Sky Con Presentation

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Presentation for SkyCon Limerick February 09

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Sky Con Presentation

  1. 1. WIRELESS How to un-tether your network Evert Bopp CEO, AirAppz
  2. 2. Where did it all start? <ul><li>HiperLAN: ratified in 1996 by ETSI as spec. EN/300/652. 5GHz band, speed up to 24Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>WLAN: ratified by IEEE in June 1997 as IEEE 802.11. 2.4GHz band, 1 -2 Mbps. </li></ul><ul><li>HomeRF SWAP (shared wireless access protocol) : 1998, HomeRF Working Group (HRFWG). 2.4GHz, 1 – 2 Mbps. </li></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth: W-PAN. 2.4GHz, 1Mbps </li></ul>
  3. 3. Range & throughput
  4. 4. Evolution <ul><li>802.11 evolves as the defacto standard for medium and longer range wireless networks. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1999 IEEE “adds” two supplements, 802.11a & 802.11b. </li></ul><ul><li>802.11b is an extension of the initial 802.11 DSSS operating in 2.4GHz up to 11Mbps. </li></ul><ul><li>802.11a operates in 5GHz at a rate up to 54Mbps (add pinch of salt here). OFDM (orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing) </li></ul><ul><li>802.11g comes along second half of 2003. 2.4GHz up to 54Mbps (again ad some salt). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Performance Range & throughput
  6. 6. <ul><li>802.11/wifi evolved from local area networks to use in long(er) range point-2-point links. </li></ul><ul><li>Grass-root movements started to use it to share connectivity locally as well as over distance (Irish-WAN, Personal Telco project etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Wifi is easy to use, and un-licensed . </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence of home-brew hardware. Old pc’s running various flavours of Linux, hacked radio cards, exotics OS’s (Karlnet, Star-OS, Open AP, NoCat). </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility to set-up a long distance (4-5 mile) link for less than 500 euro. </li></ul><ul><li>Large involvement from the HAM-radio groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Very little commercial involvement (Vbnets) </li></ul><ul><li>Remember wardriving? </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Medio 2002-2003 the first commercial wifi hotspots start to appear. </li></ul><ul><li>Short range, appalling connectivity and hideously expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>2 “streams”; grassroots driven & commercial/telco driven. </li></ul><ul><li>Grassroots uses homebrew equipment (lots of innovation), commercial/telco uses bog-standard wifi AP’s (Cisco, Alvarion/Proxim etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive to use & expensive to operate. </li></ul><ul><li>Quite often limited to large/corporate venues. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2003 -2005 <ul><li>WiFi hotspot market explodes: </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Worldwide wifi hotspot numbers increase from a few thousand to several 100 thousand. </li></ul><ul><li>Municipal wireless networks start appearing. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost every device is wifi enabled (laptops, pda’s, phones, cameras, printers even fridges). </li></ul><ul><li>Large increase in the WISP (Wireless Internet Service Provider) market. </li></ul><ul><li>WiFi spectrum (2.4GHz) starts to fill up resulting in interference. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased use of 802.11a for commercial point-2-point links. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Emergence of UMTS & Wimax <ul><li>Telcos were looking into options of monetizing their cell-phone network. </li></ul><ul><li>GPRS wasn’t suitable; slow, expensive </li></ul><ul><li>UMTS (with HSDPA), maximum throughput 21Mbit/s. Currently 7.2 Mbit/s available. </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage is still patchy outside urban areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Costs are still prohibitive, data caps etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Dual carrier (DC) HSD; max. Throughput is 42 MBit/s </li></ul>
  11. 11. Wimax <ul><li>802.16d – fixed wimax (2.5, 3.3 & 3.5 GHz) </li></ul><ul><li>802.16e – mobile wimax (5.x GHz) </li></ul><ul><li>Uses scheduling algorithm instead of contention access. Each user is assigned a set “slot”. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses licensed spectrum (expensive) </li></ul><ul><li>Better Quality of Service (QoS) than WiFi. </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly-held misconception is that Wimax will deliver 70 Mbit/s over 50 kilometers. </li></ul><ul><li>Reality is either one or the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Wimax is NOT a user technology. </li></ul>
  12. 13. 4G / LTE <ul><li>There is no formal definition for what 4G is only certain objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Fully IP-based integrated system. </li></ul><ul><li>Capable of providing between 100 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s speeds both indoors and outdoors. </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of hype, very little common goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Applications like wireless broadband access, MMS, video chat, mobile TV, HDTV content, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), minimal service like voice and data, and other streaming services for &quot;anytime-anywhere&quot;. </li></ul>
  13. 14. 4G working group objectives <ul><li>A spectrally efficient system (in bits/s/Hz and bits/s/Hz/site) </li></ul><ul><li>High network capacity: more simultaneous users per cell, </li></ul><ul><li>A nominal data rate of 100 Mbit/s while the client physically moves at high speeds relative to the station, and 1 Gbit/s while client and station are in relatively fixed positions as defined by the ITU-R </li></ul><ul><li>A data rate of at least 100 Mbit/s between any two points in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth handoff across heterogeneous networks </li></ul><ul><li>Seamless connectivity and global roaming across multiple networks, </li></ul><ul><li>High quality of service for next generation multimedia support (real time audio, high speed data, HDTV video content, mobile TV, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability with existing wireless standards,and </li></ul><ul><li>An all IP, packet switched network. </li></ul>
  14. 15. 3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution) <ul><li>Peak download rates of 326.4 Mbit/s for 4x4 antennas, 172.8 Mbit/s for 2x2 antennas for every 20 MHz of spectrum. </li></ul><ul><li>Peak upload rates of 86.4 Mbit/s for every 20 MHz of spectrum. </li></ul><ul><li>5 different terminal classes have been defined from a voice centric class up to a high end terminal that supports the peak data rates. All terminal will be able to process 20 MHz bandwidth. </li></ul><ul><li>At least 200 active users in every 5 MHz cell. (i.e., 200 active data clients) </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-5ms latency for small IP packets </li></ul><ul><li>Increased spectrum flexibility, with spectrum slices as small as 1.5 MHz (and as large as 20 MHz) supported (W-CDMA requires 5 MHz slices, leading to some problems with roll-outs of the technology in countries where 5 MHz is a commonly allocated amount of spectrum, and is frequently already in use with legacy standards such as 2G GSM and cdmaOne.) Limiting sizes to 5 MHz also limited the amount of bandwidth per handset </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Optimal cell size of 5 km, 30 km sizes with reasonable performance, and up to 100 km cell sizes supported with acceptable performance </li></ul><ul><li>Co-existence with legacy standards (users can transparently start a call or transfer of data in an area using an LTE standard, and, should coverage be unavailable, continue the operation without any action on their part using GSM/GPRS or W-CDMA-based UMTS or even 3GPP2 networks such as cdmaOne or CDMA2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Supports MBSFN (Multicast Broadcast Single Frequency Network). This feature can deliver services such as Mobile TV using the LTE infrastructure, and is a competitor for DVB-H-based TV broadcast. </li></ul><ul><li>PU 2 RC (Per-User Unitary Rate Control) as a practical solution for MU-MIMO has been adopted to use in 3GPP LTE standard. The detailed procedure for the general MU-MIMO operation is handed to the next release, e.g, LTE-Advanced, where the further discussion will be held. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>Lots of thinking, talking and testing. </li></ul><ul><li>No-one really knows which standard will win out. </li></ul><ul><li>Expect mix & match usage. Multiple standard devices (wifi, 3G, 4G) </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Thank you... </li></ul>

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