Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Social media in C2:
Proof-of-principle experiment
Tim Grant, Fred Geugies, Peter Jongejan
r̅
Overview
• Goals:
– To describe proof-of-principle experiment to test
extended framework for C2 using social media (SM)
• ...
Theory (1)
Baden-Baden, 15 May 13
Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment
3
Citizen1 Citizenn
Building
situation...
Theory (2)
Baden-Baden, 15 May 13
Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment
4
Receiver
Organization Citizen
Sender...
Theory (3)
Baden-Baden, 15 May 13
Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment
5
Mintzberg, 1980
C-level (CEO, CFO, C...
Theory (4)
Baden-Baden, 15 May 13
Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment
6
Receiver
Organisations Citizens
CP P...
Theory (5)
Baden-Baden, 15 May 13
Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment
7
observations
instructions
outputs
in...
Proof-of-principle (1)
• Proof-of-principle:
– “Realization of idea, concept, or theory to
demonstrate feasibility or pote...
Proof-of-principle (2)
• Experiment design:
– Scenario:
• Transporting food by truck from Port Sudan to Darfur
– Simulated...
Proof-of-principle (3)
Baden-Baden, 15 May 13
Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment
10
NGO HQ in Europe
(CP)
T...
Proof-of-principle (4)
Baden-Baden, 15 May 13
Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment
11
Geugies, 2012
Proof-of-principle (5)
Baden-Baden, 15 May 13
Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment
12
Twitter (comms)
CrowdMa...
Proof-of-principle (6)
Baden-Baden, 15 May 13
Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment
13
Geugies, 2012
Proof-of-principle (7)
• Results (1/2) – N.B. triangulation:
– (Subjective) Questionnaires:
• Positive:
– Benefit (3); sel...
Proof-of-principle (8)
• Results (2/2):
– (Objective) Numbers of messages:
Baden-Baden, 15 May 13
Social media in C2: Proo...
Conclusions & limitations
• Conclusions:
– Proof of principle supports theoretical framework
– SM technology aligned to ne...
Further research
• Contribution:
– Further research into social media in C2 is justified
• Possible further research:
– Ra...
Any questions?
Tim Grant
Professor emeritus
Retired But Active Researcher (R-BAR)
tim.grant.work@gmail.com
+31 (0)638 193 ...
Reserve slides
Theory (7)
Level Description
TRL 1 Basic principles observed and reported
TRL 2 Technology concept and/or application form...
John Wayne 2.0
Baden-Baden, 15 May 13
Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment
21
Collignon, Volkskrant, 2013
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

ISCRAM 2013: Social media in C2 Proof-of-principle experiment

362 views

Published on

Author: Tim Grant, Fred Geugies, Peter Jongejan

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

ISCRAM 2013: Social media in C2 Proof-of-principle experiment

  1. 1. Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment Tim Grant, Fred Geugies, Peter Jongejan r̅
  2. 2. Overview • Goals: – To describe proof-of-principle experiment to test extended framework for C2 using social media (SM) • Outline: – Relevant theory – Proof-of-principle experiment: • Design • Performance • Results & analysis – Conclusions & further research Baden-Baden, 15 May 13 Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment 2
  3. 3. Theory (1) Baden-Baden, 15 May 13 Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment 3 Citizen1 Citizenn Building situation awareness (a) Integration, aggregation and validation of citizen generated content Early warning; Instructions (b) Citizen Communication Sender Citizen Organizations Organizations Citizen Receiver Reuter, Marx & Pipek, 2011 (c) Self Help Communities “Run uphill to escape tsunami” Organization (d) Inter- organizational Crisis Management Inter-organizational communication
  4. 4. Theory (2) Baden-Baden, 15 May 13 Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment 4 Receiver Organization Citizen Sender Citizen White et al (2009) Starbird & Pane (2010) Starbird & Stamberger (2010) Bajpal & Jaiswal (2010) Latonero & Shklovski (2010) Tapia et al (2011) Wiedenhöfer et al (2011) Thomson et al (2012) Starbird Muzny & Palen (2012) Denis et al (2012) Terpstra et al (2012) Zielinski & Bügel (2012) Manso & Manso (2012) Addams-Moring (2007) Vieweg et al (2008) Liu et al (2008) Sutton et al (2008) Hughes et al (2008) Hughes & Palen (2009) Kavanaugh et al (2010) Sutton (2010) Perng et al (2012) Kavanaugh et al (2012) Organization Montells et al (2006) Reuter et al (2009) Manso & Manso (2012) (intra-org only) Valtonen et al (2004) Addams-Moring et al (2005) Eysink Smeets & Sillem (2005) Wood (2005) Zimmerman (2005) Sillem & Wiersma (2006) Seddign et al (2006) Latonero & Shklovski (2010) Kelley et al (2011) Wiedenhöfer et al (2011) Denis et al (2012) Nilsson et al (2012) Sutto et al (2012) Manso & Manso (2012)
  5. 5. Theory (3) Baden-Baden, 15 May 13 Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment 5 Mintzberg, 1980 C-level (CEO, CFO, CIO) (i.e. policy makers) Back-office First responders / onsite / employees in the field (front-office) (Process Under Control) Controllers / commanders (line-managers) (Controlling Process)
  6. 6. Theory (4) Baden-Baden, 15 May 13 Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment 6 Receiver Organisations Citizens CP PUC Sender Citizens (N/A) (a) Citizen-generated content (c) Self-help Organisations PUC Observations (SITREPs) On-site / self- synchronisation (could be seen as (d) intra-organisational coordination) (b) Citizen communications CP (d) Inter- organisational coordination Instructions (Op Orders / plans) (N/A) Jongejan & Grant, 2012
  7. 7. Theory (5) Baden-Baden, 15 May 13 Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment 7 observations instructions outputs inputs Controlling Process Process Under Control Environment Organization Citizens Focus of our research Past research
  8. 8. Proof-of-principle (1) • Proof-of-principle: – “Realization of idea, concept, or theory to demonstrate feasibility or potential for use” – Characteristics: • Small prima facie experiment • Raises technology readiness level (TRL): – TRL 2: Technology concept formulated (Jongejan & Grant, 2012) – TRL 3: Analytical & experimental proof of concept – “Faster, better, cheaper” = new vs. old: • Condition A: legacy C2 technology (e-mail, paper maps) • Condition B: social media in C2 (Twitter, CrowdMap) Baden-Baden, 15 May 13 Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment 8 Wikipedia, 2013 Mankins, 1995
  9. 9. Proof-of-principle (2) • Experiment design: – Scenario: • Transporting food by truck from Port Sudan to Darfur – Simulated organization: • CP: NGO HQ in Europe • PUCs in Sudan: Truck convoy, fuel supplier, & NGO rep • Command Post Exercise (CPX); rest hand-simulated – Human subjects: • Officer-cadets: – Early 20’s; 3rd /4th year; digital natives; selected on availability – Trained in network-enabled (military) C2 Baden-Baden, 15 May 13 Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment 9
  10. 10. Proof-of-principle (3) Baden-Baden, 15 May 13 Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment 10 NGO HQ in Europe (CP) Truck convoy (PUC1) Diesel fuel supplier (PUC2) Rep in Khartoum (PUC3) Geugies, 2012 Email: up & down hierarchy (Condition A) SM: across hierarchy (“network-centric” / “self-synchronisation” / ”empowered”) (and up & down hierarchy if so addressed using @) (Condition B)
  11. 11. Proof-of-principle (4) Baden-Baden, 15 May 13 Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment 11 Geugies, 2012
  12. 12. Proof-of-principle (5) Baden-Baden, 15 May 13 Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment 12 Twitter (comms) CrowdMap (SA) Geugies, 2012
  13. 13. Proof-of-principle (6) Baden-Baden, 15 May 13 Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment 13 Geugies, 2012
  14. 14. Proof-of-principle (7) • Results (1/2) – N.B. triangulation: – (Subjective) Questionnaires: • Positive: – Benefit (3); self-synchronization (1); overview (1) • Negative: – Security (1); information overload (1); need clear jargon (1) – (Objective) Predicted vs actual (simulated) times: Baden-Baden, 15 May 13 Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment 14 Geugies, 2012 Condition A (email) Condition B (SM) Predicted time 5 days 5 hours 4 days 8 hours Actual time 5 days 5 hours 4 days 6½ hours
  15. 15. Proof-of-principle (8) • Results (2/2): – (Objective) Numbers of messages: Baden-Baden, 15 May 13 Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment 15 Geugies, 2012 Actor Messages sent Messages received Condition A Condition B Condition A Condition B CP (NGO HQ) 24 5 (intent 1) 27 23 PUC1 (trucks) 26 37 32 23 PUC2 (fuel) 10 11 17 18 PUC3 (rep) 4 8 8 9 Totals: 64 61 84 73
  16. 16. Conclusions & limitations • Conclusions: – Proof of principle supports theoretical framework – SM technology aligned to network-centric “business model”: • Facilitates self-synchronization / empowerment • Limitations: – No replication – Same subjects ran Condition A followed by Condition B: • Countered learning effect by extra event in Condition B • Anticipated learning by predicting shorter makespan, Condition B – Hence, claiming only proof of principle: • IF use SM technology AND users trained in network-enabled C2 Baden-Baden, 15 May 13 Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment 16
  17. 17. Further research • Contribution: – Further research into social media in C2 is justified • Possible further research: – Raising TRL: Concept Development & Experimentation (CDE) – Socio-organizational issues: • Harnessing wisdom of the crowd • Roles for volunteers • Recruiting & training digital natives – Fit with other technologies: • Bring Your Own Device • App stores (for crisis response & management) • Natural language processing (speech to text; extract geo info) – Peter and I seek collaborators! Baden-Baden, 15 May 13 17
  18. 18. Any questions? Tim Grant Professor emeritus Retired But Active Researcher (R-BAR) tim.grant.work@gmail.com +31 (0)638 193 749
  19. 19. Reserve slides
  20. 20. Theory (7) Level Description TRL 1 Basic principles observed and reported TRL 2 Technology concept and/or application formulated TRL 3 Analytical & experimental function and/or characteristic proof-of-concept TRL 4 Component and/or breadboard validation in laboratory environment TRL 5 Component and/or breadboard validation in relevant environment TRL 6 System/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in relevant environment TRL 7 System prototype demonstration in space [i.e. operational] environment TRL 8 Actual system completed and flight-qualified through test & demonstration TRL 9 Actual system flight-proven through successful mission operations Baden-Baden, 15 May 13 Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment 20 Mankins, 1995 (ESA variant)
  21. 21. John Wayne 2.0 Baden-Baden, 15 May 13 Social media in C2: Proof-of-principle experiment 21 Collignon, Volkskrant, 2013

×