What is Ecology?Scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environmentsReveals interrelationships between living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) parts of the worldCombines information from math, chemistry, physics, geology, other branches of biology
Populations group of organisms of one species living in the same place at the same time that interbreed, compete with one another for food, water, mates, and other resources; a change in one population will affect other populations No population of organisms of one species lives independently of other species.
Communities made up of several populations interacting with each other
Ecosystem all the biotic and abiotic factors in an area the interactions among the populations in a community and the community’s physical surroundings, or abiotic factors
Terrestrial Ecosystemslocated on landexamples: Forests Meadows Desert
Aquatic Ecosystemsfresh water ecosystems examples: ponds, lakes, and streamssalt water (marine) ecosystems examples: oceans, seas, large lakes “Great Salt Lake”
BiomeEcosystems that share the same climate and have similar types of communitiesEx. Marine biome
Biospherethe entire planet and all its living and nonliving parts and how everything interacts
HabitatPlace where an organism lives its lifeCan change or even disappearOrganisms must adapt to the changes or they will die.
Niche p. 38the role a species plays in a communityalthough several species may share a habitat, the food, shelter, and other resources are divided into separate niches
Niche examples:coyotes in a grassland community help keep down the rodent populationfungi in a forest helps breakdown of organic matter contained in the bodies of dead organisms to recycle nutrients
Symbiosis“living together”the relationship in which there is a close and permanent association between organisms of different speciesdifferent kinds of symbiosis:
Commensalismone species benefits and the other species is neither harmed nor benefited
Commensalismexample: large trees such as oaks provide a habitat for Spanish moss
Remoras live very close to sharks. The shark does not bother the remora, but the remora eats the leftover food the shark drops or does not eat.
Mutualismboth species benefitAnts and Acacia Tree
Mutualism An unidentified crab that carries a venomous sea urchin for protection. The crab uses its rear legs to hold the urchin in place. The urchin receives transportation.
The Sponge Crab is wearing a "hat" that consists of a living sponge colony. The sponge gains transportation while the crab gains a disguise.
The Tomato Anemone Fish lives among the Sea Anemone. It gains protection from predators while the anemone gains dinner.
Parasitismone species is harmed, but usually does not kill the hostexamples: tapeworms, roundworms, ticks, fleas
Isopods are crustaceans, some of which are parasites. Isopods known as "fish lice" attach themselves to their host and feed on its body fluids.