Intellectual becomingsmeeting the Other Evelin Tamm email@example.com In Norway, October 2012
Carol Gilligan born in 1936...is an American feminist, ethicist, andpsychologist best known for her work with andagainst Lawrence Kohlberg on ethical communityand ethical relationships, and certainsubject-object problems in ethics.“In a Different Voice” (1982) “the little book that started a revolution” In it, Gilligan criticized Kohlbergs stages of moral development of children: Kohlberg had argued that girls on average reached a lower level of moral development than boys did. Gilligan noted that the participants in Kohlbergs basic study were largely male. She also stated that the scoring method Kohlberg used tended to favor a principled way of reasoning (one more common to boys) over a moral argumentation concentrating on relations, which would be more amenable to girls.sources:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carol_Gilliganhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_a_Different_Voice
Why should we listen to the voices of others?CAROL GILLIGAN“I find that asking people to listen is a good way to begin. To listen to their own voice, listen to another`s voice. What do you hear? What do you learn?”“Speaking and listening is like breathing out and breathing in, and psychological troubles come when people start holding their breath, when they cannot take in what others are saying or let out what they are feeling and thinking.”“Voice is an instrument of relationship, and in losing voice, one loses relationship.”“A person has a distinctive voice, it`s like a footprint of the psyche; you recognise it, hear changes in it...”“We are born with a voice and in relationship with the ability to communicate with other people.”“Through voice we can bring our inner worlds into the outer world and into relationships with other people.”Kiegelmann, Mechthild (2009). Making Oneself Vulnerable to Discovery. Carol Gilligan in Conversation With Mechthild Kiegelmann [82 paragraphs]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 10(2), Art. 3, http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114- fqs090234.
“In emphasising voice, I have tried to work against the dangers I see in the current tendency to reduce psychology to biology or to culture, to see people as either genetically determined or socially engineered and thus without the capacity for voice or resistance.”Kiegelmann, Mechthild (2009). Making Oneself Vulnerable to Discovery. Carol Gilligan in Conversation With Mechthild Kiegelmann [82 paragraphs]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 10(2), Art. 3, http://nbn- resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs090234.
Voice-centred relational method“... represents an attempt to translate relational ontology into methodology and into concrete methods of data analysis by exploring individuals’ narrative accounts in terms of their relationships to themselves, their relationships to the people around them, and their relationships to the broader social, structural and cultural contexts within which they live.”(Source: Doucet and Mauthner 1998 and 2001, p.5).
Meeting the Other How to make meaningful research interviews?GILLIGAN: By starting with a real question and asking someone if they would help you in pursuing it...You come and say: "Im here asking you for some of your time, your life, because there is something I really want to know and I think you can help me.”And that just changes the dynamics, shifts the power relationship.Source: http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/rt/printerFriendly/1178/2718
Meeting the Other How to make meaningful research interviews?GILLIGANThe place of not knowing is a risky place, it involves making oneself vulnerable to discovery, letting go of control in the sense of being willing to be surprised or to be wrong, and people have all sorts of fears about what will happen, about being out of control or overwhelmed.The reality is that it opens up a clear path to follow, once one grasps the underlying logic of psychological research, and it brings a real integrity into the research process, including a genuine respect for the other person...Source: http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/rt/printerFriendly/1178/2718
Listening Guide1) listening for the plot for the distinctive features of this particular psychological landscape or terrain, and also for the stories that are told2) I-poems listening for the “I”, the spoken self, the first-person voice as it speaks in this interview conversation3) listening for contrapuntal voices the creative step in the analysis, because the researcher has to distinguish different voices within the conversation, discover which voices speak to the research question4) composing an analysis you assemble a chain of evidence drawn from the different listenings(Kiegelmann 2009, Balan 2005)
Lahemaa National Park (founded in 1971) ecologicalfarming and local traditional sustainable way of living
Transformative Workplace Learning (2007) using voice centered relational method analysed indepth interviews with women working in banks in Estonia
My experience using VCR method• Transformative learning in the workplace• Second biggest bank in Estonia• Interviews with 17 women in service sector of the bank in 2006• Using Listening Guide 4 steps (Gilligan 2003) the data was analysed accordingly• Special attention to the low or silent voices to find out when, how and why the transformative learning takes place• Transformative learning theory is a constructivist learning theory based on the precondition that the social world is created by people who construct it in the discourse with other people. What happens when people are silenced?
Meeting the women in the bankWorking life had a transformative influence on the working womenMost of the learning took place hidden of the formal training activities during informal social interaction and networkingTransformations were taking place while women started to work in the bank, took a higher position or radical changes at the working places happenThe formal training system did not recognise the informal paths of learning and had a behaviourist task oriented structureMost of the interviews cried during the inteviewing process, some mentioned trauma they haveThere was a strong competitive norm of the behaviour in the working placeThe workers were all divided into clear clusters defined by their position in the professional ladderThe positions were culturally positioned in the special power discourse shared by all the workers in the bankWomen did not get support in their struggles to cope with transformations
Paulo FreireIn 1959 he is a professor of pedagogy at Reclife in Brasil: “There is no neutral education. Education is either for domestication or for freedom.” His pedagogy is about how to break free of the culture of silence.Look at the short interview with him... http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=aFWjnkFypFA&noredirect=1
Discovering “hidden play” phenomenaIn 2009 international comparative research “Looking through the children’s eyes. A day in an early education and care setting on two sides of the Globe: Estonia and New Zealand”In cooperation with Dr. Cynthia Prince from New ZealandFirst time using video filming as a data collection method
Alice MillerFor Your Own Good (1980)Humiliations, spankings and beatings, slaps in the face, betrayal, sexual exploitation, derision, neglect, etc. are all forms of mistreatment, because they injure the integrity and dignity of a child, even if their consequences are not visible right away.However, as adults, most abused children will suffer, and let others suffer, from these injuries.This dynamic of violence can deform some victims into hangmen who take revenge even on whole nations and become willing executors to dictators as unutterably appalling as Hitler and other cruel leaders.
Alice MillerBeaten children very early on assimilate the violence they endured, which they may glorify and apply later as parents, in believing that they deserved the punishment and were beaten out of love.They dont know that the only reason for the punishments they have ( or in retrospect, had) to endure is the fact that their parents themselves endured and learned violence without being able to question it.Later, the adults, once abused children, beat their own children and often feel grateful to their parents who mistreated them when they were small and defenseless.Source: http://www.alice-miller.com/index_en.php
We are told that man experienceshis world. What does this mean? Martin BuberMan goes over the surfaces ofthings and experiences them.He brings back from them someknowledge of their condition —an experience. He experienceswhat there is to things.But it is not experiences alone thatbring the world to man.For what they bring to him is only aworld that consists of It and It and It,of He and He and She and She and It. . . .The world as experience belongs tothe basic word I-It.The basic word I-You establishesthe world of relation. “I and Thou” (1923)
Intuition as an emerging topicIn 2006 arriving to Solvik School in Sweden Järna.Intuitive pedagogy course www.intu.seMeeting Pär Ahlbom, Merete Lövlie, Sinikka Mikkola and many other experienced and very unique Waldorf (?) teachers in Sweden as well as other parts of Europe. What is the art of teaching?Theories of intuition http://intuitions.posterous.com. How has intuition been researched, described and conceptualised?Intuitive Pedagogy Journal http://evelintamm.posterous.com. Collecting stories and experiences about different kinds of schools, teachers and pedagogies.Asking again questions about freedom in education but in a different way.
What is intuition?Plato (428–345 BC) **There is four kinds of knowledge: imagination, persuasion, discursive knowledge and intuition. Through intuition, knowledge is completed and the individual gains insight into the world of ideas which Plato perceives as the supreme kind of knowledge.Rene´ Descartes (1596–1650) **Individual receives knowledge about simple, obvious truths through intuition. He considers intuition a spiritual insight.Bauch de Spinoza’s (1632–1677) **Knowledge moves from experience over to intuition. The intuition results in an insight that the world is rationally organized, that it consists of a systematic entirety. Intuition goes beyond the borders of discursive thinking since it with one single gaze understands what is essential. When the individual, by way of intuition, sees himself as necessary in this entirety, he is ﬁlled with intellectual love for God. John Locke’s (1632–1704) ** We gain knowledge about the simplest relationships between simple ideas through intuition. Complex ideas, on the other hand, require discursive evidence and have to be connected to the intellect. Locke perceives intuition as knowledge about these simple relationships.Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) **Knowledge is reached if these simple concepts or truths are reached by way of intuition. Complex concepts and judgements can later be built on this basis.Friedrich Wilhelm Josef Schelling’s (1775–1854) **System of thoughts moves from a simple sensation to a high spiritual activity. According to Schelling, this supreme activity appears in the creative activities of the artistic genius. This artistic intuition is similar to the intuition a philosopher applies in his work. Intuition as a spiritual insight, a work of the soul.Arthur Schopenhauer (1788–1860) **There is a foundation of metaphysical knowledge when while watching we are able to gain knowledge about ‘the thing itself’ in a direct intuition. While experiencing our own body, we experience an object which also is a subject. As every other perception, the body is extended in time and place as a link in a chain of reason. We experience, however, that our bodily movements are expressions of our own will. According to Schopenhauer, we can understand that this will is our innermost essence in a direct intuition. Hence, we may conclude that other objects also are objectives of a fundamental will. Schopenhauer perceives intuitive knowledge as an experience of what can be sensed here and now (Schopenhauer, 1992). It concerns direct knowledge as opposed to reasonable knowledge which employs abstractions. Larsson (1892, 1909,1912) ** Intuition is characterized by synthesis and summarises manifoldness in oneness. Intuitive thinking follows the rules of logic and is opposite to discursive thinkingEdmund Husserl (1859–1938) ** The so-called intentionality is a fundamental feature of every conscious act. That means we can differentiate between the conscious act itself and what it is directed towards in every case. Husserl believes he has come to this conclusion by way of the so-called looking at the essence, with which he claims it is possible to exceed the actual existing acts, and by using our imagination we can vary these until we reach a point where variation no longer is possible. Husserl points out that there exists an insight into a necessity of essence at this very point. He claims that this knowledge of essence is intuitive in character. The task of phenomenology is to reach this intuitive security through a methodic and gradual reduction. According to Husserl, intuition results in a security we experience when knowing there is a total agreement between what we mean with something and the way in which the thing is given (Kitaro, 1986; Levinas, 1995). Intuition is a term for knowledge of the essence indicating an extended understanding of experience of the directly given.Bertil Hammer (1877–1929) **The ﬁrst Swedish professor in pedagogy from 1910 to 1929 (Kroksmark, 1991), challenged the prevailing scientiﬁc methods (Hammer, 1909) and claimed that with intuition as method, reality is not exclusively quantitative. Instead Hammer argues for a more down-to-earth and intuitive pedagogy (Kroksmark, 1989) and wants to apply intuition with a methodic purpose. Christian von Ehrenfels (1859–1932) ** An entirety of something takes shape as more than the mere sum of the individual components. All the characteristics of this entirety cannot therefore be reduced to the individual components. We gain access to this entirety by way of intuition. Ehrenfels understands intuition as experience of the objects in their entirety. Henri Bergson (1859–1941)**Describes a methodic experience of the directly or immediately given in its entirety as opposed to abstract divided thinking. Intuition is a methodic experience of the directly given in its entirety.Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925)Intuition is for thinking what observation is for the percept. Intuition and observation are the sources of knowledge.Jung (1933: 567– 568)*Psychological function transmitting perceptions in an unconscious wayWild (1938: 226) *An immediate awareness by the subject, of some particular entity, without such aid from the senses or from reason as would account for that awarenessBruner (1962: 102) *The act of grasping the meaning, significance, or structure of a problem without explicit reliance on the analytic apparatus of one’s craftWestcott & Ranzoni (1963: 595) *The process of reaching a conclusion on the basis of little information, normally reached on the basis of significantly more informationRorty (1967: 204) *Immediate apprehensionDewey (1958:266)Intuitive insight is the meeting of the old and the new in which the readjustment involved in every form of consciousness is effected suddenly by means of a quick and unexpected harmony which in its bright abruptness is like a flash of revelation. (Harlan 1986:1) John Landquist (1881–1974) ** Intuition is an absolutely simple act (Landquist, 1971;Kroksmark, 1989). He who understands by way of compounding and synthesis, does not understand simple matters. The act that understands what is simple must be simple itself. Landquist’s opinion about this point is closely related to Bergson’s (Ahlberg, 1951).Bruner (1977:13) Intuition is the intellectual technique of arriving at plausible but tentative formulations without going through the analytic steps by which such formulations would be found to be valid or invalid conclusions.(Harlan 1986:1)Bowers, Regehr, Balthazard, & Parker (1990: 74) *A preliminary perception of coherence (pattern, meaning, structure) that is at first not consciously represented but that nevertheless guides thought and inquiry toward a hunch or hypothesis about the nature of the coherence in questionShirley & Langan-Fox (1996: 564) *A feeling of knowing with certitude on the basis of inadequate information and without conscious awareness of rational thinkingSimon (1996: 89) *Acts of recognitionHammond (1996:60) Intuition as a “cognitive process that somehow produces an answer, solution, or idea without the use of a conscious, logically defensible step-by-step process.“ (Epstein 2010:296)Shapiro & Spence (1997: 64) *A nonconscious, holistic processing mode in which judgments are made with no awareness of the rules of knowledge used for inference and which can feel right, despite one’s inability to articulate the reasonBurke & Miller (1999: 92) *A cognitive conclusion based on a decision maker’s previous experiences and emotional inputsPolicastro (1999: 89) *A tacit form of knowledge that orients decision making in a promising directionLieberman (2000: 111) *The subjective experience of a mostly nonconscious process—fast, alogical, and inaccessible to consciousness—that, depending on exposure to the domain or problem space, is capable of accurately extracting probabilistic contingenciesRaidl & Lubart (2000-2001: 219) *A perceptual process, constructed through a mainly subconscious act of linking disparate elements of informationHogarth (2001: 14) *Thoughts that are reached with little apparent effort, and typically without conscious awareness; they involve little or no conscious deliberationMyers (2002: 128–129) *The capacity for direct, immediate knowledge prior to rational analysisKahneman (2003: 697) *Thoughts and preferences that come to mind quickly and without much reflectionJohansson, Kroksmark (2004)Teachers intuition-in-action is characterized by a certain kind of presence (intentional and situative), it is direct, immediately given and continuous activity to make sense of time sensitive complex dynamics of classroom experiences.Sinclair (2005:1) Intuition is a non-sequential information processing mode, which comprises both cognitive and affective elements and results in direct knowing without any use of conscious reasoning.Dane and Pratt (2007:33)Affectively charged judgments that arise through rapid, nonconscious, and holistic associationsEpstein (2010:304) Intuition is neither magical nor mystical. It is simply the recovery outside of awareness primarily of tacit information acquired from experience or, less often, responding to entirely new situations according to the principles and attributes of the experiential/intuitive system.Betsch (2011:4)Intuition is a process of thinking. The input to this process is mostly provided by knowledge stored in long-term memory that has been primarily acquired via associative learning. The input is processed automatically and without conscious awareness. The output of the process is a feeling that can serve as a basis for judgments and decisions. * after Dane and Pratt 2007:35 ** after Johansson ja Kroksmark 2004
Suggested readingsBalan, N. B. (2005). Multiple voices and methods: Listening to women who are in workplace transition. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 4(4), Article 5. Retrieved [16.10.2012] from http://www.ualberta.ca/~iiqm/backissues/4_4/pdf/balan.pdfBuber, M. (1937). I and Thou.Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed.Fromm, E. (1942). The Fear of Freedom. United Kingdom: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Fromm, E. (1976). To Have Or To Be?. NY: The Continuum Publishing Company.Gilligan, C. (1982). In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development, Cambridge, Harvard University PresKiegelmann, M. (2009). Making Oneself Vulnerable to Discovery. Carol Gilligan in Conversation With Mechthild Kiegelmann [82 paragraphs]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 10(2), Art. 3, http://nbn- resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs090234 .Mauthner, M. & Doucet, A. (1998). Reflections on a Voice Centred Relational Method IN Ribbens, J. & Edwards, R. (Eds) Feminist Dilemmas in Qualitative Research, London, Sage. Retrieved [16.10.2012] from http://www.andreadoucet.com/wp- content/uploads/2011/02/Mauthner-Doucet-1998-Reflections-on-Voice.pdfMiller, A. (1980). Am Anfang war Erziehung. In English: For Your Own GoodNoddings, N & Shore, P. (1984). Awakening the inner eye: Intuition in Education.Taylor, E. W. (2008). Transformative Learning Theory. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, (No 119), 5-15.