Everett: Company, stage & school The Marriage of Art and ScienceTo Be Used as a Resource Guide for Everett’s Lecture Demonstration Performance
Everett: Company, Stage & School Principle #1: The Marriage of Art and Science Conservation of Angular Momentum Research and Development of the Piece and its Educational Components As Rachael demonstrates the ballet step called a fouette, we see a live example of the conservation of angular momentum. By drawing her leg and arms to the center of her body, she increases the speed of her turn. It is the same for someone sitting in a chair, holding a book in each hand. He starts to spin with his arms extended and then draws his arms (and the weights or books) towards his body. As he draws the weights in, he increases his speed. The scientific principle behind this is fairly simple. The further the weight is from the middle, the slower you spin; the closer the weight is to the middle, the faster you spin. The spinning (rotational) speed is inversely proportional to the distance of the weights (the books, or Rachael’s arms and leg) are from the body, Their mass increases the further they get from the center, and their mass decreases the closer they come to the center, making a higher rotational speed.Everett’s The Marriage of Art and Science looks at the science inherent in art and uses movementto explain some basic scientific principals.When in the process of creating Flight, an evening length concert that investigates the early aviators,Everett saw a correlation between their investigations as artists and the process that inventors andscientists like the Wright Brothers go through as they develop their work. Research, experimentation,trial and error, and problem solving are inherent in both fields. This train of thought lead the companyto become interested in developing a greater understanding of the parallels. Artistic Director, DorothyJungels, assembled six top Rhode Island science teachers and four dancers and had them shareand compare methods. The following year the company worked with science teacher, Paul Mello andhis students at Middletown High. As a result students began to think more creatively and to be lessfearful of taking risks. Everett went on to develop their lecture demonstration, The Marriage of Artand Science.As they gathered material for their lecture demonstration Everett members used the research,experimentation, trail and error, and problem solving processes. They read extensively on prominentscientists such as Marie Curie, Galileo, and Oppenheimer; visited the science section of the children’slibrary; and conducted weekly experiment days - each dancer would investigate some phenomenaand bring an experiment to share with the others. The company explored balanced forces using theirbodies as tools; used tracks and bodies as inclined planes; used bowling balls hung from the ceiling toexplore energy conservation - and more. In this manner, Everett translated the material they gatheredinto a movement collage. Experiment: You can demonstrate this yourself by sitting is a chair that spins and holding something heavy, like books, in each hand. Now extend your arms and legs and haveEverett’s The Marriage of Art and Science allows the student to comprehend scientific thought in a someone spin you in the chair. As you start spinning, draw your knees and arms in towardskinetic fashion. This study guide is designed to help you build on some of the ideas presented in the your chest. Your rate of speed as you turn in the chair should increase with this movement.performance.
Principle #2: Principle #3: The Center of Gravity The Fulcrum and LeverWhich is easier to balance on your chin? A broom, or a pencil? Marvin demonstrates that a broom is To give you another look at balance, we present a Herculean feat: Aaron, by himself, will balanceeasier because it is taller, and therefore has more mass. Often, the more mass an object has, the easier Sokeo, Eddie, and Rachael. How is this possible? It has to do with the placement of the fulcrum (theit is to find its center of gravity. We can also demonstrate this by what we call Balanced Forces. We link support point for the lever). We demonstrate the action of a lever, which resembles a see-saw, byour bodies together by holding onto hands or legs, and then lean away from each other. As we move placing the support closer to one end. Three of us then stand on the shorter end, so that we have lesswe need to find our combined center of gravity, or we will fall. Once we’ve found our balance point, we lever weight. Aaron, on the longer end, has greater lever weight, which combines with his own weight.can move again and create new forms, with new balance points. This becomes a dance. This combined weight allows him to balance three people. The center of gravity is the point where an object is held in balance by the force of gravity. Experiment: Have two people -- one small person and one tall person -- take hold of each other’s wrists, and then place one foot against the other’s. They can then begin to lean away from each other to test for a balance point, or a center of gravity. What they will find is that the smaller person can be lower and stretched further out in space as long as the bigger person stands tall. This is because the farther you lean away from The principle of the lever is that the effort (the force needed to raise or balance an object) times its the center, the greater the pull of gravity, and distance from the fulcrum equals the load (the object itself) times its distance from the fulcrum. In our therefore the heavier you become. If the bigger example, Aaron is the “effort” which must raise and balance Sokeo, Eddie, and Rachael, who are the person was lower, the combination of greater “load.” By this principle, it is possible for one person to move three if the effort is applied further from weight and gravitational pull would be too much, the fulcrum. and the two people would not be able to find a balance point and would fall. You can also try having one person balance two people. You are now trying to find the center Experiment: Take a tongue depressor (the lever), a triangular block (the fulcrum) and two of gravity for three people. Try it with a lot of people. Put on some soft music to help your balls of clay, one small (the effort) and one large (the load). Experiment with resting the concentration. Turn the science lesson into a dance lesson and let everyone begin to focus tongue depressor on the block, and then setting the two balls on either end. Keep sliding on the shapes their body can take in space. the fulcrum, or block, further away from the smaller ball until the lever is balanced.
Principle #4: Principle #5: Energy Conservation Cause and Effect: Potential EnergyWe dare you to stand still while a bowling ball swings towards you. We guarantee you won’t get hit. to Kinetic EnergyWhat we’ve created with the bowling ball is a pendulum, and we can precisely determine the range ofthe pendulum, so we know where it is safe to stand. Everett’s experiment of converting potential energy into kinetic energy can be explained as follows: a member of the audience places a ball on the tracks (an inclined plane). The force of gravity pulls the ball down the path of least resistance, where it collides with the block, overcoming the block’s inertia. As the block’s potential energy decreases, it’s kinetic energy increases. Each block falls in turn. The last block releases another ball at the top of another inclined plane. The second ball also follows the path of least resistance, dropping onto a lever. On the other side of the fulcrum, there is an equal and opposite reaction which throws another ball into the air to be caught in a net.The principle is called energy conservation. It holds that you can only get as much energy out of anobject as you put into it. If a pendulum hanging straight to the center is pulled back two feet and isthen released without being pushed, it will swing back, past the center, until it reaches a distance oftwo feet in the opposite direction. It will never go further than two feet because the energy requiredto overcome gravity’s force when you pull the pendulum back is precisely the amount of energy thependulum will have for its swing in the opposite direction. So why doesn’t the pendulum keep swingingfor eternity? As it travels through the air it encounters resistance, or friction, which slows the pendulumwith each pass, until eventually it stops moving. Experiment: Stretch a rubber band and hold it. The energy required to hold it is a Experiment: Attach a string to a ball or an apple, and suspend it from the ceiling so reflection of the elastic’s potential energy. You can also explore potential and kinetic that it hangs at chest level. Draw it towards you, holding it to your chin. Let it drop, like energy by creating table top cause & effect machines from everyday objects such as a pendulum, without pushing it and without moving your chin. You will notice that it is straws, feathers, marbles, etc. These cause & effect machines can be translated into physically impossible for the object to hit you when it swings back. movement sequences
Principle #6: Principle #7: Distribution of Weight Acceleration of GravityYou’d think that lying on a bed of nails would hurt. Yet Eddie can actually break wood with a karate The famous scientist Galileo inspired us to look at his experiments on the acceleration of gravity, andchop on top of Aaron’s body, as he lies on nails. How is this possible? turn it into a dance using tracks and balls. Over four hundred years ago, Galileo conducted an experiment that contradicted a theory two thousand years old. He demonstrated that objects dropped at the same time would fall at the sameThe impact to the wood is directed onto Aaron’s body, not onto the nails. Aaron’s body absorbs the rate, regardless of their weight. (Until then, it had been believed that a heavier object would fall toimpact, and it travels through him. Since his weight is evenly distributed over the nails, the impact the ground faster than a lighter one.) First Galileo dropped an iron cannon ball and a wooden ballis evenly distributed. Each nail actually holds very little weight. Aaron therefore feels only a slight simultaneously from the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Both reached the bottom at exactly the same time. Butpressure across his entire body instead of an intense pressure in the center of his body where the they fell too fast for him to really examine the rate of their descent. So he began to use incline planeskarate-chopped board rested. This principle is called distribution of weight. so that the balls fell at a steady -- but slower -- rate, and gave him time to study the acceleration of gravity. Experiment: Have your class create a bed of nails by taking a piece of peg board 13 1/2” x 21 1/2” x 3/4”, and fitting nails snugly into each hole. Then take a piece of plywood (the same size), and screw it to the back of the peg board, to keep the nails in place. Now have Experiment: Stand on a chair and hold two objects of different weights in each hand, a student lie down! As a separate experiment, drop a guitar pick into a glass of water. it will making sure to keep your hands level. Drop both objects simultaneously. You should hear sink. Now try taking the same pick and place it gently on the surface of the water. It floats! one loud thump as they both land at the same time.
Principle #8: Color Theory: White LightNOTE: This experiement is only done on a professional stage.Music and light are central to many dance performances. What makes our example different is thatour light source is made up of three primary colors: red, green and blue. We use a screen to createshadows in the colored light. Something interesting happens as the dancers move both close to, andaway from the light. Their bodies block a particular color and separate the white ;light back into theoriginal three colors.This is the principle of white light. Pure white light contains all of the colors of the rainbow. When thethree primary colors shining on a fixed point overlap, your brain interprets this as one color— white. Experiment: A firsthand example of color theory with light in action involves projecting three primary colors onto a screen. Take three sheets of acetate paper and place a transparent blue gel on one piece, red on another, and green on the last. Then take three flashlights and shine them through the acetate sheets onto the same spot on a white backdrop. The end result should be a white light shone on the backdrop. For the reverse effect, take a prism and shine a white light through it. The prism will separate the colors into the colors of the spectrum.