South African open access policy - a comparative overview

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A paper presented at a Wits University research policy seminar. At the end of the day, the university signed the Berlin Declaration and announced that it would be adopting open access as a core component of its new research strategy.

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  • Michael Mabeabd Francis Gurry – OA on the move
  • Access to publicly funded research – read in the UN Declaration rights to scientific knoweldge,
  • Open innovation needs to provide a batter balance – a counter to maximalist, industry-driven approach. Legislative confusion - IPR Act in SA Use of ‘outputs’ as measures of research effectiveness – patents and journal articles, with a presumption that the ISI is the standard
  • 2011 – November Endorsed by member nationsThere will probably be regional workshops The IDS online dialogue
  • OA for development impact, ‘transformational research
  • The geopolitics of the impact factor and the marginalisation of developing country research Increasingly, I see this as the real problem, the single factor that most needs dealing with, largely because it creates an impenetrable barrier between strategy and reward systems The Lancet and the difficulty of including African authors – yet 650,000 people in Africa die of malaria every year
  • This has been the default position and has been heavily promoted for the developing world in the form of: Institutional repositories (the most popular solution offered to African universities). Promoted as a way of making articles in ISI journals sharable and increasing their impact. Also as a way of providing exposure for articles in developing country journals in the rest of the world – Bioline international – gets 5 million full text downloads across the system – research exposed South-South and South-North – increases exposure for issues that do not get into the major Northern journals Subject repositoriesRegional or world archivesThis does increase reach and impact, Problems – capacity for institutional repositories – too many have very little in them, or have effectively collapsed as a result of insitutionalcapcity to maintain them.
  • The fact that the Finch report opted for publication in open access journals has created a furore particularly among the supporters of the green route as a way of changing the subscription journal system. Do the journals actually see green route article archives as a threat to their business. In many cases, perhaps not, as what the journal publishes is the article of record. CfArXiv, where journal articles are published as a matter of record and to earn prestige – not necessarily for reading
  • Is the final version, with edited text, complete diagrams, etc. If it is to be cited or referred to, this is the version that needs to be used. For developing countries offers participation rather than only accessI would argue that the commercial journals are not really concerned about green route deposits, as it is the version of record that needs to be subscribed to and referenced.
  • The EC links this to regional research infrastructure development that in turn supports communication – a lesson for SADC? The problem in the South – research funds are limited, there is a very high level of dependency on donor funding, which is short term, Where does the money come from? Will a more open system that allows government to get a comprehensive view of what is being achieved lead to more investment?
  • The EC links this to regional research infrastructure development that in turn supports communication – a lesson for SADC? The problem in the South – research funds are limited, there is a very high level of dependency on donor funding, which is short term, Where does the money come from? Will a more open system that allows government to get a comprehensive view of what is being achieved lead to more investment?
  • This has been the default position and has been heavily promoted for the developing world in the form of: Institutional repositories (the most popular solution offered to African universities). Promoted as a way of making articles in ISI journals sharable and increasing their impact. Also as a way of providing exposure for articles in developing country journals in the rest of the world – Bioline international – gets 5 million full text downloads across the system – research exposed South-South and South-North – increases exposure for issues that do not get into the major Northern journals Subject repositoriesRegional or world archivesThis does increase reach and impact, Problems – capacity for institutional repositories – too many have very little in them, or have effectively collapsed as a result of insitutionalcapcity to maintain them.
  • The geopolitics of the impact factor and the marginalisation of developing country research Increasingly, I see this as the real problem, the single factor that most needs dealing with, largely because it creates an impenetrable barrier between strategy and reward systems
  • South African open access policy - a comparative overview

    1. 1. The policy context: South Africanand UK approaches to open access Open Access, Policy and Practice in Research SPARC Seminar, Wits University 9 November 2012
    2. 2. The context: aperfect storm? Attribution Some rights reserved by Brian R. Birke
    3. 3. Open Access policy in the mainstream Attribution Some rights reserved by James Cridland
    4. 4. ..a surge inglobal,regional andgovernmentpolicies …
    5. 5. At the heart of the storm – a battle over IP rights and enforcement
    6. 6. … a human rights approach …AttributionNoncommercialNo Derivative Works Some rights reserved by riac
    7. 7. This WILL impact on SouthAfrican researchers and their publishing patterns
    8. 8. Global OA developments
    9. 9. The message• There will be pressure for national and institutional OA policy• The ‘translational’ potential of research and its development impact will be on the agenda• More open Creative Commons licences are becoming the norm – CC-BY
    10. 10. South Africa – a story of policy incoherence
    11. 11. DHET journal article subsidy… Attribution Some rights reserved by Will Clayton
    12. 12. The Impact Factor excludes developing country research…AttributionNoncommercial Some rights reserved by emily_mas
    13. 13. World Research Publication - 2001 http://www.worldmapper.org 2006 SASI Group (University of Sheffield) and Mark Newman (University of Michigan).
    14. 14. DHET – Green Paper on Post-School Education• OERs advocated• Government funded open textbooks• Openness in distance education• Will OA be part of the White Paper?• Need for ‘an overarching policy framework on IP and copyright in higher education’
    15. 15. Department of Science and Technology
    16. 16. The open data initiative seems to have stalled
    17. 17. DST – IPR in Publicly Funded Research ActAttributionNoncommercial Some rights reserved by zebble
    18. 18. UK Policy InitiativesAttributionNoncommercial Some rights reserved by daniel.d.slee
    19. 19. The green route and mandates…
    20. 20. 2010 -12 - The EC Open Aire…
    21. 21. ..a suddenwave …
    22. 22. http://www.researchinfonet.org/publish/finch/
    23. 23. The Finch Report …gold open accessAttributionNoncommercialNo Derivative Works Some rights reserved by ENOUGH Project
    24. 24. … the importance ofthe published article as the version of record…
    25. 25. Are international open accessjournals helping overcome themarginal status of developingcountry research?
    26. 26. … the cost of APCs remains a problem – and who is going to handle this?AttributionShare Alike Some rights reserved by 401(K) 2012
    27. 27. Funder mandates aim to change publishing behaviour….
    28. 28. How will this impact on Wits?
    29. 29. http://chet.org.za/indicators/interactive-graph.php?uid=56,62,66&aid=&iid=52&rid=165&gw=800
    30. 30. Our universities, in particular, should be directing their research focus to address the development and social needs of our communities. The impact of their researchshould be measured by how much difference itmakes to the needs of our communities, rather than by just how many international citations researchers receive in their publications.Blade Nzimande, SA Minster of Higher Education and Training, Women in Science Awards. 2010
    31. 31. The central messages ….
    32. 32. …investment in research communication and its infrastructure is essential…AttributionShare Alike Some rights reserved by 401(K) 2012
    33. 33. Some rights reserved by Irene2005Institution-wide structures are needed for research communication…
    34. 34. Licensing frameworks will be needed andinstitutional IP policies that include openlicensing
    35. 35. Repositories…
    36. 36. …beyond journal articles…http://www.flickr.com/photos/adactio/ CC attribution licence
    37. 37. The Finch Report…the infrastructure of subject and institutionalrepositories should be developed so that theyplay a valuable role complementary to formal publishing, particularly in providing access to research data and to grey literature, and in digital preservation
    38. 38. … moving beyond the impact factor with new journal models and altmetrics?
    39. 39. Will WB and FAO style initiatives, taken together with the Finchrecommendations on repositories, add traction to national policy development for development- focused research?
    40. 40. The Impact factorAttributionNoncommercial Some rights reserved by emily_mas
    41. 41. Do we want to advise our colleagues in the developing world to replicate a journalsystem that we think is on the way out? Or do we want to encourage them to adoptsomething that is far more current–that iscutting edge and is going to lead the way?Leslie Chan – Interview with Hassan Masum: Center for Global Health R&D Assessment
    42. 42. Eve GrayScholarly Communication in Africa Programme University of Cape TownCentre for Educational Technology IP Law and Policy Research Unit University of Cape Town http://www.gray-area.co.za Twitter: graysouth

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