Student LearningLecture Slides & Resources: http://goo.gl/Tjmu0
Overview                                  H op                                lens efully a                               ...
ObjectivesUnderstand underlying principles of Response toIntervention and how the principles apply toacademics and behavio...
Response to InterventionWhat is it?What do you know about Response toIntervention?
RtIFederal IDEA Rules  RTI is one of the methods that states must permit  for the identification of SLD (34 C.F.R. 300.307 ...
RtISome states restricted practices further and all studentsare identified as Learning Disabled under RtIIn Michigan our gu...
RtINo matter what RtI is called...    provide services and interventions to ALL students, including    students who strugg...
RtI - Essential ElementsEssential elements of RTI approach are:   providing scientific, research-based instruction   and in...
RtI Tier IUniversal screening - screening of allstudents at least 3 to 4 times a year usingcurriculum based measures.Unive...
RtI - Tier II & Tier III               Change in the instruction -               again still has to be researched-        ...
RtI ChallengesOften missing pieces are:  tiered interventions  limited fidelity of interventions  re-teaching a skill in th...
We’ve RtI’d. Now what?RtI does not replace a comprehensive evaluationEven when RtI is done well most people still wantto u...
Specific Learning Disabilities"The term "specific learning disability" means a disorder inone or more of the basic psycholog...
SLDIDEA breakdowns academic functioning in to 8 areas:   oral expression, listening comprehension, written   expression, b...
What types of cognitive abilities do you already know about?
Catell-Horn-Carroll3 stratums  stratum I = g - general intelligence  stratum II = broad abilities  stratum III = narrow ab...
CHCConsiderable evidence that both broad and narrow CHCcognitive abilities and processes explain a significant portionof va...
WISC-IV vs WJ-CogWISC-IV omits Auditory Processing(Ga), Long-Term Retrieval (Glr),Combines Visual Processing (Gv) andFluid...
Woodcock-Johnson Test of Cognitive Abilities   Battery of test measuring cognitive abilities and related   aspects of cogn...
Crystallized Intelligence     Synonyms, Antonyms, Picture Vocabulary, how objects are used, where objects are found.Long-T...
Woodcock Johnson - Test of Academic Achievement   Often cited as one of the most widely   used and respected individual   ...
Case Study
Take AwaysAs School Social Worker you need to understandhow RtI applies to academics and behaviorHave multiple data source...
Emily Verbeke  emverbeke@gmail.com  Twitter: @everbeke
CitationsDawn, Flanagan P., Samuel O. Ortiz, Vincent C. Alfonso, and Agnieszka M. Dynda. "Best Practices in CognitiveAsses...
SLD Lecture
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SLD Lecture

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SLD Guest Lecture given to U of M School of Social Work

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  • Benchmarks\nCurriculum-Based Measurement\nData-based Decision making\nFidelity of Implementation\nIntervention\nProgress Monitoring\nScientific, Research-Based Instruction\nUniversal Screening\n\n
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  • lots of districts/buildings say they're doing RtI but it is really hard to do RtI well.  \nFidelity - (not implemented the way they're supposed to be implemented)\nReteaching - just in a small group isn't an intervention\n\n
  • I still see great value in cognitive assessments to understand "why". \nComing out of RtI you should have a good idea of where academic strengths and weaknesses lie however there is often still a struggle of isolating basic reading skills, reading comprehension and reading fluency.\n
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  • - You need to know when a parent tells you “do you think my child has dyslexia” that no one in the school will provide that diagnosis\n\nUnderachievement in oral expression or listening comprehension alone may qualify a child as having SLD, but such a profile would more aptly be classified under the category of speech and language impairment.  This requires collaboration with Speech and Language pathologist who have technical expertise in various dimensions of speech and language functioning.  \n
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  • SLD Lecture

    1. 1. Student LearningLecture Slides & Resources: http://goo.gl/Tjmu0
    2. 2. Overview H op lens efully a e of ll w to S impo ith aRtI cho Wor ol S rtance o kers cialSpecific Learning DisabilitiesCHC Theory Woodcock-Johnson Cognitive Battery Woodcock-Johnson Academic Battery
    3. 3. ObjectivesUnderstand underlying principles of Response toIntervention and how the principles apply toacademics and behavior.Understand how RtI fits with cognitive assessment.Understand CHC theory, how it is measured invarious cognitive assessments and that not allcognitive assessments measure the same cognitiveareas.Understand how WJ-Achievement battery supportscollected RtI data.
    4. 4. Response to InterventionWhat is it?What do you know about Response toIntervention?
    5. 5. RtIFederal IDEA Rules RTI is one of the methods that states must permit for the identification of SLD (34 C.F.R. 300.307 and 309); and perhaps most important, © "[p]rior to or as part of the referral process, data-based documentation of repeated assessments of achievement as reasonable intervals, reflecting formal assessment of student progress during instruction, was provided to the childs parents" (34. C.F.R. 300.309)
    6. 6. RtISome states restricted practices further and all studentsare identified as Learning Disabled under RtIIn Michigan our guidelines match closely to federal rules. Michigan Administrative Rules for Special Education MI Criteria for Existence of SLDRtI Goes by several different names depending on states,districts, etc.  Responsiveness to Intervention Multi-Tiered System of Support
    7. 7. RtINo matter what RtI is called... provide services and interventions to ALL students, including students who struggle with learning (both academic and behavior) Improve the early identification and support of students with learning and behavior needs, including need for special educationRtI is appropriate for all grade levels and content areas (againincluding behavior) but most often used for reading or mathStudent progress is closely monitored at each stage of interventionand results are used to make decision about the need for furtherresearch-based instruction and/or intervention in general education
    8. 8. RtI - Essential ElementsEssential elements of RTI approach are: providing scientific, research-based instruction and interventions in general education monitoring and measuring student progress in response to the instruction and interventions using these measures of student progress to shape instruction and make educational decisions Klotz, M.B., Canter, A (2007) "Response to Intervention (RTI) A Primer for Parents" National Association of School Psychologists
    9. 9. RtI Tier IUniversal screening - screening of allstudents at least 3 to 4 times a year usingcurriculum based measures.Universal screening scores are comparedto benchmark standards.All students receive high-quality,scientifically based instruction - this is theschool and districts core curriculumStudents MUST receive tier I instructionTier I differentiated instruction, andinstruction building upon universal designfor learning principals is much of whatteachers are already doing and is NOT inaddition to what theyre doing already.  
    10. 10. RtI - Tier II & Tier III Change in the instruction - again still has to be researched- based instruction/intervention Either frequency, intensity, and/ or duration is increased when moving in to tier 2 and frequency, intensity, and/or duration is increased again to be a tier 3 intervention.   Tier 3 is not necessarily only for special education students. Depends on the districts model and/or philosophy.
    11. 11. RtI ChallengesOften missing pieces are: tiered interventions limited fidelity of interventions re-teaching a skill in the same way inadequate goal setting - expecting student to be "at grade level" after just 6-8 weeks
    12. 12. We’ve RtI’d. Now what?RtI does not replace a comprehensive evaluationEven when RtI is done well most people still wantto understand the "why" to a childs struggles.  Some districts choose to take a lack of learningas being evidence enough to show a learningdisabilityResearch supports cognitive assessments"explaining" of academic difficulties
    13. 13. Specific Learning Disabilities"The term "specific learning disability" means a disorder inone or more of the basic psychological processes involved inunderstanding or in using language, spoken or written, whichdisorder may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen,think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematicalcalculations.  Such term includes such conditions as perceptualdisabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexiaand developmental aphasia. Such team does not include alearning disability that is primarily the result of visual,hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, ofemotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, oreconomic disadvantage" (IDEA Sec.602(30(A-C))).
    14. 14. SLDIDEA breakdowns academic functioning in to 8 areas: oral expression, listening comprehension, written expression, basic reading skill, reading fluency skills, reading comprehension, mathematics calculation, and mathematics problem solving. Dyslexia is a narrow sense to refer to an impairment inphonological processing that interferes with accurate andfluent word recognition.In maintaining educational orientation, School Psychologistsuse the terms Reading Disability, Writing Disability, and MathDisability rather than dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia.
    15. 15. What types of cognitive abilities do you already know about?
    16. 16. Catell-Horn-Carroll3 stratums stratum I = g - general intelligence stratum II = broad abilities stratum III = narrow abilitiesCHC abilities and definitions continue tobe updated. 
    17. 17. CHCConsiderable evidence that both broad and narrow CHCcognitive abilities and processes explain a significant portionof variance in specific academic abilities over and above the avariance account for general intelligence (g)Prior to 2000 the majority of intelligence batteries did notmeasure Gf, Gsm, Glr, Ga and Gs well which is concerningsince those are are impotent in predicting and understandingschool achievement.  Gf is often considered to be the essence of intelligence, but itwas not measured or adequately measured by mot intelligencebatteries such as the WISC-III, WAIS-R, WPPSI-R, KABC, CAS(Alfonso et al, 2005)
    18. 18. WISC-IV vs WJ-CogWISC-IV omits Auditory Processing(Ga), Long-Term Retrieval (Glr),Combines Visual Processing (Gv) andFluid Reasoning (Gf).  Measures Short-Term Memory (Gsm),Processing Speed (Gs) and CrystallizedIntelligence (Gc) similar to the WJ Cog
    19. 19. Woodcock-Johnson Test of Cognitive Abilities Battery of test measuring cognitive abilities and related aspects of cognitive functioning (Woodcock, 1992) Conformed with the Woodcock-Johnson III tests of Achievement to form a complete Woodcock-Johnson III.   Using the COG and ACH together can help provide an accurate picture of an individuals cognitive abilities, oral language ability and achievement. Based on the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities.   All three stratum areas represented in the WJ Cog
    20. 20. Crystallized Intelligence Synonyms, Antonyms, Picture Vocabulary, how objects are used, where objects are found.Long-Term Retrieval Recall of learned associations, recall of previously learned associationsVisual Processing visual memory, visual processAuditory Processing sound blending, sound discriminationFluid Reasoning deductive reasoning, inductive reasoningShort-Term Memory working memory, memory spanProcessing Speed perceptual speed
    21. 21. Woodcock Johnson - Test of Academic Achievement Often cited as one of the most widely used and respected individual achievement tests Tests are organized in to 5 areas: reading, mathematics, written language, knowledge, and oral language
    22. 22. Case Study
    23. 23. Take AwaysAs School Social Worker you need to understandhow RtI applies to academics and behaviorHave multiple data sources and know thatcognitive assessments provide only one source ofdata to inform SLD determinationDepending upon the students response to qualityinstruction and/or scientifically basedintervention, cognitive assessment may or maynot be relevant.  
    24. 24. Emily Verbeke emverbeke@gmail.com Twitter: @everbeke
    25. 25. CitationsDawn, Flanagan P., Samuel O. Ortiz, Vincent C. Alfonso, and Agnieszka M. Dynda. "Best Practices in CognitiveAssessment." Best Practices in School Psychology, V. By Alex Thomas and Jeff Grimes. Vol. 2. Bethesda, MD: NationalAssociation of School Psychologists, 2008. 633-60. Print.Lichtenstein, Robert. "Best Practices in Identification of Learning Disabilities." Best Practices in School Psychology, V. ByAlex Thomas and Jeff Grimes. Vol. 2. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists, 2008. 295-318. Print.Mather, Nancy, and Lynne Jaffe. Woodcock-Johnson III: Reports, Recommendations, and Strategies. New York: Wiley,2002. Print.Mather, Nancy, Barbara J. Wendling, and Richard W. Woodcock. Essentials of WJ III Tests of Achievement Assessment.New York: J. Wiley, 2001. Print.Flanagan, Dawn P., Samuel O. Ortiz, and Vincent C. Alfonso. Essentials of Cross-battery Assessment with CD. Hoboken,NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2007. Print.Schrank, Fredrick A. Essentials of WJ III Cognitive Abilities Assessment. New York, NY: Wiley, 2002. Print.

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