Teams & groups


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Teams & groups

  1. 1. 208.451.5076 Michael J. Everett, PhD, CLSSBB Organizational Psychologist
  2. 2. It’s easy to get players. Getting’em to play together, that’s the hard part. Casey Stengel
  3. 3. Group  Two or more people who interact with each other to accomplish certain goals or meet certain needs. Team  A group whose members work intensely with each other to achieve a specific, common goal or objective.
  4. 4.  Participative style of management is best approach to ensure employee involvement in the improvement process  Workforce is generally more educated and wants to participate in the decision making process – especially those that affect them directly  Provides employees with ownership and challenging them to use their skills and abilities
  5. 5.  Maslow’s higher level of human needs  McGregor’s Theory Y  Recognizes worth of individuals  Herberg’s theory  True motivation is found in the work itself  Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy  Critical role in how we think, feel, and behave
  6. 6.  Brings together individuals with diverse skill sets  Can usually solve larger issues than individuals  Build a more complete understanding to the process needing improvement  Rely on mutual support and cooperation between each other on current project as well as future encounters  Increase organizational engagement
  7. 7.  Provides a greater understand/transparency of organizational issues  Opportunity to be creative and share ideas  Develop stronger relationships with coworkers  Ability to learn/enhance new skill sets  Satisfaction of solving a chronic problem that attracts/retains more customers, increase revenue, and reduce costs  Enhance organizational engagement
  8. 8.  Develop into highly effective, people- building, goal-achieving social system characterized by:  A climate of high support  Open communication process  Organizational goal achievement  Creative problem solving  Individual achievement  Commitment  Improve organizational efficiencies
  9. 9.  Improve employee morale  Remove areas of conflict  Develop creative skills  Improve leadership and communication skills  Enhance problem solving techniques  Improve management/employee relationships  Project an environment that management listens
  10. 10.  Power is derived from management authority  Empowered by virtue of power that was granted  Process charter helps develop empowerment  Team member have control over team performance and behavior  Control - autonomy  Information – up/down  Resources – access to resources
  11. 11.  Ensure consistency of purpose  Reinforce positive results  Remove roadblocks  Share business results  Provide a sense of mission (project charter)  Empower
  12. 12. Factor Group Size Smaller groups allow for high cohesiveness; Low cohesiveness groups with many members can benefit from splitting into two groups. Managed Diversity Diverse groups often come up with better solutions. Group Identity Encouraging a group to adopt a unique identity and engage in competition with others can increase cohesiveness. Success Cohesiveness increases with success; finding ways for a group to have some small successes increases cohesiveness.
  13. 13.  Formal  A group that managers establish to achieve organization goals.  Informal  A group that managers or non-managerial employees form to help achieve their own goals or to meet their own needs.
  14. 14. Type of Team Top-management team A group composed of the CEO, the president, and the heads of the most important departments Research and development team A team whose members have the expertise and experience needed to develop new products Command groups A group composed of subordinates who report to the same supervisor, also called a department or unit Task Force/Ad Hoc Teams Members are selected based on their experience and directed by management to look into specific areas such as the modernization of a piece of equipment or soultion to a customer complaint. Generally these teams disband upon completion of their assignments
  15. 15. Type of Team Self-managed work team A group of employees who supervise their own activities and monitor the quality of the goods and services they provide. Virtual team A team whose members rarely or never meet face to face and interact by using various forms of information technology such as email, computer networks, telephone, fax and video conferences. Cross Functional Teams Made of individuals who represent different departments or functional teams across boundaries. These teams promote the acceptance and change throughout the organization. Solutions tend to be technically superior and more easily accepted. Interest group An informal group composed of employees seeking to achieve a common goal related to their membership in an organization.
  16. 16.  When selecting a team need to identify the parts of the organization most closely associated with the problem:  Where the problem is observed  Where the sources or causes of the problem might be felt  Among those with special knowledge, information, skill  Any area that can be helpful in developing a resolution
  17. 17.  Never impose an individual on a team  Use entire team in the selection team  Entire team conducts interview(s)  All members of team submit one vote
  18. 18.  Doesn’t occur often  Might not have the skills, knowledge required  Demonstrate little to no interest in team  Personality conflicts  To stretched or stressed by other commitments and/or issues  Both team members and leader needs to have frank discussions with individual prior to decision
  19. 19.  Generally team size for almost all projects should be kept at a 6 – 10 individuals  Self-directed team can have as many as 12 – 15  Especially if dealing with policy, practices, operations  Cross functional teams (Lean) 8 – 12  Usually disbands upon completion of project
  20. 20.  To achieve optimum performance diversity is highly suggested  Team members:  Some are primarily task orientated  Those with intimate knowledge of process  Individuals who are nurturers, encourage, communicate  Members who are creative and innovative  Individuals are not assigned these roles but should be picked for such attributes
  21. 21.  Action-orientated roles:  Shaper: highly motivated people with lots of drive, energy, and need for achievement. May be viewed as aggressive extroverts.  Implementer: Well organized and have practical sense. Favor hard work and tackle issues in a systematic fashion.  Completer: Great capacity for follow-through and attention to details. Seldom start what they cannot finish.
  22. 22.  People-orientated roles:  Coordinator: Ability to cause others to attain shared goals. They can spot individual talent and use the, to pursue group objectives.  Team Worker: Most supportive members of a team. Sociable and adaptive to different situation and people.  Investigator: Excellent communicators both inside and outside the organization. Extroverted and enthusiastic.
  23. 23.  Problem-solving roles:  Plant: Innovators and can be very creative. Provide seeds and ideas for major developments  Evaluator: Serious and pragmatic individuals. Slow to decisions and posses critical thinking ability.  Specialists: Self-starting professionals, Pride themselves in acquiring technical skills and specialized knowledge
  24. 24. Role Strengths Weaknesses Shaper Brings the drive and courage to overcome obstacles. Committed to achieving ends. Offend people and may display aggression, multiple shapers can lead to conflict Implementer Turn ideas into practical actions. Work in a practical and realistic way. Conservative, inflexible, and slow to respond to new possibilities Completer Find error and omission. Deliver contributions on time and pay attention to details Worrisome and reluctant to delegate. Tend to be over anxious. Coordinator Positive thinker who supports goal attainment and efforts in others. Clarify goals and delegate. May be seen as manipulative. May not stand out in team Teamworker Tend to keep team spirit up and allow other members to contribute. Tend to be indecisive in moments of crisis and are reluctant to offend Resource Investigator Explore opportunities and develops contacts. Good negotiators. Over-optimistic and may lose interest quickly. Are not sources of original information. Plant Innovator Brings creativity, ideas, and imagination to a team. Can solve difficult problems. Ignore incidental and may be too preoccupied to communicate effectively. Monitor Evaluator Not deflected by emotional arguments. Are serious minded and bring objectivity and judgment to options. May appear dry, boring, and overcritical. Are not good at inspiring others. Specialist Bring dedication and initiative. Provide needed knowledge and technical skills. Contribution may be only on a narrow front and dwell on technicalities.
  25. 25.  Master Black Belts/Black Belts  Green Belts  Executive Sponsors  Champions  Process Owner  Team Leader  Team Member  Recorder  Timekeeper
  26. 26.  Forming  Storming  Norming  Performing  Adjourning
  27. 27.  Forming  Beginning of team life  Expectation are unclear  Interactions are superficial  Members test the water  Storming  Consists of conflict and resistance to task/structure  Authority issues  Vision/values dissonance  Most difficult stage to work through
  28. 28.  Norming  Sense of group cohesion develops  More energy on data collection and analysis  Develop norms for resolving conflicts, making decisions and making completing assignments  Performing:  The payoff stage  Relationships have been developed  Team tackles tasks at hand  Works effectively and cohesively  May still have ups and downs  Adjourning  Team disbands  Celebration!
  29. 29. Norming Members: cooperate Performing Members: show maturity focus on the process achieve goals operate smoothly Q) (J c: ro E . ' g - Storming · Members: talk things out focus on objectives have fewer conflicts Q) a. Forming have confrontation think individually are learning roles have divided loyalties Members are: inexperienced excited anxious proud Time Figure 4.6 Schematic of Team Development Phases
  30. 30. " Stage 1 FORMING - '' Stage 2 STORMING BEHAVIORS Lack of task focus Difficulty in defining problems Uneven participation Ineffective decision making Resistance to team building FEELINGS Excitement, anticipation, and pride Shaky alliance to the team Suspicion, fear, and anxiety Roles and responsibilities are unclear HOW TO IMPROVE Take time to become acquainted Establish mission and goals Establish team ground rules Add structure to meetings Train members in team concepts Encourage equal participation BEHAVIORS Problem solving is superficial There is petty arguing Hidden agendas and cliques emerge Decisions don't come easily Plenty of uncertainties persist FEELINGS Resistance is seen Individual attitudes vary widely Anger and jealousy abound HOW TO IMPROVE Follow a problem solving format Clearly define roles . Debrief meetings for content and process Deal openly with conflict Work to expose hidden agendas Focus team on goals Stage 3 NORMING Stage 4 PERFORMING BEHAVIORS Attitudes improve Trust and commitment grow Some goals and objectives are achieved Feedback becomes regular and objective Conflicts are dealt with and resolved The leader receives respect Some leadership is shared by the team FEELINGS Comfort with giving feedback Comfort with receiving feedback Sense of cohesion and spirit Friendlier and more open exchanges HOW TO IMPROVE Evaluate team performance Periodic summaries of progress Create ties outside of the team BEHAVIORS Members to work through problems Members manage the group process There is creativity and informality High levels of unity and spirit are seen Close bonds form FEELINGS Self improvement is noted Acceptance of weakness Appreciation of strengths Satisfaction with team progress Team knows clearly what it is doing HOW TO IMPROVE Promote openness Permit more self direction Establish new goals (Tuckerman, 1965)39
  31. 31.  Build Phase (Forming/Storming)  Group will be uncertain  Group lacks cohesiveness  Group will not easily develop consensus  Leader exhibits high task/high relationship style  Develop Phase (Norming)  Task related work is assumed by group  The group must work to involve non participants  Leader exhibits a low task/high relationship style  Team focuses on presentation, tasks, and relationships
  32. 32.  Optimize Phase (Performing)  Members prioritize and perform tasks  Members workout decision is a caring way  Conflict is accepted, but cooperation is preferred  Team leader is a delegator and exhibits a low- task/low-relationship style  Team exhibits a high-task/high relationship style
  33. 33.  Recognition and Reward  Groupthink  Risky-Shift  Social Loafing
  34. 34.  Given to provide positive reinforcement or to correct a behavior  Effect depends on the perception of person receiving it  Can be grouped in the following:  Material items of significant value  Material items of incidental value  Intangible items: Satisfaction Thanks Pleasure Admiration Friendship Notoriety Learning Prestige  Team rewards need to be same across the board
  35. 35. Defined as: “ A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members striving for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action.” Irving Janis (1971)  Eight Symptoms of Group Think 1. Illusion of invulnerability  Feeling the group is above criticism 2. Belief in inherent morality of group  Group is inherently right and above reproach 3. Collective rationalization  Refusing to accept contradictory data 4. Out-group stereotypes  Refusing to look realistically at other groups
  36. 36. 5. Self-censorship:  Refusing to communicate personal concerns to the group as a whole 6. Illusion of unanimity:  Accepting consensus prematurely, without testing iit completeness 7. Direct pressure on dissenters:  Refusing to tolerate a member who suggests the group may be wrong 8. Self-appointed mindguards: Protecting the group form disturbing ideas or viewpoints from outsiders
  37. 37.  Most members believe that proposed solutions are fairly conservative  In reality teams get swept up with expansive and expensive remedies  Have team members ask if it was their personal money would they still risk it on proposed solution?
  38. 38.  The tendency of individuals to put forth less effort in a group than individually.  Results in possibly lower group performance and failure to attain group goals Reducing Social Loafing  Make individual efforts identifiable and accountable.  Emphasize the valuable contributions of individual members.  Keep group size at an appropriate level.
  39. 39. Floundering Dominant Participants Overbearing Participants Negative Nellies Opinions as Facts ï Team direction is unclear ï Members seem overwhelmed ï Decisions are postponed ï Members interrupt others ï Members dominate the conversation ï A member has excessive influence ï A member has legitimate authority ï A member is an "expert" ï Members say "We tried that already" ï Members defend their turf ï Members are negative of suggestions ï Members present opinions as facts ï Members make unfounded assumptions ï Self assurance seen as unquestionable ï Leader must provide clarity ï Review the team purpose ï Ask "How can we proceed?" ï Promote equal participation ï Structure the discussion ï Reinforce team concepts ï Ask the expert to lead the group ï Have a private discussion with "expert" ï Reinforce the positive ï Ask for other points of view ï Separate idea generation from criticism ï Ask for support data ï Question opinions and assumptions ï See groupthinJ< discussion Shy Members • Members are reluctant to speak ï Members afraid of making mistakes ï Structure group participation ï Direct conversation their way Jump to Solutions ï Members rush to accomplish something • ï Members avoid data collection and analysis • ï Members want immediate decisions • Reinforce the need for data analysis Ask for alternate solutions Slow the process down Attributions Put-downs (Discounts & Plops) ï Members make casual inferences ï Members don't seek real explanations ï Members make psychological judgments ï A member's comments are ignored ï Members are not listening ï The meaning of a suggestion is missed ï Sarcasm is noted ï Challenge assumptions ï Challenge judgments ï Ask for data to support conclusions ï Encourage active listening ï Encourage equal participation ï Talk to parties privately ï Promote uniform idea consideration Wanderlust • Conversations stray from the main topic • Follow a written agenda (Tangents & • Sensitive issues are avoided • Reinforce team operating guidelines Digressions) • Group pursues tangents • Redirect the discussion Feuding • Win-lose hostilities emerge • Confront the adversaries alone ï The team takes entrenched sides • Reinforce team operating guidelines ï Some members become spectators • Replace the guilty parties if necessary Risky-Shift • Expansive and expensive remedies are • Ask "If this were my personal money
  40. 40. Well Functioning Teams PoorlyFunctioningTeams There is a firm team identity Members do not identify with the team Conflict is openly discussed There are open or covert personality conflicts Team members support each other Relationships are competitive Members enjoy each other Members are defensive Decisions are made by consensus Decisions are made bya few members Meetings are efficient and task oriented Meetings are unproductive There is growth and learning Minor points are debated All members participate in discussions Members are late, passive, or do not attend Members are kept informed. Minutes are kept No record of progress is kept There is ongoing performance feedback Feedback awaits the end of the project Members listen well There are frequent interruptions Team members help set objectives Most goals are predetermined for teams Objectives are understood by all members Goals are unclear or poorly communicated Objectives are realistically set and met Members are oblivious to team goals Team members are in close physical proximity Physical separation prevents attendance There are adequate skills and resources Resources are inadequate There is management and member support There is a lack of organizational recognition There is strong effective leadership No clear leader is identified Clear responsibilities are defined Members engage in power plays Roles are understood and supported by all There is buck-passing of responsibility Members work as a team Members act independently
  41. 41.  Are opportunities to:  Display skills  Show accomplishments  Summarize projects  Keep line of communication open  Demonstrate understanding of customer’s needs  Evaluate team performance