Psychodynamics & conflict


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Psychodynamics & conflict

  1. 1. Understanding Conflict "Diversity raises the intelligence of groups.” Nancy Kline
  2. 2. Cognitive Dissonance “A psychological discomfort or an aversive drive state that people are motivated to reduce, just as they are motivated to reduce hunger” Heider (1946, 1958) Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  3. 3. Cognitive Dissonance  Empirical evidence that other’s attitudes are a source of cognitive inconsistency  Shown that disliked/unrelated people are less likely to come to a mutually beneficial agreement  Process is less pleasant and results are not stable Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  4. 4. Cognitive Dissonance  Increasing group pressure has been found to raise experience of discomfort within individuals of the group  Fear of confronting due to increasing dissonance  Will often agree to something they don’t really agree with (group think)  Threaten understanding of reality and normative regulation of self and social goals Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  5. 5. Cognitive Dissonance & Organizational Conflict  Does lead to conflict  “Deutsch’s Crude Law of Social Relations”  Cooperation induces and is induced by a perceived similarity in:  Beliefs  Attitudes  Readiness to be helpful  Openness in communication  Sensitivity to common interests Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  6. 6. Organizational Conflict  Competition induces:  Tactics of coercion  Threat  Deception  Attempts to enhance power differences  Minimize awareness of similarities  Poor communication  Suspicious and hostile attitudes Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  7. 7. Managing Organizational Conflict “Conflict arises when two or more parties are interdependent and each party’s goals are more or less incompatible with the other party’s goals” Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  8. 8. Power-Dependency Model  Conflict arises between two or more parties when they are linked in a power- dependency relationship  Each wants something from the other that is not easily attainable elsewhere  “Something” is described as an outcome Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  9. 9. Causes of conflict  Arises from:  Personality or ideologies within the parties  Change parties or ideologies (psychotherapy)  Roles and scarcity of resources  Change the environment Wants Has HasWants POWER POWER Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  10. 10. Power-Dependency Model  Power is a function of dependence  Dependence is a function of available outcomes sources and value of outcome  Power-dependent relationships parties perceive an exchange of like or unlike outcomes will be mutually beneficial Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  11. 11. Structural Causes of Conflict  Task clarity  Task complexity  Task environment  Time orientation  Goal orientation Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  12. 12. Individual Causes of Conflict  Psychological in nature  Viewed through personal lens  These views are often dependent on role and prior experience  Personal experience  Role models and/or mentors/supervisors  Perception of other’s need (wants) and their own power (have) Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  13. 13. Environmental Causes  “A” has what “B” needs due to:  Location  Expertise  Agendas  Capabilities  Technologies Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  14. 14. Methods of Conflict Management  Structural channeling  Negotiation skills  Strategy  Tatics  Sanctions  Third-party Intervention Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  15. 15. Structural Channeling  Brickman (1974) classifies as:  Unstructured  No social restraints on either party  Partially structured  Agreed upon structure exists for channeling  Fully structured  Each party’s behavior is fully prescribed Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  16. 16. Classic labor relations  Partially structured conflict model  Parties BARGAIN over, but do not SETTLE their conflicts (Brett, 1980) Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  17. 17. Partial Structuring  Rely on organizational (personal) redesign to provide for integration  Examples are:  Liaisons  Task forces  Team  Integrating department  Matrix designs Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  18. 18. Negotiation  “Classic” theory is the bargainers act rationally  Compare cost and benefits  Behavioral studies recognize that decision- making behavior are made under condition of in which meaning is subjective  Decision makers have limited cognitive ability to use full information objectively Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  19. 19. Strategy  Most common approach is concession  Concessions are behaviors that reduce the difference between the difference between parties on an issue  Attempts to influence concession behavior and or perceptions of the other party  Pattern of concessions is “bargaining” Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  20. 20. Strategy "The smartest strategy in war is the one that allows you to achieve your objectives without having to fight” - Sun Tzu Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  21. 21. Tatics  Tactics are attempts to influence the opponent’s perceptions via argument  Two types of tactics:  Attempt to change the other party’s perception of his/her own power  Attempt to change the other party’s perception of your own power Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  22. 22. Sanctions  Studies have found that tactical reciprocity is particularly strong when factors are sanctions  When one threatens sanctions, the other responds in same  As sanctions become reality concession behavior decreases Everett Decision Systems, LLC
  23. 23. Minimizing Conflict  Develop a set of values that emphasizes:  Group loyalty  Mutual trust  Personal equality  Cooperation Everett Decision Systems, LLC