Basic terms of buddhism


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Basic terms of buddhism

  1. 1. Basic terms of Buddhism:) For all the marvellous BYF 2008 participants Eva Mudra, 2009. based on the dictionary of Monier Williams Didier
  2. 2. hīnayāna - simpler or lesser vehicle name of the earliest system of Buddhist doctrinemahāyāna - great vehicle name of the later system of Buddhist teaching said to have been firstpromulgated by Nāgārjuna and treated of in the Mahāyāna-sūtrasvajrayāna – diamond or flash vehicle name of the lastly evolved buddhist system, wich impliedthe ritual magic and yoga practices, hindu tantrism, but at the same time follows the bodhisattva-pathBuddha - √budh - to wake up(with Buddhists) a fully enlightened man who has achieved perfect knowledge of the truth andthereby is liberated from all existence and before his own attainment of Nirvāṇa reveals the methodof obtaining it, the principal Buddha of the present age (born at Kapila-vastu about the year 500B.C. his father, Śuddhodana, of the Śākya tribe or family, being the Rāja of that district, and hismother, Māyā-devī, being the daughter of Rāja Su-prabuddha.. ; hence he belonged to the Kṣatṛyacaste and his original name Śākya-muni or Śākya-siṃha (lion) was really his family name, whilethat of Gautama was taken from the race to which his family belonged. He is said to have died whenhe was 80 years of age, prob. about 420 B.C. He was preceded by 3 mythical Buddhas of thepresent Kalpa, or by 24, reckoning previous Kalpa, or according to others by 6 principal Buddhas;(in Hinduism he is regarded as the 9th incarnation of Viṣṇu)His other namesBhagavān – basic invocation, often translated for „Blessed One”Tathā-gata (or tathā-āgata) – thus have goneSu-gata – well-goneŚākya-muni – the sage of the Śakyasdharma √dhṛ – keep, maintain, use, bear- usage, practice, customary observance or prescribed conduct, duty- right, justice (often as a synonym of punishment)- virtue, morality, religion, religious merit, good worksind. according to right or rule, rightly, justly, according to the nature of anything; cf. belowthe law, doing ones duty- the law or doctrine of Buddhism (as distinguished from the {sañgha} or monastic order- the ethical precepts of Buddhism (or the principal {dharma} called {sūsra} , as distinguished fromthe {abhi-dharma} or, further dharma and from the {vinaya} or "discipline, these three constitutingthe canon of Southern Buddhism- nature, character, peculiar condition or essential quality, property, mark, peculiarity (sva-bhāva inthe mahāyāna)saṃgha sam√han – to join, shut, close`close contact or combination, any collection or assemblage, heap, multitude, quantity, crowd, host,number, `a multitude of sagessaṃsāra sam√sṛ – to flow together withcourse, passage, passing through a succession of states, circuit of mundane existence,transmigration, metempsychosis, the world, secular life, worldly illusion (āsaṃsārāt) from thebeginning of the world)
  3. 3. karman √kṛ - to do, make, perform, accomplish, cause, effect, prepare, undertake- act, action, performance, business- office, special duty, occupation, obligation- any religious act or rite (as sacrifice, oblation &c, esp. as originating in the hope of futurerecompense and as opposed to speculative religion or knowledge of spirit)- work, labour, activitycatvāri āryasatyāni – the four noble truthsThe four stemps, which are accepted by all the buddhist lineagesa-nitya - impermanenceduḥkha – (dus + kha)uncomfortable, uneasiness, pain, sorrow, trouble, difficulty, not just physical sufferingan-ātman – egolessnes – and at the same time the rejection of the hindu ātmavādanirvāna nir√vaṇ – to lose the soundmfn. blown or put out , extinguished (as a lamp or fire), set (as the sun), calmed, quieted, tamed,dead, deceased (lit. having the fire of life extinguished), lost, disappeared- extinction of the flame of life, dissolution, death or final emancipation from matter and re-unionwith the Supreme Spirit(with Buddhists and Jainas) absolute extinction or annihilation (śūnya) of individual existence or ofall desires and passions, perfect calm or repose or happiness, highest bliss or beatitudeThe four main sufferingsjāti – birth, productionjarā – old agevyādhi – disorder, disease, sicknessmaraṇam - deathārya aṣṭāṅgika mārga – the noble eightfold path1. dṛṣṭi – √dṛś – see, look, regard, considertheory, eye, mainly the right view2. saṃkalpa - √saṃ-kḷp – to wish, long for, produce, determine, fixconception or idea or notion formed in the mind or heart, will, volition, desire, purpose, definite,intention or determination or decision or wish for, sentiment conviction, persuasion, the rightthought3. vāc – right speech4. karma – here it is deed, or right action5. ājīva – ā√jīv – to live by; right livelihood6. vyāyāma vi√ā-yā; right exertion, efforts7. smṛti √smṛ remembrance, reminiscence, thinking of or upon, calling to mind, memory, rightmindfulness (in vedic culture it is the basic knowledge – what the sages remember)8. sam-ādhi concentration of the thoughts, profound or abstract meditation, intense contemplationof any particular object (so as to identify the contemplator with the object meditated upon; this isthe eighth and last stage of Yoga;with Buddhists Samādhi is the fourth and last stage of Dhyāna or intense abstract meditation, rightconcentration
  4. 4. śamatha √śam – to toil at, fatigue or exert ones self quiet, tranquillity, absence of passionvipaśyanā vi√paś – observe, percieve, distinguishright or direct knowledge that we gain during meditation (and not from others, fe.)skandha – the five objects of sense – (see the simile of the house)rūpa – form, shape, figure, beauty, lovelinessvedanā – perception, feelingsaṃjñā – acknowledge, recognise, understandsaṃskāra - the faculty of memory, mental impression or recollection, impression on the mind ofacts done in a former state of existence, the faculty of reproductive imaginationvijñāna - consciousness or thought-facultytathatā – „that”ness – when one sense the things as they areekatva - „one”ness – there are no discriminations