+ IST 501 Week 11 Summary Elizabeth Eikey November 6, 2012
+ Summary Theme: cultural and social influences on various aspects of information sciences and technology Virtual environments: EVE Online and Second Life (Blodgett and Tapia, 2011) Health information seeking in African American women (Warren et al., 2010) ICT policymaking across borders (Maitland and van Gorp, 2009)
+ Social Informatics (Kling, 2007) “examines the social aspects of computerization” Seen in: Wired magazine, books, conferences, journals, etc. Productivity Paradox Computers and technology linked with productivity Investments in computers =/= increase in productivity Economists thought advancements would increase national productivity “…technology alone, even good technology alone, is not sufficient to create social or economic value”
+ Lotus Notes (Kling, 2007) PriceWaterhouse in 1989 Line consultants were supposed to be main users Orlikowski, 1993: Senior line consultants were modest users Junior line consultants (associates) were low users Incentives Demanding promotion system: move up or out w/job security: comfortable and had time to play with Notes w/o job security: did not bother with Notes Tax consultants had incentive to demonstrate their value to the firm Notes gave them the visibility to do so
+ Work Processes (Kling, 2007) Document systems Air traffic control paper flight strips Online flight reservations Electronic journals
+ Socio-technical Systems (Kling, 2007) People’s relationship with each and other elements of the system “workable computer applications are usually supported by a strong socio-technical infrastructure”
+ Community Informatics (Stillman and Linger, 2009) Similar to social informatics Both create approaches to user-technology problems Currently, Social Informatics is closer to Information Sciences than Community Informatics Web 2.0 Social and interactional Provides opportunity for Community Informatics How can Community Informatics work better with Information Sciences? Social action theory Understand interactions among social pressures and personal desires
+ Community Informatics (Stillman and Linger, 2009) Two goals: 1. “the conduct of research about the relationship between the design of information and communications technologies and local communities 2. “the implementation of ICT projects in local communities”
+ Do avatars dream of electronic picket lines? The blurring of work and play in virtual environments (Blodgett and Tapia, 2011) Social and cultural influences EVE Online and Second Life recorded interview and did text analysis Mixes entertainments and protest Activists gravitate toward internet Political life online
+ Do avatars dream of electronic picket lines? The blurring of work and play in virtual environments (Blodgett and Tapia, 2011) Labor strike in Second Life and corruption in EVE OnlineFrom Do avatars dream of electronic picket lines? The blurring of work and play in virtual environments(Blodgett and Tapia, 2011, page 7)
+ Do avatars dream of electronic picket lines? The blurring of work and play in virtual environments (Blodgett and Tapia, 2011) Lines between play and work blurred “in both of the cases, there are clear elements of work and play that shape and are shaped by the actions of protesters.” People of all cultures come together online People are exposed to different backgrounds and cultures
+ Barriers, control and identity in health information seeking among African American women (Warren et al., 2010) Different cultural context and social impacts Traditional and internet resources for health information Problem: race and culture – people feel they would be treated better if part of another race/ethnic group; language barriers; literacy problems socioeconomic status – stereotypes of low-income African American women impact the quality of health information seeking; issues listed above enhanced when a part of a lower socio-economic group; physicians less likely to provide in-depth information related to diagnostics, etc. the role the internet plays in seeking health information may differ depending on culture, identity, social position, etc.
+ Barriers, control and identity in health information seeking among African American women (Warren et al., 2010) Internet as a means to get informal medical information Gave women a sense of empowerment, sense of control Better offline experience with physicians They can be more assertive. They can demonstrate their abilities.
+ ICT Policy (Nicol, 2003) ICT policymaking – telecommunications, broadcasting, internet Need for integration among other policies and across national boundaries Policies are affected by different stakeholders and private organizations Access Issues making it possible for everyone to use the internet Civil liberty issues freedom of expression, right to privacy, right to communicate intellectual property rights, etc.
+ Beyond harmonization: ICT policymaking in regional economic communities (Maitland and van Gorp, 2009) regional economic communities are crucial in information communication (ICT) policymaking policy harmonization my threaten the success of other goals of ICT policymaking regional communities foster adaptivity necessary to balance policy harmonization and competition
+ Beyond harmonization: ICT policymaking in regional economic communities (Maitland and van Gorp, 2009) competing interests among regional and national authority despite having different interests, policy harmonization attempts to point to similar solution made for ideal conditions; real world is less than ideal difficult to achieve: differences across legal systems, etc. costly
+ Beyond harmonization: ICT policymaking in regional economic communities (Maitland and van Gorp, 2009) Complex adaptive systems theory “through its strong emphasis on adaptivity, offers a dynamic approach to understanding regional policymaking” policymaking must be adaptive to constantly acclimate to changes and predict them valuing adaptive activities even if they do not result in harmonized policies is critical calls for process of regional policymaking and harmonization is important steps toward a general theory of ICT policymaking
+ Reflections and Conclusions Accounting for social and culture influences is important for IST Social informatics and community informatics have a lot to offer information sciences Various ways we are affected Work and play in online environments (Blodgett and Tapia, 2011) Meet diverse groups of people Healthcare (Warren et al., 2010) Information seeking among different groups of people Policymaking (Maitland and van Gorp, 2009) Can differ among nations, cultures, etc. Call for integration
+ References Blodgett, B. and Tapia, A. 2011. Do avatars dream of electronic picket lines?: The blurring of work and play in virtual environments. Information, Technology and People, Special Issue on Digital Culture. 24(10), 26-45. Kling, R. 2007. What is social informatics and why does it matter? The Information Society, 23(4), 205-220. Maitland, C.F. and van Gorp, A. 2009. Beyond harmonization: ICT policy making in regional economic communities. The Information Society, 25, 23-37. Nicol, C. 2003. ICT Policy: A Beginner’s Handbook. Association for Progressive Communications. Johannesburg, South Africa. 7-16. Stillman, L. and Linger, H. 2009. Community informatics and information systems: Can they be better connected? The Information Society. 25, 255-264. Warren, J.R., Kvasny, L., Hecht, M.L., Burgess, D., Ahluwalia, J.S., Okuyemi, K.S. 2010. Barriers, control and identity in health information seeking among African American women. Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice, 3(3), 68-90.