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Everbridge Decision Making During Disasters


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Everbridge Decision Making During Disasters

  1. 1. audio dial-in access code note1-213-289-0020 154-547-131 slides are currently available on the Everbridge blog @everbridge
  2. 2. Decision Making During Disastersand EmergenciesRobert C. Chandler, Ph.D.Director, Nicholson School of Communication
  3. 3. About Everbridge• The Global Leader in emergency and incident notification systems• Fast-growing global company with more than 1,500 clients operating in more than 100 countries• Serve the Global 2000 enterprise, corporations, healthcare systems, state and local governments, federal government, military, financial services firms, and universities• 100% focused on incident notification solutions that merge technology and expertise 3
  4. 4. AgendaPart 1: Presentation• Behavioral & psychometric issues that occur during emergencies• The critical challenges to decision making during disasters and other emergencies• How to anticipate and mitigate barriers to making quality decisions Are you on Twitter? Follow us at @everbridge andPart 2: Q&A share webinar insights with your friends using hashtag #everbridge 4
  5. 5. Note:Q&A slides are currently available to download on Use the Q&A function to submit your questions. 5
  6. 6. Decision Making During Disasters and Emergencies:BracingResearch Findings and for the 2010Hurricane Season to Enhance Applications Performance Dr. Robert Chandler University of Central Florida
  7. 7. Human Factor Errors and Disasters• Human factor errors including diminished cognitive performance and poor decision making in critical situations – (FAA Study) • 66% of air carrier accidents • 79% fatal commuter accidents • 88% fatal general aviation accidents• Human factors errors can be costly in surgical operating rooms, emergency response, EOC/Command Centers, disaster management teams, military/law enforcement, and other crisis contexts
  8. 8. Diminished Cognitive CapacitiesDuring emergencies anddisasters, decisions musttypically be madeunexpectedly with littleadvance notice, highstress/distress context,little time for thoroughdeliberation, and oftenwith high (life and death)negative consequencerisks
  9. 9. Basic Facts About Crisis Stress• Effects of stress are cumulative• Effects of stress are interactive• Uncertainty amplifies stress effects• New experiences/Situations amplifies stress effects• Tasks and Deciding may be stressful• Stress affects different people differently• Individuals have different levels of “stress hardiness” or stress affect resilience• Stress symptoms manifest both behaviorally and cognitively• Hyper-stress consists of CCS , SRT, Concentration, INE, DLR, SDM, ITP, Time Stress
  10. 10. CCS – Cognitive Capacity SufficiencyAlthough the human brain has tremendous potential cognitivecapacity - Psychometric researchers assume that each individualhas baseline use and peak use cognitive capacities and thatthere is a sufficiency threshold for effective decision makingComplex Critical Eventscan tax (over-tax) thesecapacities
  11. 11. CCS – Cognitive Capacity SufficiencyResearch on decision making in complex systems providesinsight into the factors that negatively impact successfulcognitive performance and decision making • Maximum Adaptability Model • Compensatory Control Model
  12. 12. Decision Making in Critical Contexts When there is little time, little information, substantial time constraints, and with high negative consequences for the decisions – these ‘external’ factors affect (impact) the ‘internal’ mental processes of decision making
  13. 13. SRT – Simple Reaction Time• Tendency for cognitive delay (freeze)• Increases in time required for decisions, response, behavior performance• SRT linear correlation with Hyper-stress• SRT has most dramatic impact on more complex tasks
  14. 14. Concentration (Mental Effort) • Hyper-stress negatively impacts one’s ability to concentrate on the decision or task • Both cognitive processing and cognitive control are impacted by hyper-stress• Affective (emotional) processes can also diminish ability forsustained attention to a task or decision (wandering minds)• Personally high salience and valence emotional considerationsdecrease the ability to concentrate on the task or decision
  15. 15. INE – Intense Negative Emotions• Distracting• Reduces Focus• Changes processing pathways• Disrupts goal-oriented behavior• Less optimal for task completion• Psychosomatic symptoms arise• Disrupt sleep and sleep cycle• TSD• PTSD
  16. 16. DLR – Diminished Logical Reasoning• Information manipulation tasks or Logical Reasoning tasks are diminished by hyper-stress• Delayed processing (increases in time and effort) affect the quality of cognitive processes• These diminished processes appear to most effect cognitive performance in situations which require rapid decisions or when the individual attempts to achieve their “low stress” (typical) response times (increases in frustration and more stress)
  17. 17. SMD – Stress Diminished Memory• Stress Diminished Memory and Information Recall• Hyper-stress Diminished Memory and Information Recall Ability Effects
  18. 18. ITP – Implicit Temporal ProcessingCompressed time frames for decisions independently impact the qualityof decisions and our perception of time itself• Perceptions of “time” affect our abilities for patternrecognition, time-dependent decision-making,awareness of synchronized processes, anddecision priorities• Hyper-stress negatively impacts our ITP anddiminished ITP negatively impacts our ability for makingdecisions• Significant negative affect on “multi-tasking”performance
  19. 19. Time StressTime Stress independently negatively impacts decision quality andcognitive performance • Requiring tasks and decisions to be completed with short and finite time windows (with penalties or negative consequences for failing to meet the fixed critical deadline). • The inverse speed-accuracy tradeoff • Diminished measures of “mental workload capacity” correlated with Time Stress
  20. 20. Passing the Stress Test• Formal training in handling stress increases resiliency (constructive ways of coping with hyper stress can be learned – and dysfunctional ways of coping can be avoided)• Learning strategies for side-stepping hyper-stress environments typically provide better benefits and more bottom line results than stress coping skills alone• Hyper-Stress management training provides an additional benefit – better routine stress management skills in daily life
  21. 21. Training the Managing Hyper-StressAlthough we insist on extensive training for various technical andprofessional skills and abilities – learning to manage the impact ofhyper-stress is usually left entirely to chance
  22. 22. Strategies for Stress• Recognize and avoid hyper-stress contributing factors• Include stress factors in training exercises and simulations• Prepare protocols and procedures in advance – and follow them during hyper-stress environments• Immunize yourself to the effects of hyper-stress• Stick to the plan• Maintain control
  23. 23. Train the Brain• Research confirms that under conditions of hyper-stress, the humanbrain tends to favor rigid “habit” memory over more flexible (andrequiring more mental effort) “cognitive” memory (hyper-stress resultsin more acting than thinking)• One can train their brain to react fromhabitual memory to perform and completecomplex tasks quickly and accuratelyduring hyper-stress contexts• The value of repeated training isconfirmed by the research studies
  24. 24. Effective Decision Making In These Conditions• In real world crisis and emergency contexts, at peak periods of hyper- stress; decision makers are not usually capable (less or more so depending on the individual) of framing tasks in logical ways - taking into account all of the available information and situational variables and establish comparable (logical) alternatives to evaluate and from which to ‘chose’ a decision.• Rather, they more typically assess of the dynamics of a situation which they recognize from previous experience and using their past experience and any crisis decision training – act (“decide”) by imagining event trajectories of a given decision/action (results and implications) contextualized (compared with) how they believe a situation is likely to evolve.• Effective decision makers tend to rely more on their “problem solving” tendencies based on past experiences to blend a “solution” – since the logical and rational processes of traditional cognitive decision making are frequently disrupted.
  25. 25. Five Quick Recommendations1. Select the right people (assess, screen and test for KSAs for cognitive processing and decision making under hyper-stress conditions.2. Provide extensive training and preparation for problem solving in hyper-stress contexts.3. Teach the “right stuff.” Include specific training for stress management, coping skills, teach methods to stay calm so as to act with poise and capability to make decisions in stressful conditions.4. Ensure realistic training to help create level of “stress inoculation” – this is a major short-coming in most training, mocks, drills, and exercises.5. Minimize traumatic hyper-stress exposure and conditions as much as possible – “de-stress” the environment, processes, and context as much as feasible.
  26. 26. Incident NotificationCandace GreenSenior Online Marketing Manager, Everbridge 26
  27. 27. Incident Notification Solutions Address Common Communication Challenges• Communicate quickly, easily, and • Reduce miscommunications and efficiently with large numbers of control rumors with accurate, people in minutes, not hours, making consistent messages sure that the lines of communication are open • Satisfy regulatory requirements• Receive feedback from your with extensive and complete messages by using polling reporting of communication attempts capabilities and two-way acknowledgements from recipients• Ensure two-way communications to get feedback from message • Deliver refined, prepared , timed receivers messages to each pre-designated audience group, by scenario 27
  28. 28. Key Evaluation Criteria for an Incident Notification System• Experience and expertise• Ease of use• Ability to reach all contact paths, including voice, email, native SMS (over SMPP and SMTP), IM, and more• Ease of integration 28
  29. 29. Q&A Note: slides are currently available to everyone on Use the Q&A function to submit your questions. 29
  30. 30. Communication resourcesContact information Upcoming webinars: 9/11 – Looking back on what has changed in the last 10 years (September) White papers, literature, case studies C. Chandler, Ph.D. Follow blog.everbridge.com1.407.823.2683 Ladinmarc.ladin@everbridge.com1.818.230.9700 Reminder Everbridge Insights webinars qualify for Continuing Education Activity Points (CEAPs) for DRII certifications. Visit to register your credit. Item Number (Schedule II): 26.3 Activity Group: A 1 Point for each webinar