La Liberté guidant le peuple, Delacroix Theodore GericaultWanderer above the Sea of Fog ,Friendrich ENRIQUE VÁZQUEZ 18th April 2012
INDEX HISTORICISM ROMANTICISM PAINTING SCULPTURE SOURCES
HISTORICISMHISTORICISM was an art style in architecture that apperared in thefirst half of the 19th century.Archistects drew inspiration from styles of the past.There were buildings also with New Classicist styleThere was a revaival of styles of the past. The most important stylesrevived by Historicism were: -Neo-Byzantine -Neo-Romanesque -Neo-Gothic -Neo-Mudéjar London Parliament -Neo-Baroque
Oldest part, from 11th Big BenVictoria centurytower We can appreciate Gothic art style characteristics, for example the high quantity of windows, and the pinnacles. This building was finished in 1870, so we can classify it as and example of Neo-Gothic style. LONDON PARLIAMENT
LONDON PARLIAMENTIn 1834 a fire destroyed the Palace of Westminster , leaving only the Jewel Tower, the crypt and cloister of St. Stephens and Westminster Hall intact. After the fire, a competition was organized to create a new building for the two houses of parliament.A design by Sir Charles Barry and his assistant Augustus Welby Pugin was selected. They created a large but balanced complex in neo Gothic style and incorporated the buildings that survived the fire.The whole complex was finished in 1870, more than 30 years after the Big Ben construction started. The building includes the Clock Tower, Victoria Tower, the House of Commons, the House of Lords, Westminster Hall and the Lobbies.The most famous part of Charles Barrys design is the elegant clock tower. Originally called St. Stephens Tower, it was soon named after the towers largest bell, the Big Ben. A light at the top of the tower is illuminated when Parliament is meeting at night.
Neo-Byzantine Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt, KronstadtCathedral of Saint Vladimir in Kiev
Neo-RomanesqueThe Smithsonian Institution Building, St Mary and St Nicholas parish church,Wilton, Wiltshire, England
Neo-GothicParliament Hill, Ottawa Upper part of Spasskaya tower in Moscow Kremlin
Neo-Mudéjar Las Ventas, MadridAntiguas Escuelas Aguirre, Madrid
Neo-BaroqueBelfast City Hall Alferaki Palace in Taganrog, Russia
ROMANTICISMIt developed in the first decades ofthe 19th century, not only in art, butalso in literature and music. It was anew aesthetics, whose main valueswere freedom, individualism,feelings and nationalism, opposed torationalism and sciences,proportions and universalism ofNew Classicism. The Romantic artistrefused Antiquity and went back toMiddle Ages and evasion to farplaces in time and space. The main Thomas Colethemes were wild nature, exoticplaces, the unknown, folklore andtraditions. Abtei im Eichwald, Friendrich
PAINTINGThe main features of Romantic painting were movement, colour and light (bright colours with loose brush-strokes and full of light paintings) and wild natural landscapes.Characteristic of Romantic painting:- Movement opposed to the Classicist Hannibal Crossing the Alps, Turner camnless.- Live expression of emotions.- Freedom exaltation, opposed to academic rules.- Imagination and emotions are more important than Reason and Thinking. San Juan de los Reyes, inside
IMPORTANT PAINTERS FRANCE THÉODORE GÉRICAULTJean-Louis André Théodore Géricault (26 September 1791 26 January 1824) was a profoundly influential French artist, painter and lithographer, known for The Raft of the Medusa and other paintings. Although he died young, he became one The Raft of the Medusa, of the pioneers of the Romantic Géricault movement. EUGÈNE DELACROIXFerdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was Frédéric Chopin, a French Romantic artist regarded from Delacroix the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school. Delacroixs use of expressive brushstrokes and his study of the optical effects of colour profoundly shaped the work of the Impressionists, while his passion for the exotic inspired the artists of the Symbolist movement. A fine lithographer, Delacroix illustrated various works of William Shakespeare, the The Barque of Scottish writer Walter Scott and the Dante German writer Johann Wolfgang von
IMPORTANT PAINTERS GERMANY CASPAR DAVID FRIENDRICH Woman at theCaspar David Friedrich (September 5, 1774 – Window, Friendrich May 7, 1840) was a 19th-century German Romantic landscape painter, generally considered the most important German artist of his generation. He is best known for his mid-period allegorical landscapes which typically feature contemplative figures silhouetted against night skies, morning mists, barren trees or Gothic ruins. His primary interest as an artist was the contemplation of nature, and his often symbolic and anti- classical work seeks to convey a subjective, emotional response to the natural world. Friedrichs paintings characteristically set a human presence in diminished perspective Rainbow amid expansive landscapes, reducing the in a figures to a scale that, according to the art mountain historian Christopher John Murray, directs landscape, "the viewers gaze towards their metaphysical Friendrich dimension".
IMPORTANT PAINTERS GREAT BRITAIN JOSEPH WILLIAM TURNER The FightingJoseph Mallord William Turner (23 Temeraire tugged to her April 1775 – 19 December 1851) was an last Berth to English Romantic landscape be broken, painter, watercolorist and printmaker. Turner Turner was considered a controversial figure in his day, but is now regarded as the artist who elevated landscape painting to an eminence rivaling history painting. Although renowned for his oil paintings, Turner is also one of the greatest masters of British watercolor landscape painting. He is commonly known as "the painter of light" and his work is regarded as a Romantic preface to Impressionism. The BurningLords Houses of of the and Commons, Turner
IMPORTANT PAINTERS SPAIN Portrait of VALERIANO BÉCQUER GustavoHe was the son of the painter Jose Dominguez Becquer, Adolfo nephew of the Bécquer, painter JoaquinDominguez Becquer and brother of Valeriano the poet Gustavo Adolfo Becquer. It began in the Bécquer painting with his father, although he studied under Antonio Cabral Bejarano. Moved to Madrid, his brother opened the doors of the artistic capital of the kingdom. PEREZ VILLAALMILJenaro Pérez Villaamil (1807-1854) was born in Ferrol, Galicia. He was a remarkable painter and prime example of the Galician Romantic Movement. In his work, particularly in his landscapes, he shows an unmistakable taste for the English painters of the same period. Most of his paintings are exhibited at Museo del Prado in Madrid, the city where he died. MARIANO FORTUNYMarià Fortuny or Mariano Fortuny, was a Catalan painter. His brief career encompassed both Vicaria, Fortuny the Romantic fascination with Orientalist themes, and a prescient loosening of brush-stroke and color.
THE LION HUNT Located in the Chicago Art Institute, in the USA. The technique used is Oil over Canvas and its dimensions are 76,5 cm x 98,5 cm. It was finished in 1861. Delacroix was fascinated by the theme of the struggle between men and wild animals. So did Rubens, who Delacroix admired. This painting represents the hunting scene in a landscape of dunes, which appear to the right, and the dark blue sea on the left. And the nature is represented reduced to the elemental forces: sky, water and earth. Above the scene, a cloudy sky. Looking closely at the scene we can see that there are already two Arabians who have been shot down in battle and another one lies dead. But the other four are directed against the wild beasts to kill, and yet there is an eighth one that is going to attack.
THE LION HUNT The frame is made up around two diagonals intersected. The main action takes place at the centre of the scene. The fight itself describes a circular motion, creating a whirlwind of men and animals. The Arabians, brown, with elastic movements, reacting instinctively, have already some ressemblance to the beasts. The fact that warriors are Arabians can mean a clear escape to exotic and distant worlds or it can mean Delacroix´s clear taste of Arabian culture after several trips to Morocco.
SCULPTURE Rude,The MarseillaiseRomantic sculptors focused on expressing feelings and movement and there was a preference for patriotic themes.Sculpture attempts to follow painting from afar.The sculptors did not follow the Gothic models, or Romanesque models of the Middle Ages, so they modified very poorly neoclassical models, giving them more movement and more inspiration in nature. Barrias, The caiman hunter
IMPORTANT SCULPTORS The most importnat city during the Romanticism in sculpture was Paris FRANÇOISE RUDE Mercury Born in Dijon, he worked at his fathers fastening his sandals, trade as a stovemaker till the age of Rude sixteen, but received training in drawing from François Devosges, where he learned that a strong, simple contour was an invaluable ingredient in the plastic arts. In 1809 he went to Paris from the Dijon school of art, and became a pupil of Pierre Cartellier, obtaining the Grand Prix de Rome in 1812. After the second restoration of the Bourbons he retired to Brussels, where, probably owing to the intervention of the exiled Jacques- Louis David he got some work under the architect Charles Vander Straeten, who employed him to execute nine bas-reliefs in the palace of Tervuren, now destroyed.
IMPORTANT SCULPTORS ANTONIE LOUIS BARYE Antoine-Louis Barye (September 24, 1796 – June 25, 1875) was a French sculptor most famous for his work as an animalier, a sculptor of animals. Born in Paris, Barye began his career as a goldsmith, like many sculptors of the Romantic Period. He first worked under his father, but around 1810 worked under the sculptor Guillaume-Mertin Biennais, who was a goldsmith to Napoleon. After studying under sculptor Francois-Joseph Bosio in 1816 and painter Baron Antoine-Jean Gros, he was (in 1818) admitted to the École des Beaux Arts. Thésée et le Minotaure, Barye
IMPORTANT SCULPTORS JEAN BATISTE CARPEAUX Born in Valenciennes, Nord, son of a mason, his early studies were under François Rude. Carpeaux entered the École des Beaux- Arts in 1844 and won the Prix deLa Danse, Rome in 1854, and moving toCarpeaux Rome to find inspiration, he there studied the works of Michelangelo, Donatello and V Carpeaux errocchio. Staying in Rome from 1854 to 1861, he obtained a taste for movement and spontaneity, which he joined with the great principles of baroque art. Carpeaux sought real life subjects in the streets and broke with the classical tradition.
SOURCESINFORMATION- PEREZ FONS PAQUI, Social Sciences book,- RED NACIONAL ESCOLAR, VENEZUELA, http:// www.rena.edu.ve/cuartaEtapa/historiaArte/Tema14. html- A VIEW ON CITIES, http://www.aviewoncities.com/ london/housesofparliament.htm- WIKIPEDIA, The Lion Hunt, Delacroix, http:// es.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_caza_del_le%C3%B3n- ROMANTIC SCULPTURE, by Eric A, http:// www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/arts/scultpureplastic/ sculpturehistory/romanticsculpture/romanticsculpture /romanticsculpture.htm