tongue is at the back of the front teeth, but the part of the tongue which is raised into mouth palate, is further 1 inch behind. Example : towel, swallow
  8. 8. 3. Phoneme /s/ plural a. [z] e.g. dogs [dogz] b. [iz] e.g. sandwiches, classes Usually, the different ALLOPHONES of the same PHONEME are all similar to each other - they form a FAMILY of sounds. But we mustn't fall into the trap of thinking that ALLOPHONIC difference is small while PHONEMIC difference is large. There is actually no real difference between these differences! We can see this by the fact that the same difference can be allophonic in one language, and phonemic in another.
  9. 9. There are many other allophonic processes in English, like lack of plosion, nasal plosion, partial devoicing of sonorants, complete devoicing of sonorants, partial devoicing of obstruents, lengthening and shortening vowels, and retraction. # Aspiration strong explosion of breath. In English a voiceless plosive that is p, t or k is aspirated whenever it stands as the only consonant at the beginning of the stressed syllable or of the first, stressed or unstressed, lable in a word.
  10. 10. # Nasal plosion In English a plosive (/p, t, k, b, d, ɡ/) has nasal plosion when it is followed by a nasal, inside a word or across word boundary. # Partial devoicing of sonorants  In English sonorants (/j, w, l, r, m, n, ŋ/) are partially devoiced when they follow a voiceless sound within the same syllable. # Complete devoicing of sonorants In English a sonorant is completely devoiced when it follows an aspirated plosive (/p, t, k/).
  11. 11. # Partial devoicing of obstruents In English, a voiced obstruent is partially devoiced next to a pause or next to a voiceless sound, inside a word or across its boundary. # Lengthening and shortening vowels English contains no pairs of words that are identical except that where one contains a short version of a vowel, the other contains the longer version of the same vowel. # Retraction in English /t, d, n, l/ are retracted before /r/.
  12. 12. The difference can be felt by holding the hand in front of the lips. For a Mandarin speaker, to whom /t/ and [tʰ] are separate phonemes, the English distinction is much more obvious than it is to the English speaker who has learned since childhood to ignore it.
  13. 13. Is there any question ? ? ?
  14. 14. Thank You for your attention  