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C:\Documents And Settings\Sebas\Escritorio\America English

  1. 2. Presented by Lic. Luis Alberto Camacho Campos [email_address] THE DIFFERENCES IN AMERICAN ENGLISH AND BRITISH ENGLISH
  2. 3. Overview <ul><li>Varieties of English </li></ul><ul><li>What do we mean by American English and British English? </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of knowing these differences </li></ul><ul><li>Historical background </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical differences </li></ul><ul><li>Differences of vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Differences of spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Differences of pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>Recap </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to an audio clip on these differences </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul>
  3. 4. Importance of knowing the differences <ul><li>The two varieties of English most widely found in print and taught around the world are British and American - it is therefore important for everybody to be aware of the major differences between the two. And while lexical differences are the easiest ones to notice, a knowledge of grammatical and phonological differences can be useful not only for teachers to be aware of, but also to be able to deal with should they come up in class. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of awareness can lead to embarrassment and confusion. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Formalizing the differences <ul><li>One particular contribution towards formalizing these differences came from Noah Webster , who wrote the first American dictionary (published 1828) with the intention of showing that people in the United States spoke a different dialect from Britain. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Henry Sweet predicted in 1877 that within a century, American English, Australian English and British English would be mutually unintelligible . It may be the case that increased worldwide communication through radio, television, the Internet, and globalization has reduced the tendency to regional variation .
  6. 7. What do we mean by American English and British English?
  7. 8. American English <ul><li>American English (AmE) </li></ul><ul><li>is the form of English used in the United State. It includes all English dialects used within the United States of America </li></ul><ul><li>Regional dialects in the United States typically reflect the elements of the language of the main immigrant groups in any particular region of the country, especially in terms of pronunciation and vernacular vocabulary. Scholars have mapped at least four major regional variations of spoken American English: Northern (really north-eastern), Southern, Midland, and Western. </li></ul>
  8. 9. British English <ul><li>British English also has a reasonable degree of uniformity in its formal written form. The spoken forms though vary considerably, reflecting a long history of dialect development amid isolated populations. Dialects and accents vary not only between the countries in the United Kingdom, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, but also within these individual countries. </li></ul><ul><li>There are also differences in the English spoken by different socio-economic groups </li></ul>
  9. 10. Areas of Differences <ul><li>Differences between the two include </li></ul><ul><li>pronunciation, </li></ul><ul><li>grammar </li></ul><ul><li>vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>spelling </li></ul><ul><li>punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>idioms </li></ul><ul><li>formatting of dates and numbers </li></ul>
  10. 11. Grammatical Differences In British English and American English
  11. 12. Simple past tense for present perfect <ul><li>Speakers of American English generally use the present perfect tense (have/has + past participle) far less than speakers of British English. In spoken American English it is very common to use the simple past tense as an alternative in situations where the present perfect would usually have been used in British English. </li></ul>
  12. 13. EXAMPLES BRITISH ENGLISH AMERICAN ENGLISH Have you finished your work? Did you finish your work? I‘ve already seen that film. I already saw that film. I‘ve just had lunch. I just had lunch.
  13. 14. Some more examples BRITISH ENGLISH AMERICAN ENGLISH <ul><li>  Jenny feels ill. She's eaten too much.  </li></ul><ul><li>Jenny feels ill. She ate too much.  </li></ul><ul><li>I can't find my keys. Have you seen them anywhere? </li></ul><ul><li>I can't find my keys. Did you see them anywhere? </li></ul><ul><li>A: Is Samantha here? </li></ul><ul><li>B: No, she's just left. </li></ul><ul><li>A: Is Samantha here? </li></ul><ul><li>B: No, she just left. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Some more examples <ul><li>A: Can I borrow your book? </li></ul><ul><li>B: No, I haven't read it yet </li></ul><ul><li>A: Can I borrow your book? </li></ul><ul><li>B: No, I didn't read it yet. </li></ul><ul><li>A: Are they going to the show tonight? </li></ul><ul><li>B: No. They've already seen it. </li></ul><ul><li>A: Are they going to the show tonight? </li></ul><ul><li>B: No. They already saw it. </li></ul>
  15. 16. The verb “get” AMERICAN ENGLISH BRITISH ENGLISH He has gotten much better at playing tennis He has got much better at playing tennis.
  16. 17. Have you got/ do you have <ul><li>In AmE ‘have’ and forms with do/does/did are the usual way to show possession, etc,in positive statements,negatives and questions. Have got is not used in questions but is used in positive statements,especially to emphasise that somebody has one thing rather than the other. “Does your brother have brown hair”?. “No, he has got blond hair.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Have you got” is the usual verb in BrE to show possession,etc, in positve statements in the present tense, in negative statements and in the questions. </li></ul>
  17. 18. have you got/ do you have They have got a wonderful house. (BrE) They have a wonderful house.(AmE) Have you got a meeting today? Do you have a meeting today? I have got no objection. I have no objection.(formal) We don’t have a television
  18. 19. <ul><li>In British English collective nouns, (i.e. nouns referring to particular groups of people or things), (e.g. staff , government, class, team) can be followed by a singular or plural verb depending on whether the group is thought of as one idea, or as many individuals , e.g.: </li></ul><ul><li>My team is winning. The other team are all sitting down. In American English collective nouns are always followed by a singular verb, so an American would usually say: </li></ul><ul><li>Which team is losing? whereas in British English both plural and singular forms of the verb are possible, according to whether the emphasis is, respectively, on the body as a whole or on the individual members as in: </li></ul><ul><li>Which team is/are losing? </li></ul>Collective nouns
  19. 20. Examples <ul><li>committee was appointed </li></ul><ul><li>the committee were unable to agree </li></ul><ul><li>Compare also the following lines of Elvis Costello 's song &quot;Oliver's Army&quot;: Oliver's Army are on their way / Oliver's Army is here to stay . Some of these nouns, for example staff , actually combine with plural verbs most of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>In AmE, collective nouns are usually singular in construction: the committee was unable to agree </li></ul><ul><li>the team takes their seats </li></ul>
  20. 21. The Differences of Vocabulary In British English and American English
  21. 22. CLOTHES BRITISH ENGLISH AMERICAN ENGLISH trousers pants tie necktie vest undershirt waistcoat vest nightdress nightgown tracksuit Sweats/sweatsuit/sweatpants Jumper sweater Pinafore Jumper ( a dress without sleeve worn over a shirt) Wellies Boot/ galoshes spectacles glasses Pants Underwear/underpants/boxers
  22. 23. TRANSPORTATION BRITISH AMERICAN indicator blinker Handbrake Emergency brake boot trunk Numberplate License plate tyre tire bonnet hood windscreen windshield lorries trucks Tram( an elctric vehicle) Trolley( an electric vehicle) accelerator Gas pedal
  23. 24. TRANSPORTATION BRITISH AMERICAN lorries trucks coach Bus Overtake/pull out pass Underground subway motorway Freeway / Highway Wing mirror Side mirror Gear stick Gear shift flyover overpass Cycle path Bicycle route
  24. 25. BUILDINGS BRITISH AMERICAN Tv aerial Tv antena flat apartment Block of flats Apartment buildings pavement Sidewalk fence Picket fence Dustbin/ bin Garbage can/ wastebasket elevator Lift tap Faucet pram Baby carriage cooker stove
  25. 26. MISCELLANEOUS BRITISH Laundry basket row tin mince biscuit rubber torch chips handbag AMERICAN hamper argument can Chopped beef cookie eraser flashlight fries purse
  26. 27. MISCELLANEOUS BRITISH University Public school Toilet / lavotary/Gents/ Ladies/ WC/ Loo coach Hat stand Notice board trolley cot AMERICAN college Private school Bathroom /restroom/ Washroom Bus Coat stand Bulletin board Shopping cart Crib( a small bed for a child)
  27. 28. MISCELLANEOUS BRITISH AMERICAN banknotes bills solicitor lawyer Bloke/ chap guy Mobile phone Cellular phone post mail football soccer maize corn tortoise turtle Jam jelly Queue line
  28. 29. MISCELLANEOUS BRITISH AMERICAN cinema Movie theatre/ movies hoover vacuum zip zipper bung stopper garden yard Watch strap watchband letterbox Mail slot Frying pan skillet worktop counter
  29. 30. Sources <ul><li>Review of Gimson, A. C. ( 1980). An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English, 3rd edn., London: Edward Arnold. </li></ul><ul><li>Review of Kenyon, John Samuel (1950). American Pronunciation, 10th edn., Ann Arbor: George Wahr. </li></ul><ul><li>Review of Kenyon, John S.; Thomas A. Knott (1944/1953). A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English . Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster.. </li></ul><ul><li>Roach, Peter (2004), &quot;British English: Received Pronunciation&quot;, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 239-245 </li></ul><ul><li>Wells, J. C. (2000). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 2nd edn., Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education Limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Tottie, Gunnel (2002), an introduction to american English, Blackwell. USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxford Adanced Learner’s dictionary of current English </li></ul><ul><li>Edited by Sally Wehmeier, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English ,2000 </li></ul>
  30. 31. Internet Links <ul><li> IPA website. </li></ul><ul><li>www.voanews.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.wikipedia.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.sciencedirect.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.bbc.co.uk </li></ul>
  31. 32. Thank you very much Take care

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