Benchmarks\nCurriculum-Based Measurement\nData-based Decision making\nFidelity of Implementation\nIntervention\nProgress Monitoring\nScientific, Research-Based Instruction\nUniversal Screening\n\n
lots of districts/buildings say they're doing RtI but it is really hard to do RtI well. &#xA0;\nFidelity - (not implemented the way they're supposed to be implemented)\nReteaching - just in a small group isn't an intervention\n\n
I still see great value in cognitive assessments to understand "why". \nComing out of RtI you should have a good idea of where academic strengths and weaknesses lie however there is often still a struggle of isolating basic reading skills, reading comprehension and reading fluency.\n
- You need to know when a parent tells you &#x201C;do you think my child has dyslexia&#x201D; that no one in the school will provide that diagnosis\n\nUnderachievement in oral expression or listening comprehension alone may qualify a child as having SLD, but such a profile would more aptly be classified under the category of speech and language impairment. &#xA0;This requires collaboration with Speech and Language pathologist who have technical expertise in various dimensions of speech and language functioning. &#xA0;\n
Overview H op lens efully a e of ll w to S impo ith aRtI cho Wor ol S rtance o kers cialSpeciﬁc Learning DisabilitiesCHC Theory Woodcock-Johnson Cognitive Battery Woodcock-Johnson Academic Battery
ObjectivesUnderstand underlying principles of Response toIntervention and how the principles apply toacademics and behavior.Understand how RtI ﬁts with cognitive assessment.Understand CHC theory, how it is measured invarious cognitive assessments and that not allcognitive assessments measure the same cognitiveareas.Understand how WJ-Achievement battery supportscollected RtI data.
Response to InterventionWhat is it?What do you know about Response toIntervention?
RtISome states restricted practices further and all studentsare identiﬁed as Learning Disabled under RtIIn Michigan our guidelines match closely to federal rules. Michigan Administrative Rules for Special Education MI Criteria for Existence of SLDRtI Goes by several different names depending on states,districts, etc. Responsiveness to Intervention Multi-Tiered System of Support
RtINo matter what RtI is called... provide services and interventions to ALL students, including students who struggle with learning (both academic and behavior) Improve the early identiﬁcation and support of students with learning and behavior needs, including need for special educationRtI is appropriate for all grade levels and content areas (againincluding behavior) but most often used for reading or mathStudent progress is closely monitored at each stage of interventionand results are used to make decision about the need for furtherresearch-based instruction and/or intervention in general education
RtI - Essential ElementsEssential elements of RTI approach are: providing scientiﬁc, research-based instruction and interventions in general education monitoring and measuring student progress in response to the instruction and interventions using these measures of student progress to shape instruction and make educational decisions Klotz, M.B., Canter, A (2007) "Response to Intervention (RTI) A Primer for Parents" National Association of School Psychologists
RtI Tier IUniversal screening - screening of allstudents at least 3 to 4 times a year usingcurriculum based measures.Universal screening scores are comparedto benchmark standards.All students receive high-quality,scientiﬁcally based instruction - this is theschool and districts core curriculumStudents MUST receive tier I instructionTier I differentiated instruction, andinstruction building upon universal designfor learning principals is much of whatteachers are already doing and is NOT inaddition to what theyre doing already.
RtI - Tier II & Tier III Change in the instruction - again still has to be researched- based instruction/intervention Either frequency, intensity, and/ or duration is increased when moving in to tier 2 and frequency, intensity, and/or duration is increased again to be a tier 3 intervention. Tier 3 is not necessarily only for special education students. Depends on the districts model and/or philosophy.
RtI ChallengesOften missing pieces are: tiered interventions limited ﬁdelity of interventions re-teaching a skill in the same way inadequate goal setting - expecting student to be "at grade level" after just 6-8 weeks
We’ve RtI’d. Now what?RtI does not replace a comprehensive evaluationEven when RtI is done well most people still wantto understand the "why" to a childs struggles. Some districts choose to take a lack of learningas being evidence enough to show a learningdisabilityResearch supports cognitive assessments"explaining" of academic difﬁculties
Speciﬁc Learning Disabilities"The term "speciﬁc learning disability" means a disorder inone or more of the basic psychological processes involved inunderstanding or in using language, spoken or written, whichdisorder may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen,think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematicalcalculations. Such term includes such conditions as perceptualdisabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexiaand developmental aphasia. Such team does not include alearning disability that is primarily the result of visual,hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, ofemotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, oreconomic disadvantage" (IDEA Sec.602(30(A-C))).
SLDIDEA breakdowns academic functioning in to 8 areas: oral expression, listening comprehension, written expression, basic reading skill, reading ﬂuency skills, reading comprehension, mathematics calculation, and mathematics problem solving. Dyslexia is a narrow sense to refer to an impairment inphonological processing that interferes with accurate andﬂuent word recognition.In maintaining educational orientation, School Psychologistsuse the terms Reading Disability, Writing Disability, and MathDisability rather than dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia.
What types of cognitive abilities do you already know about?
Catell-Horn-Carroll3 stratums stratum I = g - general intelligence stratum II = broad abilities stratum III = narrow abilitiesCHC abilities and deﬁnitions continue tobe updated.
CHCConsiderable evidence that both broad and narrow CHCcognitive abilities and processes explain a signiﬁcant portionof variance in speciﬁc academic abilities over and above the avariance account for general intelligence (g)Prior to 2000 the majority of intelligence batteries did notmeasure Gf, Gsm, Glr, Ga and Gs well which is concerningsince those are are impotent in predicting and understandingschool achievement. Gf is often considered to be the essence of intelligence, but itwas not measured or adequately measured by mot intelligencebatteries such as the WISC-III, WAIS-R, WPPSI-R, KABC, CAS(Alfonso et al, 2005)
WISC-IV vs WJ-CogWISC-IV omits Auditory Processing(Ga), Long-Term Retrieval (Glr),Combines Visual Processing (Gv) andFluid Reasoning (Gf). Measures Short-Term Memory (Gsm),Processing Speed (Gs) and CrystallizedIntelligence (Gc) similar to the WJ Cog
Woodcock-Johnson Test of Cognitive Abilities Battery of test measuring cognitive abilities and related aspects of cognitive functioning (Woodcock, 1992) Conformed with the Woodcock-Johnson III tests of Achievement to form a complete Woodcock-Johnson III. Using the COG and ACH together can help provide an accurate picture of an individuals cognitive abilities, oral language ability and achievement. Based on the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities. All three stratum areas represented in the WJ Cog
Crystallized Intelligence Synonyms, Antonyms, Picture Vocabulary, how objects are used, where objects are found.Long-Term Retrieval Recall of learned associations, recall of previously learned associationsVisual Processing visual memory, visual processAuditory Processing sound blending, sound discriminationFluid Reasoning deductive reasoning, inductive reasoningShort-Term Memory working memory, memory spanProcessing Speed perceptual speed
Woodcock Johnson - Test of Academic Achievement Often cited as one of the most widely used and respected individual achievement tests Tests are organized in to 5 areas: reading, mathematics, written language, knowledge, and oral language
Take AwaysAs School Social Worker you need to understandhow RtI applies to academics and behaviorHave multiple data sources and know thatcognitive assessments provide only one source ofdata to inform SLD determinationDepending upon the students response to qualityinstruction and/or scientiﬁcally basedintervention, cognitive assessment may or maynot be relevant.
CitationsDawn, Flanagan P., Samuel O. Ortiz, Vincent C. Alfonso, and Agnieszka M. Dynda. "Best Practices in CognitiveAssessment." Best Practices in School Psychology, V. By Alex Thomas and Jeff Grimes. Vol. 2. Bethesda, MD: NationalAssociation of School Psychologists, 2008. 633-60. Print.Lichtenstein, Robert. "Best Practices in Identification of Learning Disabilities." Best Practices in School Psychology, V. ByAlex Thomas and Jeff Grimes. Vol. 2. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists, 2008. 295-318. Print.Mather, Nancy, and Lynne Jaffe. Woodcock-Johnson III: Reports, Recommendations, and Strategies. New York: Wiley,2002. Print.Mather, Nancy, Barbara J. Wendling, and Richard W. Woodcock. Essentials of WJ III Tests of Achievement Assessment.New York: J. Wiley, 2001. Print.Flanagan, Dawn P., Samuel O. Ortiz, and Vincent C. Alfonso. Essentials of Cross-battery Assessment with CD. Hoboken,NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2007. Print.Schrank, Fredrick A. Essentials of WJ III Cognitive Abilities Assessment. New York, NY: Wiley, 2002. Print.