A Sound Vision on Mass Digitisation

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Quest for the Sweet Spot to Turn 17,500 Hours of Film into an Asset.

Presentation on the Netherlands Institute of Sound and Vision's research into digitizing large quantities of film materials to an HD/2K format.

The presentation of this white paper in progress was held at the AMIA/IASA conference in Philadelphia, november 2010.

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  • 17.500 hrs of film (22.500 incl. EYE)
    3 years
    Broadcast: Audio Visual Archive Centre
    Non-broadcast: Film Archive of the RVD (State Information Service), Polygoon Newsreel Archive, Film and Science Foundation, Small Gauge Film Museum
    BROADCAST 1955 – 1989
    Total Volume: Broadcast mat.: 16mm pos reversal
    Non-broadcast: 8 – 35mm
    Overall 4:3 – 50% BW
    Request: 170 titles of film / month
  • + Kennisinstellingen, universiteiten, educatie -> partners & doelpubliek

    Formaten: XD CAM HD 422
    • XDCAM HD 422
    • SMPTE 381, 382, XDCAM_MXF_HD422_v080
    • MXF OP1a: SMPTE 377, 378, 379
    • Timecode: EBU Rec 122, Timecode Track in material package MXF
  • EDCINE TWO-TIER STORAGE DATA MODEL:
    MAP (master archive package) for long-term preservation
    IAP (intermediate Access package) for access

    OAIS: SIP (Submission Information Package) + AIP (Archival Information Package - MAP of IAP) - DIP (DIssemination Information Package)
  • Direction that S&V is taking
    Scanning, coding & compression parameters
    Film = incompatible with today’s video standards? Difficult relation to video technology
    - $: 4K not an option
    Previous experience during IftF
    Ultrasonical cleaning
    One Light Scan (prevent from clipping)
    Digibeta, MXF D-10 (= SD video standard), MPEG-1 Proxies
    Research: HD CAM SR (BBC approach): declining support, proprietary, lossy compression
    Different types of source material
  • 2008: Review of video tape based solutions - HDCAM-SR was reviewed as an option, based on the BBC approach.
    - declining support in the industry for video tape-based solutions in general and HDCAM SR in specific
    the proprietary and lossy nature of the compression were regarded as the main drawbacks.
    As a result the decision was taken to select a data format – instead of video – and implement a tapeless solution

    First pilot: DPX on shelf, JPEG2000 as Intermediate Access

    2009: 2nd pilot – testing JPEG2000 production systems
    + Fraunhofer research
    + market scan

    2010 Implementation
  • 1) downsampling only when NR larger than intended output res
    For Sound & Vision: economical balance of scanning resolution against quality of the material
    10 bit: best compatibility, enough dynamic range to capture usable range of densities
    Easily converted using a LUT (XYZ: not well supported outside of digital cinema – more bits needed)

    Tools on the market for JPEG
    Production process parameters for JPEG?
    What compression can be applied?
  • + DCDM = Digital Cinema Distribution Master
    + First pilot study in 2008: JPEG 2000 not yet an industry standard for archival purposes.
    Mathematically lossless profiles and practical applications for JPEG 2000 production and repurposing lacking
    Mainly focused on digital projection resulting in lossy compression.
    + The overall conclusion of this pilot and research was that important functionality – e.g. system supported quality control – is not yet available and that the market will need more time to embrace the JPEG 2000 compression as an archival standard for film material.
  • DPX format: 1st version 1994, update 2003
  • Ultrasonical cleaning
    One Light Scan (prevent from clipping)
    Digibeta, MXF D-10 (= SD video standard), MPEG-1 Proxies
  • + gestructureerde uitwisseling van metadata en procesdata obv XML
  • A Sound Vision on Mass Digitisation

    1. 1. QUEST FOR THE SWEET SPOT Sound and Vision is one of the six partners of the program 'Images for the Future’ Program started in 2007, finishes in 2014 17.500 hours of film material must be digitised by mid 2014 2010 = pivotal moment: from SD to HD / 2K Average amount of production = 3.000 hours/year 11/06/2010
    2. 2. FILM COLLECTIONS 11/06/2010 AUDIO VISUAL ARCHIVE CENTRE POLYGOON NEWSREEL ARCHIVE FILM ARCHIVE OF THE RVD FILM AND SCIENCE FOUNDATION SMALL GAUGE FILM MUSEUM
    3. 3. OUTPUT DEMANDS 11/06/10
    4. 4. SOURCE TIME COST OUTPUT 11/06/10 TRIANGLE OF CHALLENGES Accessibility Search Retrieval Re-use
    5. 5. 11/06/10 TRIANGLE OF CONSTRAINTS Coding Resolution Bit Depth Fidelity SOURCE TIME COST OUTPUT
    6. 6. RESEARCH QUESTIONS Best way to scan several types of source material? Best format to store the scanned material (and, possibly, what level of compression that can be applied?) Best way to convert this material to a broadcast-compatible video format? What are the practical capabilities of existing tools and formats? 11/06/10
    7. 7. SCANNING OUTCOMES Native resolution Resolution high enough to capture source detail 10-bit logarithmic transfer curve Color correction needed in case of colour fading Native scanning RGB Colour space Research into DPX vs JPG2000 11/06/10
    8. 8. USE OF JPG2000 FOR PRESERVATION Industry focused on DCI DCDM / DCP No standard application for wrapping JPEG 2000 in MXF container Little tools available for validating / controlling of code stream Little benefits in storing mathematically lossless over direct output DPX format 11/06/10
    9. 9. FORMATS 11/06/10 DPX - SMPTE 268M-2003 v2 - 10 bit log - RGB or single channel BW - Scanner colour space (specified and with LUT for Rec.709 - XDCAM HD) BWAV - EBU tech 3285-2001 v1 - 24 bit linear PCM, 48 kHz sample rate XDCAM HD 422 - SMPTE 381, 382, XDCAM_MXF_HD422_v080 - MXF OP1a: SMPTE 377, 378, 379 - Timecode Track in material package MXF (EBU Rec 122)
    10. 10. Relativeimportanceincollection Cinematographical & technical quality Sports (old) Sports (more recent) Sports (selected) Tele- recordings News News (selected) Current Affairs Current Affairs (selected) Drama Drama (selected) Documentaries Documentaries (selected) Opdrachtfilms Polygoon (35mm) Advertorials Standard resolution HD resolution 2K resolution RESOLUTIONS 11/06/10
    11. 11. STORAGE 11/06/10
    12. 12. 11/06/10 IMMIX CATALOGUE SD WORKFLOW
    13. 13. 14/10/10 HD / 2K WORKFLOW WRITE LTO4
    14. 14. CONTACT 11//06/10 Website: http://www.beeldengeluid.nl Archive: http://archief.beeldengeluid.nl Questions: everbruggen@beeldengeluid.nl

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